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Item Open AccessSpectators in Jerusalem: urban narrative in the scenic tradition(University of the Free State, 1999) Van den Berg, DirkEnglish: This investigation of the narrative prospects of urban pictures in the scenic tradition is devoted co Hans Memling's painting depicting a sequence of Passion scenes set in a topographical view ofJerusalem. In refuting Goodman's view that the painting offers 'not only no direction but no order of telling at all', attention is drawn to the celling rhetoric ofcertain 'micro-scenic' core motifs, whose mature typiconic features emerged only with the formation of che scenic tradition's full array of picture types. Ir is conjectured chat aposcopic vision may well be a source of scenic parallels between distance and proximity, and hence also of narrative parallels between prospector and sightseer roles implicic in various scenic piccure types. Item Open AccessImages of European youth at the turn of the century as reflected in the autobiographies of three Jewish writers: Arthur Schnitzler, Stefan Zweig and Ernst Toller(University of the Free State, 1999) Knobloch, Hans-JorgAfrikaans: In hierdie artikel word aan die hand van die outobiografieë van drie Duitstalige outeurs 'n beeld van die Europese jeug van 'n eeu gelede weergegee. Drie temas word ondersoek: ouerhuis en skool, liefde en seksualiteit asook politiek en gemeenskap. Dit blyk dat die jeug van toentertyd nie gelukkiger was as die jeug van vandag nie. Op die gebied van opvoeding is die klem meer op strengheid as op toegeneentheid geplaas, in die skool meer op drilwerk as op bevordering van die intellek. Die eerste liefdesavonture het wel nog die opwinding van die misterieuse gehad, maar is deur (seksuele) skynheiligheid en vrees vir sifilis bederf. Die meeste jeugdiges het ten minste nog in 'n veilige wêreld opgegroei, maar selfs die is ten einde van die negentiende eeu deur toenemende nasionalisme en antisemitisme oorskadu. Item Open AccessLandelik-stedelike interaksie en plaaslike owerheidsbestuur in die Stellenbosch-distrik(University of the Free State, 1999) Cedras, Lucinda; Van der Merwe, IzakEnglish: The distinction between rural and urban areas in various parts of the world is fading because of increasing interaction between the two groups of communities. lt is particularly the nature and magnitude of the levels of integration between towns and their surrrounding rural areas that holds definitive implications for future local government in the areas. This paper reports the results of the degree of rural-urban interaction and convergence in the magisterial district of Stellenbosch. Aspects examined include demographic characteristics, educational characteristics and economic activities. It is evident that significant convergence between the town and surrounding rural areas has already occurred. The geographical unit of the district together with the interaction between the rural and urban areas justifies further research with regard to possible incorporation of the rural areas into the town. Item Open Access'n Perspektief op makrogemeentes vanuit die wesensaard van die kerk volgens die Nuwe Testament(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 1999) Van Zyl, H. C.The article argues the case for New Testament guidelines to the phenomenon of macro congregations today - churches in excess of 3 500 church members. After dealing with some methodological matters, the following topics are created: the church being both an eschatological community - a foreign body in che world - and part of this world. Sub-topics like the church as small group and large community, unity and diversity, and charism and office in the church, are created. The article concludes with a view remarks from the above exposition with a view co macro congregations. Item Open AccessDeracialisation of urban business space: street traders in Pietersburg(University of the Free State, 1999) Donaldson, Ronnie; Van der Merwe, IzakEnglish: The 'invasion' of the CBD by informal entrepreneurs signalled the first visible phase of the informal process of deracialisation of business space. A clear distinction between deracialisation and desegregation processes relating to urban residential space has been made by Saff (1994). This paper will apply this distinction to business space, using the secondary city of Pietersburg as a case study of two manifestations of policy concerning business space: processes of urban race-space restructuring and street trading as an example of the deracialisation process of urban development within the context of the response of the restructured democratic local authority. Item Open AccessFive generations of applied linguistics: some framework issues(University of the Free State, 1999) Weideman, AlbertEnglish: In recent years a number of discussions have sustained the debate on the definition of applied linguistics, a debate which addresses both ends of the spectrum of applied linguistic work: the philosophical and the practical. This paper attempts to situate its response to such (re)considerations within an interpretative framework, considering the conception of the discipline as it has evolved over five generations. The argument of the paper is that the many and varied understandings of applied linguistic work during this period confirm the relativity of the discipline and prevent its practitioners from entertaining the illusion that, because they are involved in 'applied science', their particular response to a language problem will provide a full and finite solution. Item Open AccessAn incarnational engaged worship and spirituality(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 1999) Foshaugen, E. K.Modern culture is sick with secularism resulting in a growing recognition permeating our culture that all life is at root spiritual. Whilst not necessarily recognised in Christian terms, there is a growing awareness and craving for spirituality. People are turning ro exotic cultures and esoteric practices in search of intimacy - a desire to experience human love and trust, meaning and purpose; and transcendence - recognition of the divine. Through developing a theology of spirituality and worship chis article attempts to define a practical theological theory for worship and spirituality. Worship and spirituality are incarnational engaged lifestyles that give voice to the nature, character and will of God and are reflected in the Christian's human activities of adoracion to God and action in the world. This incarnational engaged approach, expressed in adoration and action, provides intimacy and access to the transcendent, and replaces the religiosi(y and secularisation in the Church with a message of love and hope. Item Open AccessDie weg na 'n omgewingsgeografie(University of the Free State, 1999) Barnard, WilhelmEnglish: While geography's organization in subdisciplines hardly changed since it was institutionalized as a university discipline during the 1880s, its struccure and research styles changed rapidly and fundamentally since 1960. These changes severely stressed physical geography, the traditional base of the discipline. Within geography the socalled quantification revolution of the 1960s alienated physical geography to such extent from the rest of the discipline that physical geographers failed to utilize the opportunities opened up from outside by the 'environmental turn' of the 1970s. At present the interests of physical geographers are accommodated within a new 'environmental geography' which is wider in domain and more flexible and permeable than its predecessor. This article orientates environmental geography in the world of science and suggests a framework for training in and the practice of environmental geography. Item Open AccessDie postmodernistiese diskoers en die Suid-Afrikaanse ekonomiese oorgang(University of the Free State, 1999) Naude, WillemEnglish: The postmodernist reaction to the Cartesian Anxiety caused by the rejection of modernism as philosophical basis for science is set out in this paper. It is argued that the hermeneutical tradition within postmodernism might be a useful way of approaching the current question of an appropriate economic strategy for the postapartheid economy. Some implications that might be relevant for the role of economists at South African Higher Education Institutions (HEls) are drawn out. The paper concludes that discourse, debate and rhetoric might be indispensable for the advance of economic justice in South Africa, and might also be an instrument to allow for individual choice, and eventually, individual reckoning. Item Open AccessImplikasies van 'n postmodernistiese lees van die Ou Testament vir die terreine van die teologie, die bybelwetenskap, die publiek en die kerk(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 1999) Wessels, J. P. H.Traditionally textual analysis of the Old Testament is done within a modernist framework. However, a postmodernist approach opens up new avenues in this regard. The reading strategy of critical deconstruction, based on the premise chat meaning in a cext is not fixed but is rather something elusive of which only traces can be found in a text, creates exciting possibilities for the reading of the Hebrew Bible. This reading strategy has implications when applied to the Bible. Besides the implications for textual meaning, this approach also has implications for biblical science, the public and the church. Item Open AccessThe death of Alexander the Great(University of the Free State, 1999) Cilliers, Louise; Retief, FrancoisEnglish: The circumstances of Alexander's death are reviewed. Since contemporary sources vary in their accounts of the reason for his death, they are briefly reviewed and assessed. The account of Alexander's final illness is then as recorded by the two major sources, namely the King's Journal and the Liber de Morte Testamentumque Alexandri Magni. The theory that he was poisoned is rejected, as is the hypothesis chat he drank himself co death. His final illness shows symptoms characteristic of malignant tertian mala[ia (Plasmodium falciparum), possibly precipitated by recent wounds, exhaustion and heavy drinking. Item Open AccessReligious plurality in Africa: a challenge to the church(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 1999) Dolamo, R. T. H.Chriscianity has been a privileged religion in South Africa under the white minority government. However, since the inception of a democratically elected government in 1994 and the passing of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act 108 of 1996, all religions have politically equal status. Major religions in the country such as Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and African Traditional Religion have to learn to live harmoniously with one another and importantly, to cooperate in projects of sociopolirital nature. This article examines religious plurality in Africa and the implications thereof for South Africa. Three missionary paradigms, viz exclusivism, inclusivism and pluralism are analysed after which a theological perspective is offered. The Church has to communicate the gospel of Jesus Christ nonetheless, but leave the dispensing of salvation in terms of Christian eschatology to God. Item Open AccessDie goedkeuring van kerkrade vir 'n nuwe verband in die NG Kerkfamilie?(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 1999) Strauss, P. J.English: This article probes the question of which assembly within a reformed church denomination - in this case the family of Dutch Reformed Churches - should have the jurisdiction in deciding on the alteration of the confession(s) and especially, the constitution and contents of this denomination. The conclusion is a fairly simple one. If it is accepted that che congregation, as governed by consistories, is a fully fledged church and that congregations constitute a specific denomination, then the consistories involved should decide the matter. Congregations should be able to give their consent co the new denomination they enter into. On che one hand the undefined and general structural unity of rhe church, is a Biblical principle. On the ocher hand, the formulation and constitution of confessions and specific denominations is a matter for the believers within a certain historical concext. They should also be able to enter into a structure of church unity willingly and in the belief - because the church is an institution of faith - that it is the will of God. Item Open AccessFrameworks for institutional audits for quality in South African higher education(University of the Free State, 1999) Lategan, LaetusEnglish: This paper attempts to establish the most suitable a system for institutional audits of higher education institutions in South Africa. It focuses on four areas: theory, philosophy, categories and practice. The paper argues that self-evaluation is fundamental to the audit portfolio and the institutional audits (theory). An approach is suggested where the focus is on procedures and mechanisms for quality instead of on quality per se (philosophy). The author suggests eight categories for institutional audits: quality, policy implementation, evaluating mechanisms, teaching and learning, strategic management, student satisfaction, cost-effectiveness and external influences on the quality of the institutions. Item Open AccessThe Book of Ruth as intra-Biblical critique on the Deuteronomic law(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 1999) Braulik, GeorgThe book of Ruth, written in the post-exilic period, constitutes a 'homily on Dt 23- 25', (Michael D Goulder). It is the only biblical example of an entire book systematically subjecting a body of laws from the Deuteronomic code to a sociocritical (Rt 1-2) and sexual-critical (Rt 3-4) relecture through various kinds of allusions. The historical prejudice of the 'community law' against the Moabites, refusing them admission to the 'assembly of Yahweh' (Dt 23:4-7), is disproved (throughout the whole book, especially in Rt 1), by a counter-story aimed at promoting sympathy (against Neh 13:1-3). Through the reinterpretation of the prohibition of incest, the brother-in-law marriage is defended against all suspicions (Rt 3). At the same time, it corrects the accusation of incest, which also lingers about the image of the Moabites (Gn 19:30-38). On the other hand, the narrative about the execution of the right to gleaning (Rt 2) and the right to the Levirate marriage (Rt 4) intensifies the demands of the Deuteronomic code (Dt 24:19 or 25:5-10). The Ruth novelette turns the Law of Deuteronomy into 'narrative ethics' (Reinhold Bohlen). The driving force for its meta-legal stance and critique, but also for its objective, lies in the portrayal of the 'loving-kindness, love' (chesed) of Yahweh and in calling forth the 'loving-kindness' of his people through the narrated praxls of the stranger Ruth. Item Open AccessUniversiteitstoelating in die nuwe Suid-Afrika: ideologiese en statistiese oorwegings(University of the Free State, 1999) Huysamen, GertEnglish: This article discusses the misconceptions which can arise when statistically distinguishable groups with diverse school backgrounds compete for admission to tertiary academic institutions. It is recommended that separate correlations (between predictor and criterion) and separate regression equations (for predicting the criterion in terms of the predictor) be determined for such groups. If this is done, it becomes clear that the lower mean matriculation and/or aptitude test scores of one group are not necessarily prejudicial to its members and that simply no statements can be made about the biasedness or unbiasedness of the predictor on the basis of group differences in the above correlation. Ideological objections to the computation of separate statistical indices and equations for different demographic groups are discussed and regarded as inconsistent. Item Open AccessDivine and human violence and destruction in Jeremiah 20:7 - 13(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 1999) Snyman, S. D.Jeremiah 20:7-13 is a texc presenting the interpreter with a multitude of problems. Five main areas of research are briefly highlighted. This paper focuses on the interpretation of hamas wasod in Jer 20:8. Eight different interpretations have been offered but no conclusive answer to the exact meaning of the phrase has been given yet. It is argued that due to the ambiguity and structural features of the text the prophet experienced violence and destruction from the divine side as well as from a human side. Item Open AccessDie verbouing van tafeldruiwe en sultanas in die Benede-Oranje-riviergebied(University of the Free State, 1999) De Villiers, Gawie; Du Plessis, AnnetteEnglish: The table grape and sultana industry is an economic mainstay for the Lower Orange River area, but without irrigation the industry cannot exist, mainly because of the dry climate in the area. However, it is not only the availability of water that is influenced by the climate, but the production of the table grapes and sultanas is also influenced by climatic factors such as temperature and rainfall, as well as the type of soil and the moisture content. A bright future is foreseen for the table grape industry in the Lower Orange River area, and the excellent potential for growth should encourage the farmers to produce even more. It is predicted that the area will eventually produce approximately 30% of all table grapes for the export market. It is also expected that the area under all table grape cultivars will increase from some 1 600 hectares to some 4 100 hectares for the period 1996 to 2000. Item Open AccessHealth and health care in South Africa in transition: a macro perspective(University of the Free State, 1999) Van Rensburg, DingieEnglish: The South African health care system, along with society in general, is undergoing profound transformation. Afcer almost five years, questions may well be posed about the nature of chis transition, the benefits of the reform for health care, and the effects of the transformation on the health and well-being of the population. The argument is chat reform of a fundamental nature has indeed taken place in numerous dimensions of the health sphere. However, crucial aspects of the health system remain unchanged. Regarding the effects of the transition on the health and well- being of the population, one may certainly assume char significant gains have been achieved as a result of the reform measures, although practice thus far also adduces some evidence co che concrary. Item Open AccessIn the home stretch: the legalisation of African traditional healing in South Africa(University of the Free State, 1999) Pretorius, EngelaEnglish: The overall aim of this article is to describe the current status of indigenous health care policy and to determine what progress has been made in translating policy principles into action. The article deals with the models for incorporating traditional health care into the official health care system; the present status of traditional health care and the rationale for legitimising it; the many complex issues involved in developing a policy on ethnomedicine, and an assessment of the progress made in respect of the legalisation of this kind of health care five years into the new order. The main conclusion is that, although great strides have been made, there are still some very serious constraints which are likely to inhibit the indigenous health care sector for some time to come.