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Recent Submissions

ItemOpen Access
’n Missiologiese ondersoek na die rol van vaders in die morele agteruitgang van jongmense in die Dwarsrivier Vallei
(University of the Free State, 2023) Keet, Eugene Elmar; Baron, Eugene
Die afwesigheid van ’n vader of vaderfiguur binne die gesinsisteem is ’n groot probleem aangesien dit ’n vakuum in die ouerskapsrol laat ontstaan en ’n negatiewe invloed het op ’n gesin se vermoë om doeltreffend te funksioneer. Die navorsing fokus eerstens op die rol van biologiese vaders van jongmense tussen die ouderdomme van 12 tot 23 jaar. Die navorsing maak gebruik van ’n World Café navorsingsmetode, asook persoonlike onderhoude wat met leiers van vyf gemeentes gevoer is om die data vir die studie in te samel. Tydens die navorsing het die navorser ook vaderfigure ingesluit (moeders, voogde, ander agente wat die rol vertolk), wat toegelaat word binne ’n kritiese realis paradigma, en probeer vasstel hoe vyf gemeentes in die Dwarsrivier Vallei (DRV) vaders en vadersfigure bemagtig om hulle taak as missionale leiers en die bekamping van die morele verval van jongmense aan te spreek. Die bevinding van die studie sluit in: dat gemeentes ’n rol kan speel in die bemagtiging van vaders en vaderfigure deur onder andere die prediking, liturgie, en in wese ’n missionale gemeente te wees wat as ’n transformasieruimte vir vaders en vaderfigure kan dien.
ItemOpen Access
Narrative identities of late adolescent males who experienced the loss of a parent
(University of the Free State, 2023) Schouwink, Frederik; Naudé, Luzelle
Many children in South Africa have lost a parent through various causes, including HIV/AIDS. In 2021 alone, a staggering 2 920 000 children were affected, with 960 000 young people losing a parent to this disease. Additionally, South Africa recorded the highest number of children who lost their primary caregiver to COVID-19 between March 2020 and April 2021. The death of a parent can be a significant turning point in a young person's life, altering the construction of their narrative identity. Hence, this qualitative study aimed to explore and describe the emerging narrative identities of late adolescent males who had lost a parent between birth and 14 years of age. The current study explored these narratives around parental loss and the subsequent bereavement stressors using the Dual Process Model of Coping with Grief and Bereavement and the Continuing Bonds Model. Furthermore, the study aimed to understand the meaning that the late adolescents ascribed to the loss using the Meaning Reconstruction Theory. In addition, the Gender Role Strain Paradigm was used to explore how the narrative identities and meaning-making processes of late adolescent males have been shaped by gender roles. Being positioned within an interpretivist-constructivist paradigm, this qualitative study was interested in the meaning of individual participants’ experiences. Using a narrative research design, the study specifically focused on turning points or significant events in the participants’ lives. The participants were late adolescent males between the ages of 15 years and 19 years who had lost a parent between birth and 14 years of age. In this study, data were collected through a semi-structured interview using the Life Story Interview method (Atkinson & Hagenah, 1994), and subsequently analysed using thematic narrative analysis. The results suggested that parental loss brought about significant personal changes, secondary losses, and particular challenges as participants came to terms with their grief. Specifically, the grieving process reflected how grief occurs throughout the developmental years. Furthermore, participants’ views signified how gender-related changes in society have affected how male loss is expressed. The participants' views on gender roles indicated significant changes in how society perceives traditional gender roles. The role of significant others was also highlighted as a salient theme and suggests that the surviving parent, extended family, teachers, and peers play a pivotal role in the grief process. Finding meaning in the loss was considered and how participants were engaged in the meaning-making process was demonstrated. The importance of agency and goal-directedness was central in the narratives of parentally bereaved late adolescent males. Lastly, the value of telling the story of loss was also highlighted. This study contributed to the limited research that has been conducted on narrative identity and parental loss. Furthermore, the unique focus on late adolescents who have experienced parental loss using a narrative inquiry approach highlights potential areas of intervention for this population.
ItemOpen Access
The journey of a versatile singer: an autoethnographic study of preparing and performing five different vocal genres and styles
(University of the Free State, 2023) Engelbrecht, Albertus; Wium, Matildie
This project is an autoethnographic study aimed at developing the vocal–technical versatility required to perform various Western art music styles and genres appropriately while maintaining a singer’s vocal health. Vocal quality is mainly dependent on glottal closure (also known as glottal adduction), which can be categorised into firm and loose glottal adduction. Vocal registration is strongly interrelated with glottal adduction: simply put, firm glottal adduction corresponds to heavy registration and loose glottal adduction to light registration. Furthermore, vocal registration influences the vertical laryngeal position and subglottal pressure and its varying degrees ideally relate directly to different approaches to styles and genres. I came to realise during my professional career that different vocal registrations are appropriate to different vocal styles of Western art music. These considerations led me to my research question: How might a singer develop the vocal–technical versatility needed to meet the demands of performing diverse vocal genres and styles? The existing scholarly literature does not provide singers with concrete advice regarding vocal–technical adjustment for singing across all the major vocal styles and genres of Western art music while at the same time maintaining vocal versatility. Consequently, my goal with this project was to generate these answers through praxis and making explicit the tacit knowledge embedded in my five examination performances, namely: (1) Bach oratorio; (2) verismo opera; (3) Viennese operetta; (4) 19th-century Lied; and (5) 20th- and 21st-century art song. This project resides in the field of artistic or practice-based research in which I, the performer, became the researcher and used my practical experience as a research tool. In order to describe the personal sensory experiences of my singing, I decided to follow an autoethnographic approach within the paradigm of practice-based research. Central to this investigation was the documentation of the physical processes at play during the preparation period; in producing this documentation, I aimed at describing, in written form, the tacit knowledge of the ways I adapted vocal–technically to the different styles and genres. The data were collected in three ways: (1) by keeping a journal and/or using annotations of my preparation process; (2) informal recordings of my rehearsal period; and (3) video recordings of the actual performances. Critical self-reflection constituted the basis of the data analysis, a process that was conducted as follows: close listening to the examination video recordings in which I analysed the outcomes of my preparation period and compared my findings of the examinations with those of the examiners by consulting their reports. My enquiry revealed that I was able to develop vocal–technical versatility across the five vocal styles and genres by focusing consciously on the appropriate configuration of heavy and light registration. The use of voix mixte played a significant role in the colouration of the voice, which necessitates using light registration (regardless of whether the relevant performance situation gravitates more towards mainstream or historically informed performance). I conclude that my findings suggest that it is possible for singers to adjust their vocal technique convincingly to interpret the different performance practices and styles applicable to the genres which are discussed in this thesis.
ItemOpen Access
Electronic hacking and subversion as tools of foreign policy: a neoclassical realist analysis of cyber power
(University of the Free State, 2023) Caromba, Laurence; Solomon, Hussein; Neethling, Theodor
This study develops a new theory of cyber power as a tool of foreign policy, focusing on sovereign states as the unit of analysis and drawing from the theoretical assumptions that are inherent in the realist paradigm of International Relations. This theory describes and classifies the nature of cyber power in international politics, and seeks to explain why different states make differing choices about which cyber strategy to adopt. The study introduces a conceptualisation of cyber power that incorporates both computer hacking and social media disinformation campaigns within a single framework, in which both types of cyber operations are understood as methods for degrading and destroying trust. It then analyses the utility, limitations, and costs associated with technical and persuasive of cyber power, and argues that both forms require the attacking state to accept significant trade-offs. This suggests that states are unlikely to use these tools unless they have pressing reasons to do so. Building upon on this insight, the study then develops a new typology of four cyber strategies: “restrained”, “technical-aggressive”, “persuasive-aggressive”, and “combined-aggressive”. It hypothesises that cyber strategy selection by states is primarily determined by two independent variables: their external security requirements and their institutional preferences. States with high external security requirements are more likely to make aggressive use of technical cyber power, while states with negative institutional preferences are more likely to make aggressive use of persuasive cyber power. This theory provides a parsimonious and compelling explanation for cyber strategy selection. To test and apply the theory, three empirical case studies are conducted on Brazil, the United States of America, and the Russian Federation. The findings reveal that Brazil has adopted a restrained strategy, while the United States has chosen a technical-aggressive strategy, and Russia has selected a combined-aggressive strategy. These empirical findings are congruent with the expectations of the theory. Lastly, the theory is applied to predict how the cyber strategies of these states might evolve if their associated independent variables were to change. The resulting analysis suggests that the emergence of multipolarity in the international system is likely to be associated with the increased use of both technical and persuasive cyber power by state actors.
ItemOpen Access
Tommy Atkins In South Africa: first-hand accounts of the experiences of British soldiers during the Anglo-Boer war, 1899–1902
(University of the Free State, 2023) Venter, Louis Edian; Oelofse, Marie Magdaleen; van Zÿl, J. J. R.
This dissertation studies the experiences of 47 British soldiers as recorded in their first-hand accounts (diaries, letters, and personal remembrances) during the Anglo-Boer (South African) War between 1899 and 1902. Four facets of the experiences of these British soldiers during the War are studied. The first facet is the British soldiers’ journeys to South Africa, which includes their experiences of departing from home, the journey by ship to South Africa, and their first impressions upon landing. The second facet is the British soldiers’ experiences during campaigns, which includes their journeys to the front, experiences during battles, as well as everyday duties during campaigns. The third facet is the British soldiers’ experiences of life on the veld, which includes their experiences of sport and other pastimes, provisions such as food, water and clothing, as well as climate and animal life. The final facet studied is the experiences of British soldiers in social relations with South Africans and with other British soldiers, as well as experiences concerning religion and medical care. To this end, the dissertation used 47 first-hand accounts such as diaries, letters and personal remembrances that the British soldiers themselves documented during (or after) the war, recounting their personal attitudes and actions, namely their experiences. These first-hand accounts offer a glimpse into the lives of some of the men who fought in this important and impactful war. The experiences of the British soldiers with regard to the above-mentioned four facets diverged as the war progressed, and a marked distinction between the experiences of men who served during the four different phases of the war was clearly observed. The Anglo-Boer War may be split into four distinct phases, namely the Boer offensive (October 1899), the first British offensive (November 1899 to February 1900), the second British offensive (February to September 1900) and the guerrilla warfare phase (March 1900 to May 1900). Each phase had its own particular set of military circumstances which had an impact on the recorded experiences of British soldiers.
ItemOpen Access
Identifying and classifying different approaches to acting in selected devised theatre productions
(University of the Free State, 2023) Nortier, Christelle; van Jaarsveld, Anthea; Cloete, DeBeer Carel
From a ‘postmodern theatre’¹ perspective, the tendency among most when creating theatre on stage is often more toward devised theatre than a conventional theatre product. This study will focus on identifying and classifying different approaches to acting in selected devised theatre productions. This research’s primary point of departure was to determine the autogenous characteristics of each method of acting and to discover which acting style/styles work best or are most applicable to the devised theatre. ‘Conventional theatre’ follows a set number of acts. Generally, it adheres to Aristotle's theory of plot structure from the fourth century BC (335 BC), with actors reading dialogue on a thrust or proscenium stage. The genre and style of where the text originated are predetermined or suggested in the playwright's mind. Therefore, the director, as well as the actors, have a blueprint of what the play is intended to look like and how it played out during the process of creation by the playwright. This intent is reflected in various ways. Firstly, it is reflected in the dramatist's notes on acting, writing, characters, costumes, locality, stage lighting, and stage directions (Oddey, 1996:16). Horace approaches poetry from a practical standpoint instead of Aristotle's theoretical approach. Around 19 BC, ‘Ars Poetica’ of Horace is considered a core component of rhetoric literacy through his use of satires, epistles, and odes. ‘Ars Poetica’ attempts to create a sense of probability and coherence regarding artistic representation, including diction, dramatic characterisation, meter, poetic inventiveness, and the intended impact (Hajdu, 2014:28-42). In 1863, Freytag's technique allowed studies to visually examine a narrative and acknowledge the plot drama, similar to Aristotle's Poetics (335 BC). His plot is divided into five sections: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and denouement. (Hajdu, 2014:28-42). In contrast to conventional theatre, ‘devised theatre’ (frequently labelled as ‘collective theatre’) is an approach to theatre-making in which the text or (if it is a predominantly physical theatre-based work) performance outcome develops from collaboration, often through a performing group's improvisatory work (Oddey, 1996:1-4). The study of devised theatre and the exploration of various acting approaches can be linked by examining how postmodernism, a movement that questions established norms and cultural values, has influenced the evolution of theatre practices. Devised theatre, emphasising collaborative and improvisatory work, embodies the postmodern ethos of deconstructing and reconstructing traditional theatrical elements, including acting techniques. This intersection between postmodernism and devised theatre highlights the dynamic nature of contemporary theatre-making, where a diverse range of acting methods, from Stanislavski's realism to Brecht's epic theatre, can be adapted and integrated into this innovative and collaborative approach to creating performances. The approaches to acting, which will form the basis of the theoretical conceptualisation of this study, are based on the writings of Konstantin Stanislavski (1863-1938), Sanford Meisner (1905-1997), and Michel Saint-Denis (1897-1971) on classical acting, (between the late 1800s and early 1900s), David Mamet (1947) and William H. Macy (1950-1984) on practical aesthetics, Lee Strasberg (1901-1982) on method acting and Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956), specifically on the Brechtian method (1964). Three analytical case studies will be undertaken to analyse the applied acting methods to construct a reasonably mapped process that suits devised theatre best. The study contributes to the academic discussions concerning devised theatre and approaches to acting methods. The study also constructs an analytical framework for case study analysis, which could be employed by future studies that embark on similar studies or practitioners who aim to produce devised theatre productions within a contemporary, postmodern context. The research aims to identify and classify different approaches to acting in selected devised theatre productions. This study's fundamental starting point is to identify each acting technique's autogenous traits and ascertain which acting style(s) or styles operate best in or are most appropriate for improvised theatre. The study believes that devised theatre uses a combination of different acting approaches. By conducting three analytical case studies, the study proposes to evaluate the hypothesis to arrive at a conclusion either in favour or opposed to this statement.
ItemOpen Access
Reimagining desire and identity in the title characters of Hamlet and Richard III in a South African context
(University of the Free State, 2023) Heydenrych, Mattheus; van Jaarsveld, Anthea
During my Master’s studies in Theatre Directing at East 15 Acting School, London, a question regularly asked by my lecturer, Tony Clark, was: ‘If you were to direct a Shakespeare play now, why would you do it? What would the play say today?’ I started asking myself, ‘If I were to transpose a Shakespeare play into a modern context, what new perspectives and interpretations could be arrived at if I were to read it from a queer perspective? How would that influence the identity and desires of the characters and the interpretation thereof?’ The study aimed to examine what would happen if the sexuality of the characters Richard and Hamlet were changed by transposing 𝘏𝘢𝘮𝘭𝘦𝘵 and 𝘙𝘪𝘤𝘩𝘢𝘳𝘥 𝘐𝘐𝘐, into queer adaptations and how that would change the identity and desires of the title characters in the new adaptations. To do this, the study identified ‘unspoken or unconscious lesbian, gay, or queer presence’, or what will be referred to as queer cues, utilising the coding process of Constructivist-Grounded Theory in Hamlet and Richard III by William Shakespeare. Queer Theory has significantly impacted literary analysis. It has broadened the field’s focus beyond conventional binary conceptions of gender and sexuality. Using Queer Theory, one can study how gender and sexuality are disrupted and challenged in texts and how these categories are created and performed through language and narrative. Similarities exist between Queer Theory and Lesbian, Gay, and Queer Criticism (LGQC) as they both examine gender and sexuality. However, their approaches and points of focus are slightly different. While LGQC focuses on analysing particular cultural representations, Queer Theory deconstructs binary categories. One of the fundamental ideas of LGQC is the quest for textual evidence, or rather cues, in the literary interpretation of texts. In most cases, these cues are blatant homoerotic imagery and same-sex interactions, but sometimes these cues are subtle and create a homoerotic atmosphere in a heterosexual work. Several examples of subtle “unspoken or unconscious” cues exist, but this study predominantly focuses on 𝘩𝘰𝘮𝘰𝘴𝘰𝘤𝘪𝘢𝘭 𝘣𝘰𝘯𝘥𝘪𝘯𝘨. In Tyson (2006), 𝘩𝘰𝘮𝘰𝘴𝘰𝘤𝘪𝘢𝘭 𝘣𝘰𝘯𝘥𝘪𝘯𝘨 is explained as portraying a strong emotional bond between characters of the same sex. The study aimed to examine which 𝘲𝘶𝘦𝘦𝘳 𝘤𝘶𝘦𝘴 could be identified in the scripts through a 𝘲𝘶𝘦𝘦𝘳 𝘳𝘦𝘢𝘥𝘪𝘯𝘨 and how that influenced the transposition of the scripts into new queer adaptations. The focus of this study was mainly on 𝘨𝘢𝘺 𝘴𝘦𝘯𝘴𝘪𝘣𝘪𝘭𝘪𝘵𝘺. A preliminary analysis made it clear that after examining the characters’ interactions with each other, there were subtle queer cues evident in 𝘙𝘪𝘤𝘩𝘢𝘳𝘥 𝘐𝘐𝘐 and 𝘏𝘢𝘮𝘭𝘦𝘵. Other events and interactions were then analysed to see if they supported these cues. In my opinion, the results pointed to elements of 𝘩𝘰𝘮𝘰𝘴𝘰𝘤𝘪𝘢𝘭 𝘣𝘰𝘯𝘥𝘪𝘯𝘨 between the relevant characters, which I interpreted as indications that Richard and Hamlet were gay men. As mentioned above, the study applied the coding process of Constructivist-Grounded Theory. The first step is Initial Coding, followed by Focussed Coding, where categories are refined, and then finally, theory development. The Initial Coding process and the process of 𝘲𝘶𝘦𝘦𝘳 𝘳𝘦𝘢𝘥𝘪𝘯𝘨 identified 𝘲𝘶𝘦𝘦𝘳 𝘤𝘶𝘦𝘴 in the scripts of 𝘙𝘪𝘤𝘩𝘢𝘳𝘥 𝘐𝘐𝘐 and 𝘏𝘢𝘮𝘭𝘦𝘵. For these 𝘲𝘶𝘦𝘦𝘳 𝘤𝘶𝘦𝘴 to be identified, the study focussed on the concept of 𝘩𝘰𝘮𝘰𝘴𝘰𝘤𝘪𝘢𝘭 𝘣𝘰𝘯𝘥𝘪𝘯𝘨 and queer interpretation, seeing that the main focus of this study’s inquiry was the relationship between Richard and Tyrrel, and Hamlet and Horatio. The study found that the scripts indeed supported a queer interpretation of 𝘙𝘪𝘤𝘩𝘢𝘳𝘥 𝘐𝘐𝘐 and 𝘏𝘢𝘮𝘭𝘦𝘵. During the Focused Coding process, other moments and events in the scripts were identified that can now be interpreted from a queer perspective. During the memo-writing process of Focused Coding, the characters of Tyrrel (in 𝘙𝘪𝘤𝘩𝘢𝘳𝘥 𝘐𝘐𝘐) and Horatio (in 𝘏𝘢𝘮𝘭𝘦𝘵) were examined to establish how their interactions supported a queer interpretation. The last part of the coding process (Memo-Writing) was transposing 𝘏𝘢𝘮𝘭𝘦𝘵 and 𝘙𝘪𝘤𝘩𝘢𝘳𝘥 𝘐𝘐𝘐 into queer adaptations, where Richard and Tyrrel and Hamlet and Horatio were placed in same-sex relationships. Nevertheless, when reading the queer adaptations, the study found that the queer interpretations of these plays could still not ‘present’ themselves in the scripts alone. A new question emerged: ‘How to present the 𝘲𝘶𝘦𝘦𝘳 𝘤𝘶𝘦𝘴 in the new queer adaptations of 𝘏𝘢𝘮𝘭𝘦𝘵 and 𝘙𝘪𝘤𝘩𝘢𝘳𝘥 𝘐𝘐𝘐?’ The study, therefore, included 𝘏𝘢𝘮𝘭𝘦𝘵 and 𝘙𝘪𝘤𝘩𝘢𝘳𝘥 𝘐𝘐𝘐, where it was found that the transposition to the stage was necessary to bring to life the ‘queer interpretations’ of the title characters. Clearly, the study needed to include actors’ performances to determine how the characters’ sexuality influenced their identities and desires. The actor’s interpretation and delivery of the lines, their gestures, and actions brought the queer interpretation of the scripts to the forefront.
ItemOpen Access
An intersectional analysis of the systemic discrimination confronting LGBTQ+ individuals in the Middle East: the cases of Iran, Turkey, and Egypt
(University of the Free State, 2023) Bekker, Simone; Solomon, Hussein
𝑬𝒏𝒈𝒍𝒊𝒔𝒉 The road to equality is not straight, and for LGBTQ+ individuals the road holds various intersections of discrimination. Aspects such as identity and gender have directly impacted the level to which individuals are shunned by their families, communities, and social nexus. Although discrimination against LGBTI people undermines the human rights principles outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, discrimination and violence against people in the LGBTI community are all too common. Homophobic, biphobic, and transphobic attitudes remain deeply embedded in many cultures around the world. A significant amount of research on intersectionality concentrates primarily on African American women and other women of colour, and it seems that the research on intersectionality has not sufficiently addressed the lives of Middle Eastern LGBTQ+ individuals. Often, LGBTQ+ individuals are misrepresented by selected states from the region at international forums such as the United Nations General Assembly and Human Right Council. Using claims based on religious and cultural values, selected states undermine the rights of LGBTQ+ individuals, and Arab-speaking and Muslim majority states seem to form a homogenous entity with a uniform view on LGBTQ people. All LGBTQ+ members are assumed to be faced with the same systemic discrimination and to have the same human rights needs and experiences. For this reason, intersections of multiple systems of oppression are not recognised and the interests of some are privileged while the experiences of others are marginalised. To address this gap, this study uses an intersectional framework which notes that the LGBTQ+ community in the Middle East is not a singular entity, and even though conditions differ based on country, gender, and from individual to individual, as a whole, the LGBTQ community in the region has not been granted the “freedoms” linked to Western ideals of homosexual progress, such as open displays of romantic affection, gay marriage, and other superficial indications of acceptance in society. This study analyses differences of experiences of LGBTQ+ individuals within three separate case studies, namely Iran, Turkey, and Egypt. It does so by applying an intersectional lens to recognise the ways in which different social identities produce intersecting systems of privilege or oppression, and how these systems create different lived experiences, and/or common experiences within a social context. This dissertation is a qualitative study which utilises case study methodology to analyse the existing literature related to the topics. Discrimination and violence against LGBTQ+ individuals directly undermine the human rights principles outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The fact that so many instances of such violation continue to go unchallenged is testimony to the deep cultural roots of homophobia, biphobia, and transphobia. ___________________________________________________________________
ItemOpen Access
Transformative teacher training strategies of stringed instruments in South African Community Music programmes
(University of the Free State, 2023) Diamond, Samson; de Villiers, Frelét; Dakon, Jacob M.
South African Community Music programmes are at the vanguard of responding to a multitude of challenges, including not only access to music education but also to teacher training and, more specifically, string teacher training. Where high standards are not persistently met, the historical inequities in the provision of quality music education may perpetuate legacies of inequality. Thus, to provide students with the best possible music education that fosters high aspirations and enables them to realise their full potential and personal growth, string teachers engaged in Community Music programmes must receive training that is intentional, structured, frequent, and both intense and intensive. This study examined the current state of string teacher training in South African Community Music programmes where former students are now employed as teachers with the aim of investigating their successes and weaknesses. The objective was to gain an in-depth understanding of these programmes to make recommendations for enhancing string instruction. To achieve this, a descriptive research design and an interpretive multiple case study underpinned by social constructivism were implemented, supported by a theoretical framework that was applied to transformational teaching. Through an extensive literature study that extracted previous research on Community Music and divergent practices, accounts of string pedagogy and contemporary string teaching methodologies were reviewed. By conducting interviews with 13 participants from three cases (Community Music programmes), the study shared the insights and lived experiences of programme directors and string teachers which illuminated the central tenets of transformative strategies for string teacher training. A shortage of resources, successful and ineffective string teaching practices and methodologies, factors affecting the growth and effectiveness of string teachers, and measures to improve string teacher training were some of the findings that emerged from the data. The study also identified strategies for string teacher training that encourage teachers to work collaboratively, frequently, and intensively in an environment that promotes active engagement and reflective practice. Community Music programmes have the potential to promote positive social outcomes, such as personal development through music education achievement, community development through cultural and economic empowerment, social cohesion, and improved wellbeing, as determined by and demonstrated in this study.
ItemOpen Access
Entering the dragon’s den: contemporary risks and opportunities of China’s belt and road initiative for Africa
(University of the Free State, 2023) de Kluiver, Jana; Neethling, Theodor
𝑬𝒏𝒈𝒍𝒊𝒔𝒉 China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), launched in 2013, has emerged as a prominent driver of Sino-African relations, with the potential to significantly impact Africa's economy. This study critically examines the contemporary risks and opportunities of the BRI for Africa, aiming to contribute to the academic discourse on the effects of this initiative in the region. This investigation sheds light on the complex dynamics at play by exploring the potential implications for economic growth, development strategies, and long-term engagements. Through an in-depth analysis of the opportunities offered by the BRI, including infrastructure development, industrialisation, and digital development, as well as an examination of the associated risks related to debt sustainability, security, and dependency, this research provides valuable insights into the BRI's impact on African nations. The findings emphasise the need for African stakeholders and decision-makers to carefully assess the trade-offs between opportunities and risks. Employing a qualitative methodological approach grounded in various international political economy theories, this study offers nuanced analysis and recommendations. Ultimately, this research underscores that while the BRI holds immense potential for Africa, strategic risk management and tailored approaches are essential to maximise the benefits and navigate the challenges in this multifaceted landscape. ___________________________________________________________________