Item Open AccessLimitations on the growth of economic multipliers in the small business sector in the eastern Free State(University of the Free State, 2009-10) Lekhotla, Puleng Josephine; Ruhiiga, T. M.; Claassen, J. H. D.Maluti-a-Phofung (MAP) municipal area is currently experiencing high unemployment and poverty rates. The structural weaknesses and problems of the economy of MAP local municipality highlight the importance and urgency of Local Economic Development (LED) in MAP. This paper reports the results of a study carried out to investigate constraints in the growth of multipliers around local shopping centres in the area south of Phuthaditjhaba, Maluti-a-Phofung. The methodology involved field observations, the administration of interviews to a random sample of ten households in the vicinity of each of the eight shopping centres and another sample of five business units at each centre. The results were analyzed using Pearson's correlation in order to test three hypotheses based on business structure, location and multipliers. The findings indicate that these shopping centres are not able to meet the diverse shopping needs of the community and patronage levels are extremely low. This has serious implications for these centres in generating economic growth multipliers in the local community. Item Open AccessUnderstanding the spatial distribution and factors responsible for cloven hooved foot and mouth disease spread in Umkhanyakude district, South Africa(University of the Free State, 2017-12) Dlamini, Khethiwe; Adelabu, Samuel; Mahasa, PululuRecent global reports show a continual vulnerability of large livestock populations to transboundary diseases such as cloven hooved foot and mouth disease (FMD) in relation to our environments. Of a particular concern is the spatial distribution of disease occurrences and its association with risk factors. Domesticated animals such as cattle are at risk of contracting the highly contagious FMDV that manifests with different distribution of serotypes across the world. FMD serotypes i.e. South African territory (SAT 1, SAT2, SAT3) are restricted to South African countries. Despite the several reports of FMD in Umkhanyakude district, few reports have utilized GIS (Geographical information system) technology for mapping the environmental factors and the disease concerned. In Umkhanyakude, Jozini and Umhlabuyalingana shoulder the highest FMD burden. In the present study, GIS was used to map FMD occurrences and to identify geographic areas with on-going FMD occurrences for the study period (2011-2015). MCDA was carried out to determine factors with the major influence on the spread of FMD. Weights were then assigned into percentage from Oto 100% using an evaluation scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being extremely important, and 1 being of equal importance. Correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between spatial occurrence of FMD and factors such as distance, herd size, rainfall, wind and temperature, correlation coefficient ranges from 1 to -1. Results revealed that there is a spatial relationship between FMD occurrences and factors concerned, areas with high vulnerability towards the spread of the disease were identified. Spatial distribution of the environmental factors, and vulnerability maps were derived to characterise the spatial pattern of FMD. Item Open AccessA comparative analysis of the treatment of biodiversity impacts in mining Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) before and after 2013: experiences from the Mpumalanga province, South Africa(University of the Free State, 2019-07) Pohlo, Reanetsie T.; Kruger, EldalizeEnvironmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is one of the environmental management tools employed by the relevant authorities to achieve the principles of sustainable development. Biodiversity Impact Assessment (BIA) studies are undertaken as part of the EIA process to ensure that the proposed development considers the potential impacts on the biodiversity. Studies on the state of South Africa’s biodiversity have revealed that biodiversity and ecosystems in the country are under serious threat; and mining is one of the major threats to the biodiversity. In 2013, the Mining and Biodiversity Guideline (DEA et al., 2013) was published, with the aim of improving the integration of biodiversity into the mining industry. This research analyses the treatment of biodiversity impacts in mining EIAs before and after the publication of this guideline. In order to achieve the aim of this research, a customised mining BIA report-review package was developed; and it was employed to review 46 mining BIA reports produced before and after 2013. Secondary data – by means of questionnaires were also employed to get an in-depth understanding of the treatment of biodiversity impacts in mining EIAs. The results of the study revealed that most BIAs failed to consider biodiversity issues properly in their assessments. For instance, the BIAs conducted before, and after 2013 received an overall satisfactory score of 43% and 57%, respectively. Areas of weakness include project description, sensitivity mapping, stakeholder consultation, consideration of alternatives, as well as monitoring. Faithful representation of the biodiversity specialist input to the main mining EIA report showed an improvement after 2013, by receiving an overall satisfactory score of 78%, compared to the 52% received before 2013. The results also revealed that the majority of the BIA reports complied with the minimum requirements for specialist studies stipulated by the National Environmental Management Act (Act No.107 0f 1998). The analysis of the questionnaires revealed several inadequacies and areas of weakness regarding the treatment of biodiversity impacts. These include poor consideration of indirect and cumulative impacts, failure to incorporate environmental thresholds, and the ecosystem approach – when assessing biodiversity impacts. A series of recommendations for improving the treatment of biodiversity impacts in mining EIAs was subsequently formulated. The development and implementation of sensitivity mapping guidelines, capacity building for biodiversity specialists and Environmental Assessment Practitioners (EAPs), and the application of the mitigation hierarchy, among others, is proposed to improve the consideration of biodiversity impacts in mining EIAs. Item Open AccessThe role of the National Water Act on the adaptive capacity of commercial farmers, investigating climate in the Fezile Dabi District Municipality in the Free State Province(University of the Free State, 2019-01) Mhlomi, Tumelo Ian; Van der Walt, A.Climate change is a global phenomenon, which will continue to affect us in the near future. Studies show that climate will rapidly change as compared to previous years. This rapid change will have a great environmental, societal and economic impact on communities around the world, especially developing countries such as South Africa with limited adaptive capacity and resources. The adaptive capacity of commercial farmers can further be restricted by the ongoing amendments to the National Water Act. The main aim was to investigate the role that the National Water Act plays concerning the adaptive capacity of commercial farmers with reference to climate change in the Fezile Dabi District Municipality in the Free State Province. Questionnaires and semi-formal interviews with Government officials and commercial farmers were used to investigate the adaptive capacity within the context of the Sustainable Livelihood Framework, National Water Act and climate change. A critical finding showed that failed water policy implementation strategies have a huge impact on the adaptive capacity of commercial farmers regarding climate change. Item Open AccessEstimation of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture in the eastern Free State, South Africa(University of the Free State, 2017-12) Malaka, Sewela Francinah; Mukwada, G.; Moeletsi, M. E.The agriculture sector is responsible for global emissions and the emissions continue to grow rapidly. The food agriculture organization (FAO) reported emissions with 7.1 gigatonnes CO2eq per annum, representing 14.5 % of human-induced GHG emissions; the livestock sector plays an important role in climate change. Beef and cattle milk production account for the majority of emissions, respectively contributing 41 and 20 % of the sector’s emissions. While pig meat and poultry meat and eggs contribute respectively 9 % and 8 % to the sector’s emissions. Feed production and processing, and enteric fermentation from ruminants are the two main sources of emissions, representing 45 and 39 % of sector emissions, respectively. Manure storage and processing represent 10 % in 2013. Contribution of agriculture sector to South Africa’s total CO2eq emissions was 11.6 % in 1990, 9.3 % in 1994 and 4.9 % in 2000. The livestock category was the major contributor to the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector, providing the average of 54.1 % to the total CH4 emissions in 2010. The contribution from livestock has declined by 11.8 % over the 2000 -2010 period. The department of environmental affairs (DEA) reported that, the total enteric CH4 emissions attained for the years (2000, 2004, and 2010) were 903.23 Gg, 1183.56 Gg and 1172.95 Gg. The contributions of dairy cattle to the total cattle emissions in 2004 was 14.3 % and 13.5 % in 2010. The overall objective of this research study was to estimate GHG emissions (CO2, CH4 and N2O) resulting from agricultural farms in Tshiame Ward in the eastern Free State region of South Africa for the years 2010 to 2014. The importance of this research was to assess GHG emissions in agricultural farms for purposes of developing mitigation options. The available data allowed Tier 2 method to calculate all the GHG emission factors (EFs) and emissions from cattle, sheep and cropland farming. However, Tier 1 method was used to estimate EFs and emissions from other livestock categories. Emissions were estimated from the agricultural sources including CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation, CH4 emissions from manure management, N2O emissions from manure management, non-CO2 emissions from biomass burning, Soil N2O emissions from managed soils, and emissions from fuel use. The results have shown relatively high CH4 EFs from enteric fermentation for mature female beef cattle (95- 109 kg/head/year) at all farms. The dairy mature females followed with 71-105 kg/head/animal, dairy mature bulls (63-96 kg/head/animal), beef mature bulls (53-89 kg/head/animal), beef heifers (37-52 kg/head/animal), dairy heifers (33-56 kg/head/animal), dairy calves (10-25 kg/head/animal), and beef calves (10-24 kg/head/year). Ewes recorded an enteric CH4 EF of about 7 kg CH4/head/year, heifers 0.86 kg CH4/head/year, rams with about 9 kg CH4/head/year and lambs were calculated to have an enteric CH4 EF of about 0.22 kg CH4/head/year. The manure CH4 EFs for MMSs varied per animal subcategories. Beef mature females had the highest average CH4 manure EFs ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 kg CH4/animal/year at all farms, followed by the dairy mature females with CH4 manure EFs ranging from 0.8 to 2.2 kg CH4/animal/year. The beef mature bulls had the CH4 manure EFs of 0.9 to 1.2 kg CH4/animal/year which was higher than the dairy mature bulls which ranged from 0.9 to 1 kg CH4/animal/year. The other animal subcategories had the manure CH4 EFs ranging from 0.1 to 1 kg CH4/animal/year by MMSs. In summary, manure CH4 EFs for beef category were higher than the dairy category at all animal subcategories. The livestock EFs in this study were higher than the EFs found in most studies and this might be due to the lower quality of the feeding situation used in the study area. However, the cropland EFs were consistent with those in literature for most of the studies. It was estimated that farm total emissions in the year 2010 ranged from (69220-580877 kg CO2eq), (70977-585732 kg CO2eq) in the 2011, (45338-676245 kg CO2eq) in 2012, (54731-485264 kg CO2eq) in 2013, and (36270-464119 kg CO2eq) in 2014 at all farms. CH4 enteric fermentation was the highest contributor to the total farm emissions at all farms by approximately 50% in all years, followed by CH4 and N2O from manure management respectively. GHG emissions from cropland farming were lower than the emissions produced during livestock farming. In this study, the mitigation options were analysed and evaluated, and as a result, six (6) mitigation options were regarded as the potential mitigation options for Tshiame farms. The six (6) potential mitigation options met the requirements of sustainability, environmental friendly as well as the profitability of farmers. Managing manure as solid storage had reduced the total emitted manure emissions by 21-75% in all years at all farms. Feeding manure to anaerobic digester had resulted in the reduction of manure emissions emitted by 9-24% at all farms. Manure left on pasture had reduced the manure emissions by 20-75%. However, the dry lot reduced the manure emissions by 20-74% in all years. Addition of supplements in feeding situations had reduced the emitted enteric emissions ranging from 81 to 92 percent. Item Open AccessAssessing the effects of grazing on vegetation cover and associated socio-economic livelihoods in the Clarens Nature Reserve in the Free State, South Africa(University of the Free State, 2018) Sekhele, Ntebohiseng Mpho; Okello, T. W.; Adelabu, S. A.The presence of the Clarens nature reserve at the foothill of the mountainous Maluti is one of the treasured natural ecology of the Free State Province. A primary challenge to the ecological integrity of this small reserve is the nearby location of Kgubetswana Township, which boasts an increasing number of livestock owners. Hence, this study aims to assess the vegetation cover and socio-economic conditions associated with livestock grazing in the Clarens nature reserve. The objectives were to; i) identify vegetation cover; ii) assess the community' perception of environmental effects associated with livestock grazing at the Clarens nature reserve; iii) and assess the socio-economic conditions associated with livestock grazing at the Clarens nature reserve. Maximum likelihood classification and NDVI techniques were applied to remotely sensed images from the Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI sensors to map vegetation cover for the Autumn season of the years 2004, 2008 and 2016. A questionnaire survey was conducted to capture the perceptions of livestock owners and the reserve' management committee. Firstly, over 50% increase of unpalatable vegetation was detected in the vegetation cover of the Clarens reserve. Secondly, qualitative data reveal that 71 % of livestock farmers attribute land degradation to rainfall variability, while the management maintain that livestock overgrazing is the source of negative environmental degradation in the reserve. Change in the vegetation cover has not demonstrated any noticeable effects on the socio-economic conditions of the community. Hence, major dissimilarities in the perceptions of both stakeholders, which are influenced by the sense of responsibility of the two parties towards the reserve. The knowledge and understanding of livestock grazing in a protected area developed in thfs study could be used as a case study to establish grazing management strategies that could sensitize livestock owners to actively participate in the daily maintenance and managing of the reserve for sustainable use of natural resources. And, to forge good working relationships between the management of protected areas and the surrounding communities. Item Open Access'n Geografiese analise van die Bantoebevolking van die Oranje-Vrystaatse Goudveld(University of the Free State, 1970-01) De Villiers, Gabriel Du Toit; Nel, D. E.Abstract not available Item Open AccessInvoer en verspreiding van petroleumprodukte in die Republiek van Suid-Afrika; 'n verkeers-geografiese ontleding(University of the Free State, 1966-03) Erwee, Johannes Albertus; Coetzee, J. A.Abstract not available Item Open AccessVulnerability and adaptation to climate variability: a case study of emerging farmers in the eastern Free State, South Africa(University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, 2015-06) Matela, Thabo Elias; Mukwada, G.; Moeletsi, M. E.English: A research study on vulnerability and adaptation to climate variability was conducted among emerging farmers in Tshiame Ward of Maluti-A-Phofung Municipality in the Free State Province of South Africa. The research aim was to assess the vulnerability of agricultural systems to climate variability and to identify the adaptation measures that emerging farmers use to cope with the problem. Primary data was collected by means of a semi-structured questionnaire to 19 farmers in the Ward. The data were captured and analysed using SPSS, to obtain the frequency tables. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis and to plot the regression graphs while the Instat Software was used in the analysis of climate data to determine the dry spells, onset and offset of dates and the calculation of the Crop Performance Indices. The analysis revealed that farmers regard climate variability as a phenomenon taking place in Tshiame Ward. When farmers were asked about the cause of climate variability, some were unsure about their own answers though many of them were able to relate their answers to what is happening in their immediate environment. In order to cope with the impact of climate variability, farmers in Tshiame Ward have adopted a number of practices such as the use of drought and heat tolerant seeds and mixed cropping systems. These practices are based on the already existing knowledge as well as the perceived changes in climatic conditions. The statistical analysis of climate data revealed that some of the views held by some farmers‟ regarding climate variability are in contrast with the results shown by the analysis. The study concludes that the farmers who were able to perceive the change that is taking place in their environment were better able to implement effective adaptation measures and were consequently better-able to sustain their agricultural operations. The fact that farmers were aware or familiar with climate variability, as well as its associated impact can be related to the ongoing project that is being undertaken by Agricultural Research Council, where weather stations have been installed on farms in order to develop the capacity to monitor climate variability in the area. Item Open AccessValue chain analysis in the proposed Witsieshoek community conservation area (WCCA) in the Eastern Free State of South Africa(University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), 2016) Zondo, Solomon Andries; Mukwada, G.The aim of this study is to analyze the value chains in the proposed Witsieshoek Community Conservation Area (WCCA) situated in the eastern part of the Free State Province of South Africa. The study assesses the state and attributes of the biophysical environment and their contribution to value chain systems in the area. The study evaluates the natural resources found in the environment, encompassing both the villages in the Witsieshoek Area and the proposed WCCA. In addition, the study identifies the benefits that are generated from these resources to rural livelihoods. The study also reflects on previous economic and environmental studies undertaken elsewhere in mountain environments. It focuses on the human-environment interactions and the resultant impacts on ecosystems and rural livelihoods. Accordingly, the study is guided by the Pressure-State-Response (P-S-R) model, which illustrates material flows from the natural resource base to the consumers and the impacts resulting from these flows. Its significance lies in the need to address the high poverty levels characterizing the Witsieshoek Area, with the view of finding sustainable ways of protecting the rich biodiversity found in this mountainous region. The natural resource base was analyzed through the collection of empirical data that provided information on the state of the environment and its attributes. This was complemented by qualitative data that were collected from local communities through a questionnaire survey. Additional socioeconomic and environmental data were also collected from other role players such developers and government officials involved in conservation through unstructured interviews. The findings of this study illustrate the strong link between the value chain systems and the biophysical environment in the area. However, the monetary value allocated to the natural resources increases with geographic distance from the resource base, yet the problems associated with the degradation of the resource base (resulting from resource exploitation) are only borne by the local communities. The study demonstrates that the sustainability of value chains that sustain rural communities depends on the state of the biophysical environment and vice versa. In conclusion, the study highlights the importance of natural resources in value chains and biodiversity conservation as a basis for sustainable development. It further demonstrates the need for further extensive investigation on how the natural environment to be improved in order to stabilize the value chain systems in community conservation areas. Item Open AccessAn analysis of attitudes towards recycling: Westdene, Bloemfontein(University of the Free State, 2012-05) Marchand, Ashleigh Katherine; Kruger, E.English: South Africa, like any developing country, has a high level of waste generation and limited resources for disposal. This is where a definite problem arises - a large amount of waste is left discarded and unmanaged. Recycling plays an important role in the preservation of the environment. This may be one of the most basic fundamental building blocks of environmental protection. It may not appear to be an impressive process but if performed properly with sufficient management, recycling can be the most efficient form of aiding the environment in the long term. The government, alone, does not and should not have the sole obligation in safeguarding our country against pollution and waste management. The private and public sectors have a common responsibility towards the environment. To initiate any waste management development programme, agreements between the various sectors must be drafted. Just as important to what is mentioned above is the co-operation between all national and local authorities. Certain international countries' lack of legislation and policies concerning waste management have resulted in an independent, informal economy being created, which means that an innovative economic sector has been developed. The purpose of this study is to reveal the current and future recycling behaviour of residential and commercial recipients in Westdene, Bloemfontein. Secondly, the study aims to critically review the current integrated waste management plans and policies that exist. Thirdly, a model is developed to illustrate recycling behaviour and attitude. Results gathered from the analysis reveal that all groups and demographics have similar ideas, covering all questions and variations of questions. All recipients are generally very pro-recycling, but only if the municipality contributes by initiating the required programmes/techniques to be used and facilities. Recipients are all in agreement that more information is needed to effectively succeed in implementing recycling in Westdene, Bloemfontein. Item Open AccessDie polities-geografiese ontwikkeling van Transkei vanaf 1913 tot 1976(University of the Free State, 1990-12) Prinsloo, Helena Jacoba; Els, W. C.English: The political geographical independence of Transkei in 1976 was the outcome and culmination of the evolutionary interaction between territory, systems of government and subjects ("people") over a span of more than three centuries. During this political-geographical evolution of the subordinate (Transkei), the South African Government acted as dominant actor which itself traversed a period of political-geographical interaction and emancipation of territory, systems of government and subjects. To·peacefully accommodate non-assimilatory and clashing cultures (Western vs Third World) in one restricted, delimited space (later the Republic of South Africa) a unique strategy of spatial organization, viz of spatial subdivision, and almost total to total political segregation has been put to the test and brought into practice by the dominant actor(s), Holland, Britain, South Africa, for more than three centuries. Especially during the twentieth century it has become all the more clear to the South African Government(s), as the dominant actor, that this strategy could presumably be the best of several political models to solve the otherwise forced space sharing by cultures of different, adversative and sometimes implacable social, economic, perceptional, but especially political aspirations and saturation levels. The political-geographical strategies applied by the different South African Governments during the twentieth century in an evolutionary fashion, developed the. Transkei from an adjusted tribal control (amongst others the Bunga system), through directed but culture-adjusted separate development (a people develops at its own pace, according to its own norms, urges, needs and perceptions to its own political geographical goals in its own territory), through absolute territorial separation and territorial consolidation with self-government, to a type of tribal-adjusted democratic independence. To accomplish these strategies, namely political, economic, social, educational and gradual emancipation processes were generated and manipulated to attain idealized government patterns and territorial consolidated spatial patterns. Internal acceptance by the subordinate actor (Transkei) of these superimposed strategies and processes gradually eased, resistance from within the Transkeian Territory crumbled, or was suppressed within and outside Transkei, or went underground. The selfgoverning Transkei took its own initiative to request total spatial disengagement and governmental independence from its once dominant actor. Transkei became independent on 26 October 1976. Two malevolent factors which detrimentally influencing international recognition (acceptance) of Transkeian independence were citizenship rights and the unyielding resistance. by the OAU and UN. Item Open Access'n Geografiese ondersoek na die uitwerking van enkele ruimelike veranderlikes op die gang van nywerheidsvestiging in Qwaqwa(University of the Free State, 1987-11) Claassen, Johannes Hendrik Daniel; Senekal, W. F. S.; Enslin, A. G.Afrikaans: As aanloop tot die tema is die tydruimtelike evolusie van die Suid- Afrikaanse ekonomiese sisteem in breê trekke geskets. Daar Qwaqwa deel is van die breër Suid-Afrikaanse ekonomiese struktuur is die identifisering en omskrywing daarvan noodsaaklik en word die gebied ooreenkomstig bestaande inligting as 'n afwaartse oorgangsone geklassifiseer. Die mens se organisasie van ekonomiese ruimte vertoon duidelike fokusse van ruimtelike konsentrasie. Die Suid-Afrikaanse ruimtelike patroon is geen uitsondering nie en die voorkoms van 'n aantal kernstreke met hoë intensiteit daaromheen word aangetoon. Die bevolkingsbeleid van afsonderlike ontwikkeling het die destydse regering verpIig om onverwylde aandag aan die aangeleentheid te skenk en die uitkoms daarvan was 'n beleid van nywerheidsdesentralisasie. Enersyds was die doelwit van laasgnoemde beleid die skepping van nywerhede en gepaardgaande werkgeleenthede in minder ontwikkelde gebiede ten einde die ekonomiese basis van hierdie gebiede te versterk en die instroming van swarters na blanke-gebiede te beperk. Andersyds was die beleid ook gemik op die ewewigtige verbreiding van ekonomiese aktiwiteite oor 'n groter geografiese ruimte. Ten einde die aantrekkingskrag van hierdie gebiede te verhoog word desentralisasievoordele aan voornemende nyweraars beskikbaar gestel, maar die vraag ontstaan tot watter mate sodanige stimulering, met inagneming van die talle beperkings eie aan 'n buiterandstreek, suksesvol is. In Hoofstuk 2 (afdeling 2.7) word dit as hipotese gestel dat die vestiging en ontwikkeling van nywerhede in Qwaqwa benadeel word deur 'n kombinasie van enkele ongunstige vestigingsfaktore, waaronder: 1. gebrekkige infrastruktuur. 2. beperkte natuurlike hulpbronne. 3. ontoereikende lokale mark. 4. relatiewe geïsoleerdheid ten opsigte van metropolitaanse gebiede. Daarteenoor word dit ook gestel dat die volgende faktore 'n beduidende rol in die vestiging en groei van nywerhede in Qwaqwa vervul, naamlik: 1. sentrale ligging, veral met betrekking tot die PWV-gebied asook Durban en omgewing. 2. desentralisasievoordele en owerheidsbesluitneming. 3. die beskikbaarheid van arbeid en 'n stabiele arbeidsmag. In Hoofstuk 3 en 4 word ondersoek ingestel na die voordele en nadele verbonde aan 'n nywerheidspIasing in Qwaqwa en in Hoofstuk 5 word die resultate van die ondersoek saamgevat en word die volgende negatiewe vestigingsfaktore geïdentifiseer: Negatiewe vestigingsfaktore - enkele aspekte betreffende infrastruktuur - gebrek aan grondstowwe - relatiewe geïsoleerdheid - hoë vervoerkostes - ontoereikende behuising - tekort aan opgeleide ambagsmanne en tegnici - gebrekkige hulpdienste In dieselfde hoofstuk (5) word bovermelde negatiewe vestigingsfaktore met die gestelde hipoteseformulerings vergelyk en as volg geverifieer: 1. Enkele aspekte betreffende infrastruktuur blyk beslis 'n negatiewe uitwerking te hê op die vestiging en ontwikkeling van nywerhede in Qwaqwa en wel om die volgende redes: 1.1 die gebrek aan 'n direkte spoorverbinding met Phuthaditjhaba word deur 69,1 % van die nyweraars as 'n belangrike tekortkoming uitgesonder (tabel 3.14). 1.2 38,2 % van die nyweraars is van mening dat vervoergeriewe by fabrieksperseie ontoereikend is (tabel 3.15). 1.3 tekortkominge met betrekking tot sekuriteit, brandweerdienste, kantoorfasiliteite, eetplekke, klankdigtheid en die verhitting van fabrieksgeboue (tabelle 3.15 en 3.16). 1.4 'n gebrek aan die tydige beskikbaarheid van geskikte fabrieksgeboue word deur 49,1 % van die nyweraars aangemeld (afdeling 18.104.22.168). 2. Die gebrek aan grondstowwe benadeel die vestiging en ontwikkeling van nywerhede en ondersteun die gestelde hipotese. 2.1 volgens aankoopwaarde voorsien Qwaqwa en die omliggende Oos- Vrystaat in slegs 9,3 % van die totale grondstofbehoeftes van nywerhede (tabel 3.19). 3. Relatiewe lang afstande en hoê vervoerkostes ondersteun die hipotese ten opsigte van relatiewe geïsoleerdheid met betrekking tot metropolitaanse gebiede. 3.1 alhoewel Qwaqwa sentraal geleë is tussen Durban en die PWV-gebied, bestempel 72,7 % van die nyweraars hul teenswoordige nywerheidsligging as redelik tot aansienlik geïsoleerd (tabel 3.28) . 3.2 as gevolg van bovermelde word hoë vervoerkoste as die belangrikste negatiewe bedryfsaspek uitgesonder (tabelle 3.30, 3. 36 en 3. 40) 4. Ontoereikende behuising is nie as 'n hipotese gestel nie, maar is tydens die ondersoek as 'n negatiewe vestigingsfaktor geïdentifiseer. Die tekort aan behuising is veral van toepassing op Indiër sakemanne en word as 'n ernstige knelpunt beleef (afdeling 22.214.171.124). 5. Alhoewel dit nie as 'n hipotese gestel is nie, word 'n tekort aan opgeleide ambagsmanne en tegnici asook gebrekkige hulpdienste as negatiewe vestigingsfatore geïdentifiseer. 5.1 52,7 % van die nyweraars ondervind ernstige tekorte aan personeel in die tegniese beroepskategorieë (tabel 3.6). 5.2 in terme van geldwaarde is 75,3 % van alle hulpdienste van gebiede buite Qwaqwa afkomstig (tabel 3.32). Benewens die vermelde negatiewe vestigingsfaktore word ook die volgende positiewe vestigingsfaktore in Hoofstuk 5 geïdentifiseer: Positiewe vestigingsfaktore - sentrale ligging - belowende plaaslike mark - aspekte betreffende arbeidsaangeleenthede - desentralisasievoordele Bostaande positief gerdentifiseerde vestigingsfaktore word met die gestelde hipoteses vergelyk en as volg geverifieer: 1. Die sentrale ligging van Qwaqwa met betrekking tot die PWV- en Durban-omgewing ondersteun die gestelde hipotese en vervul beduidende rol in die vestiging en ontwikkeling van nywerhede. 1.1 ten spyte van relatiewe gersoleerdheid (tabel 3.28) het 60 % van die nyweraars laat blyk dat hulle tevrede is met hul nywerheidsplasing en het die sentrale ligging van Qwaqwa met betrekking tot die res van Suid-Afrika as die vernaamste rede aangevoer (tabel 3.25). 1.2 sentrale ligging word as die vernaamste rede aangevoer waarom Qwaqwa bo ander nywerheidsontwikkelingspunte verkies word 29,1 % van die totale telling (tabel 3.38). 2. Die identifisering van 'n belowende plaaslike mark weerlê die gestelde hipotese en lewer 'n positiewe bydra tot die vestiging en ontwikkeling van nywerhede in Qwaqwa (tabelle 2.4, 3.26 en 3.37. 3. Die beskikbaarheid van arbeid en die teenwoordigheid van 'n stabiele arbeidsmag bevestig die gestelde hipotese. Die volgende aspekte het die plasingskeuse van nyweraars ten opsigte van vestiging in Qwaqwa gunstig bernvloed: 3.1 die aanwesigheid van 'n groot arbeidsbron (tabel 3.10). 3.2 positiewe arbeidsgesindhede (tabel 3.40). 4. Soos in die hipotese gestel lewer die beskikbaarheid van desentralisasie voordele 'n beduidende bydra tot nywerheidsvestiging in Qwaqwa. Die sterk trekkrag van desentralisasievoordele word duidelik weerspieël in tabelle 3.10, 3.38, 3.39 en 3.42. Subsidies op lone (tabel 3.33) word as die belangrikste desentralisasievoordeel geëdentifiseer. 4.1 60 % van die nyweraars wat hervestig het, het gunstige desentralisasie voordele as die vernaamste rede vir vestiging in Qwaqwa uitgesonder (tabel 3.42). Teen hierdie agtergrond en die aanbevelings vervat in Hoofstuk 5 word 'n ontwikkelingstrategie vir Qwaqwa daargestel. Laasgenoemde strategie word geformuleer met as agtergrond die gegewe realiteit van nywerheidsontwikkelingspunte asook die inherente beperkings daaraan verbonde en behels die volgende: Item Open AccessA spatial analysis of female street traders in the Bloemfontein Central Business District(University of the Free State, 2016-06) Juries, Ingrid Keamogetswe; Massey, Ruth ThokozileEnglish: Literature on South African cities has focused on the spatial transformation of South African cities and in particular, South African Central Business Districts (CBDs). A review of the literature suggests that not much empirical evidence exists on understanding the spatiality of informal businesses in the CBD. This study is therefore aimed at identifying and analyzing the spatial patterns of female informal traders operating businesses in the Bloemfontein CBD. Research objectives include the identification of the spatial locations used by female informal traders in the Bloemfontein Central Business District, an exploration of the importance of location to female informal traders in the Bloemfontein Business District and an exploration of the impacts of location to female informal traders in the Bloemfontein CBD. The study made use of multiple research techniques which included semi-structured interviews, plotting female informal traders’ locations using a Global Positioning System (GPS), structured observations and secondary data. Through the application of Cluster Theory and through mapping the locations of the female informal traders in the Bloemfontein, it is clear that there is a clustered spatial pattern of female informal traders in the Bloemfontein CBD. The study also highlighted some of the factors which influenced the clustered spatial patterns of the traders as well as access to customers. The study contributes to the understanding of the importance of location for an informal business and also unpacks some of the implications of clustered spatial patterns. It is, therefore, asserted that spatial patterns of informal trading activities in South African cities are just as important as the patterns of formal businesses. Item Open AccessThe role of Lesotho's textile industry in promoting local economic local economic development: the Thetsane industrial area(University of the Free State, 2007) Hlabana, Malitaba Magdalene; Visser, GustavThis case study explores the role that the textile industry plays in the economic development of Lesotho. The study focuses on the Thetsane textile industry in the south of Maseru. In particular, it explores the contribution of this industry to job creation and poverty reduction. As the industrial garment industry of Lesotho represents the only economic activity showing significant and consistent growth in terms of employment, foreign direct investment and exports, it is already making an important contribution to poverty reduction. There are, however, a number of significant challenges to the industry that if successfully addressed could unleash the existing potential for further growth in the sector and make it an even greater contributor to economic growth, poverty reduction and job creation. For Lesotho to take full advantage of African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), it needs to develop and service industrial land and enhance its water supply to industry as a matter of urgency. From a competitive point of view Lesotho has much to offer at the moment. The peaceful conduct of the recent elections with the resultant aura of political stability is a key foundation for economic growth and foreign investment. The regulatory environment is manageable, wages are low and there is an adequate labor supply. The challenge lies in the future, with trends towards the lowering of global tariff barriers and the expiry of the Multi Fibre Agreement in 2005, which will remove quota restrictions on garment imports to the USA. Lesotho could effectively market itself as a destination of choice for garment purchasers and new investors. It is also of critical importance that the wider community within Lesotho understands the contribution that the garment industry is making towards poverty reduction and job opportunities. Item Open AccessThe geomorphology and aeolian deposits in the vicinity of Florisbad(Univeristy of the Free State, 2011-05) Rabumbulu, Mulalo; Holmes, P. J.The discovery of the Florisbad hominid prompted further archaeological and palaeoanthropological research in the Florisbad area. However, research that looks specifically at the geomorphology and aeolian deposits around Florisbad has been very limited, although aeolian processes and sand dunes have been widely recognized as being of significance in understanding past environmental conditions in this area. Geologists have also shown an interest in trying to explain the formation of the Florisbad spring and fossil site. The Florisbad spring site has a complex stratigraphy because the deposits are lithologically variable due to the fact that they are the product of an unusual depositional environment. Many hypotheses have being proposed in trying to understand the complex depositional environment at Florisbad. This research suggests that, in order to better understand the complex depositional environment of Florisbad, there is a need to understand the surrounding geomorphological setting in terms of geohydrological and geomorphic processes and features. The methodology comprises a review of current literature on lunette dunes, and previous work undertaken on the geomorphology and geology at and around Florisbad, an examination of aerial photographs to identify lunette dunes in the vicinity of Florisbad, and fieldwork to ground-truth the dunes. Field sampling, laboratory work (sedimentological techniques, pH, conductivity and geochemical analysis) as well as statistical analyses (principal component and cluster analyses) were employed to compare the characteristics of the lunette dune sediments with those at the spring site itself, and to assist in a general palaeoenviromental reconstruction.The results of the laboratory analyses do not reveal any obvious differences with respect to sediment particle size and pH, between the lunette dunes and the spring site. However it was noted that there were minor differences when it came to dune structures, electrical conductivity and chemical composition. There is convincing evidence that the sediments are primarily wind-blown in origin. The geochemical results suggest the lunettes are older than the dune at the spring site. Two optically stimulated luminescence dates were determined for a lunette dune close to Florisbad. The samples were dated to 500 years, and it is suggested that this is because of reworking of sediments down the slope. The overall geomorphology, as described in this study, suggests a shallow depression (Florisbad-Soutpan) in which both fluvial and aeolian processes have conspired to create a unique landscape which has promoted the formation and preservation of dune deposits and the unique archaeological site which is Florisbad. Item Open AccessWind erosion and soil susceptibility in the Free State Province, South Africa(University of the Free State, 2015-07) Mahasa, Pululu Sexton; Barker, Charles; Mukwada, GeofreyEnglish: Wind erosion is identified as one of the most problematic environmental and social-economic problems in the Free State province. The development and intensification of soil wind erosion are influenced by the factors of such as climate, terrain, soil and vegetation characteristics, etc. In this study of the Free State province, Geographical Information Systems GIS was utilised to determine vulnerability of soils to wind erosion using comparative and quantitative methods. The results showed that the western part of the region is highly susceptible to wind erosion. The central part is moderately affected while the eastern part is least affected by wind erosion. Wind erosion is further enhanced by sandy soil types, soil particle size, sparsely distributed vegetation and low soil moisture content in this part of the study area. The present situation of soil and wind erosion is the result of concurrent effects of climate, vegetation cover and surface soil properties. Wind erosion could be manageable with appropriate farming practices. Item Open AccessUrban water provision in Maseru (Lesotho): a geographical analysis(University of the Free State, 2005-05) Molapo, Lifuo; Marais, J. G. L.Water is the most important of all basic needs, and is fundamental to all vital processes of value to mankind. However, statistics indicate that of all the water available on earth, only a limited fraction is available for human consumption. With the growing world population, there is increasing demand for water worldwide. The situation is even more complicated in cities of the developing world that are characterised by rapid population growth while the economic status is low. This often results in the demand for water growing faster than the ability to supply. Urban population expansion in the developing world therefore further complicates the challenge of water provision. This is a very critical issue because failure to meet the water demands of cities can put people’s lives at risk. The main challenge therefore is to develop appropriate policies that guide water provision. This is also the situation in Lesotho. Like other developing countries, Lesotho’s population has been growing at an alarming rate. Most of the growth has been happening in the capital city Maseru, which absorbs a high share of the country’s urban population. However, the fast rate of urbanisation in Lesotho, particularly in Maseru has not been coupled with the necessary expansion of water supply systems, thereby causing pressure of the existing system. WASA the body that is charged with the responsibility of urban water supply in Lesotho has since its formulation generally failed to meet its obligation. This is as a result of ineffective policies that were put in place to guide the authority. About half of the population within WASA’s area of designation are still unserved. Several policy related issues have resulted in this. Firstly, the subsidisation of water by disallowing price increases. Secondly, the supply of free water through public standpipes, and thirdly the false assumption that the poor cannot afford to pay even the minimum charge for water. These issues have not only resulted in financial instability to WASA thus hindering service expansion, but have also resulted in denial of service to the poor while the rich enjoyed low cost service. Empirical examination of the situation on water provision in Maseru has further confirmed the issues discussed above. From a policy perspective it is therefore imperative tha t water supply services are expanded and improved to be financially viable.