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Item Open AccessDie selfstandigwording van die Bantoekerk; met spesiale verwysing na die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Sendingkerk in Noord-Rhodesië(University of the Free State, 1958-12) Cronjé, Johan Marthinus; Van Schalkwyk, A.Abstract not available Item Open AccessDie invloed van pop-musiek op die skoolgaande Afrikaanssprekende jeug soos vasgestel by 'n groep senior leerlinge aan ses hoërskole van die Witwatersrand - 'n evaluering in Bybelkundige perspektief(University of the Free State, 1979-11) Steyn, Andries Adriaan; Lombard, J. C.Afrikaans: Die onmiskenbare en veelbesproke absolute feit van die tema van hierdie verhandeling staan vir ons by voorbaat vas, soos ook sal blyk uit die volgende hoofstukke. In hierdie verhandeling sal uiteraard duidelik onderskei moet word tussen die verskillende tipes pop-musiek, om nie in simplistiese veralgemening te verval nie. Al die onderskeie tipes word egter nie bespreek nie, maar net daardie uitinge van pop-musiek wat op die oomblik baie relevant is en populariteit onder die jeug geniet. Die tema van die verhandeling dui op 'n christelik-prinsipiële beoordeling van pop-musiek. Ons wil beklemtoon dat 'n beoordeling daarvan mank kan gaan aan diepgang indien daar aprioristiese en oppervlakkige afwysings is van alles wat in die breë as popmusiek bestempel word. Daarom trag ons om so objektief as moontlik 'n regverdige beeld van pop-musiek te gee al kom talle kritiese uitsprake uiteraard na vore. Om die literêre navorsing by die praktyk te laat aansluit, en om te bepaal of die hipotese aanvaar of verwerp moet word, is daar besluit om 'n vraelys oor pop-musiek saam te stel en aan ses prominente Afrikaanse hoërskole aan die Witwatersrand vir beantwoording te stuur. Dié ses hoërskole is gekies omdat hulle binne en rondom Johannesburg gesentreerd is en die proefgroep 'n verteenwoordigende deel uitmaak van Afrikaanse leerlinge in hierdie gebied wat in die brandpunt staan vanwaar pop-musiek veral konsentreer op die jeug van alle bevolkingsgroepe. Nadat skriftelike magtiging van die Transvaalse Onderwysdepartement verkry is vir die uitstuur van genoemde vraelyste na die betrokke skole, is vier van die hoofde van hierdie skole persoonlik genader om hul samewerking in dié verband te verkry, terwyl die ander twee telefonies bereik 15. Volledige instruksies is by alle vraelyste ingesluit, sodat die proefbeamptes ten volle op hoogte was van hoe vraelyste beantwoord moes word. 'n Totaal van 310 vraelyste is uitgestuur en 'n buitengewone terugvoering van een honderd persent is terug ontvang. Hierdie sukses kan toegeskryf word aan die persoonlike belangstelling van die betrokkenes by die onderwerp, en ook moontlik aan die persoonlike toesig van die verantwoordelike toesighouers wat die instruksies deeglik bestudeer en deurgevoer het. Die nodige bedankingsbriewe is na terugontvangs van die vraelyste aan die hoofde van dié betrokke hoërskole gestuur. Die vrae in die vraelyste is opgestel op so 'n wyse dat informasie oor die volgende aspekte verkry kon word: 1. Trefkrag en invloed van pop-musiek. 2. Eienaarskap van musiekdraende items en geldelike uitgawes daaraan verbonde. 3. Luistergewoontes. 4. Menings en houdings oor suggestiwiteit en dwelmmiddelverheerliking. 5. Waarde-oordele oor Christelike pop-musiek. 6. Pop-feeste en disko's. Dit was belangrik om die vrae nie noodwendig so op te stel dat die vrae die respondente in 'n sekere rigting "lei" nie maar om slegs basiese informasie te verkry. By die ondersoek is die vrae wat met mekaar verband hou, gegroepeer om sodoende die nodige afleidings te kon voltrek. 'n Hipotese is soos volg geformuleer: "Pop-musiek het nie 'n merkwaardige invloed·op die Christelike Afrikaner-jeug van albei geslagte tussen die ouderdomme 17 en 20 jaar nie". Dis 'n hipotese waarvan ons oortuig was nie op grond van vae intuisie nie, maar van die ondervinding met pop-musiek voor hierdie ondersoek begin het. Dit is heel interessant dat die meer gedetailleerde ondersoek hierdie hipotese bevestig, eerstens wat betref gesaghebbende uitsprake en tweedens op grond van die empiriese ondersoek. Daarmee is die negatiewe opset en invloed van pop-musiek egter nie in die minste gerelativeer nie. Die logiese gang en opset van die verhandeling sal hoofsaaklik soos volg daar uitsien: 1. Inleiding, doelstelling en hipotese. 2. Literatuurstudie. 3. Die ondersoek. 4. Kritiek, bespreking en aanbevelings. Item Open AccessThe theological reflection on the divine in the African context: a possible basis for dialogue with Islam(University of the Free State, 1998-11) Namukoa, Edward Wanyama; Verster, Pieter; Nel, P. J.English: The countries of Africa are experiencing important changes and development forms a major part of their political agenda. It is a period of economic awakening. This .Renaissance of Africa is impossible to achieve without a new social order. This new social order is one that goes beyond sectional and ethnic hatred. This also implies a need for religious tolerance based on an acceptable concept understood equally by all religions and ethnic groups of Africa. In this thesis, the researcher sought to contribute to religious tolerance by looking at similarities and differences between the conceptions of the Divine held by the major religious traditions of Africa, viz. African traditional religion, Christianity and Islam. The thesis also explored the possibility of employing the conception of the Divine as a unifying factor and a possible basis for dialogue between religious communities in a multi-religious society. The investigation articulated the following three basic convictions which are central to the study: (a) The concept of the Divine in the African context is a complex one. (b) Christian theology in Africa has relevance for the ecumenical church. (c) Islam, like Christianity, also suffers from a religious ethnocentrism. In Chapter 1 attention was devoted to the problem and scope of the study, the conceptualisation of the problem, and the purpose and relevance of the study. The chapter contains a historical survey of African traditional religion, Christian Mission and the Islamic Da'wah in Africa. Lastly the researcher spelled out his personal stance as regards the subject under discussion and concluded with a discussion of African traditional religion, Christianity and Islam in Kenya. In Chapter 2 attention was devoted to the theological views on the Divine. This took the form of a general definition followed by specific attention to the way in which the concept is understood from the African, Christian and Islamic points of view. Attention was paid to the way in which these religions understand the attributes of God and the names of God and to how these views may contribute towards preparing the stage for dialogue. The African conception of the Divine has been misunderstood by Western writers, especially by the missionaries who initially had a pre-conceived notion of Africans and their understanding of God. The researcher discussed these views critically and concluded that Africans, like the Jews, believed in one God and that their concept of the Divine was evolving from simple to complex in a similar way as Yahweh of Israel and Allah of the Arabs also evolved from simple to complex up to the level at which the concept comes to us in the Bible and the Qur'an. In Chapter 3 the respective attitudes of African traditional religion, Christianity and Islam towards the Divine were explored. Emphasis was laid on the African Christians who take the gospel to their fellow Africans and who can therefore be regarded as missionaries among their own people. The Muslim attitude towards Allah and the Da'wah was also discussed. In Chapter 4 the theological views of the three religions on Monotheism, the Trinity and Predestination were explored. The findings revealed that the religions differ in this regard. The differences are more pronounced between Christianity and Islam. It was argued that, in order to achieve a religious symbiosis, the differences should be left to the adherents of the respective religions while emphasis should be laid on the concept of the Divine which is understood in a similar fashion in these religions. This could serve to effect a working togetherness in a multi-religious society. In Chapter 5 attention was devoted to the condition of sin. Sin was discussed as the major reason for the separation between man and the Divine. The views of the three religions on sin and the resulting strained relationship with the Divine were investigated .. The researcher believes that sin is the main cause of religious animosity between the adherents of these religions in Africa and specifically in Kenya. The remedy lies in looking to the Divine for a complete restoration and the possibility of dialogue. The question of salvation was investigated in Chapter 6. In discussing the theology of salvation in the African traditional Religion, Christianity and Islam attention was devoted to the way in which the theology of salvation relates to the perception of the Divine in these religions. The differences between the ways in which Christianity and Islam understand of salvation were discussed critically and the responses of each of the religions were articulated. Chapter 7 contains a few concluding remarks and a way forward was discussed. It was stressed that a social order based on the concept of religious tolerance is necessary in a multi-religious society. It is possible for people of different religions to work together under the umbrella of the concept of the Divine. Religious animosity is unnecessary in the 21st century and beyond, and quite untenable if Africa is to be developmentally conscious. There are common areas where African traditional religion, Christianity and Islam agree - especially with regard to the concept of the . Divine. This should be emphasised in order to promote peace; yet the individual religious differences should be respected as such. Attention was also devoted to the Christian witness in a multi-religious society and it was pointed out that Christians should learn to listen to other religions in order to be understood and accepted in their witness to the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ. Item Open AccessChristian marriage and family life in the African context(University of the Free State, 1999-11) Kauuova, Werner Rihungira; Strauss, S. A.English: The African Christian is in search of biblical principles when it comes to marriage and family life. The purpose of this dissertation is to provide means by which Christians in marriage and family can come to understand better that part of life in which they spend most of their time and energy. The dissertation has been divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 is the introduction. It gives an overview of the problem we are investigating. It also provides us with a historical background to the preaching of the Gospel in Africa. The argument in this chapter is that the missionaries were in total disregard of the African culture when they preached the Gospel. As a consequence the African converts rejected their own culture without any concrete understanding and accepted the culture of the missionaries that came with the Gospel. The result is that we are sitting with a Christianity in Africa that does not give answers to African problems, and in this regard, to marriage and family life. Chapter 2 deals with the traditional marriage customs in Africa. This chapter provides us with the context. It gives us a picture of marriage and family life in traditional Africa. Chapter 3 gives the Biblical theology for Christian marriage. The Bible as the Word of God plays a major role in this paper. There are issues that are particular to a specific culture, and there are principles that are applicable to all Christians. This chapter also serves as a reference to the chapters following it. The Biblical foundation that is established here comes back in Chapters 4 and 5. Chapter 4 gives answers to marriage and family life challenges. The approach in this chapter is to take the African context seriously and to apply the principle of continuity and discontinuity critically and responsibly. The Word of God has to triumph at the end. Chapter 5 deals with the family. The relationship between husband, wife and children is approached from a Biblical perspective. Leading a healthy family life is also a sign of growth. Christians need to grow. We cannot just remain like babies and drink milk from year to year. In Chapter 6 we make our concluding remarks and discuss the way forward for Christian marriage and family life in the African context. It is not optional for Christians to apply Biblical principles into their lives, it is an obligation. In this globalising and secularising world Christians need to spend more time in studying the Scripture so that they will know how to apply it in their daily lives. My stance as an evangelical Christian in Africa is also evident in this research. I tried to be as objective as I could in my approach, but it is not possible to be totally objective. This statement should not serve as an excuse for any child of God to act irresponsibly, but we must try to make His truth known to all men. Item Open Access'n Ondersoek na die rol van lidmate in die proses van rou(University of the Free State, 2000-03) Kloppers, Abraham Lodewickus; Potgieter, M. C.English: The bereaved find themselves dependent on the comfort and support of friends, family and parishioners after the loss of a loved one. Few other sources of support plays such an important roll within the first days and weeks after a loss. Professional counselors are usually only consulted in cases of complicated mourning. Literature on the process of mourning is hardly ever read by the bereaved within the first weeks due to the state of shock in which they find themselves. The way in which the bereaved are comforted can either have a negative (frustrating) or positive (facilitating) impact on the resolution of their grief. Comforting can have a negative effect in cases where the bereaved are denied ample opportunities of expressing their grief and encouraged to overcome their grief as soon as possible. This happens when explanatory interpretations and platitudes are offered instead of compassion. This is often done by theologizing, rationalizing or minimizing the loss. Parishioners can play a positive roll in the facilitation of the process of mourning if they have better perception of the griefwork that needs to be done by the bereaved to resolve their grief. Presence, a willingness to listen and the validation of a person's loss could make a meaningful and comforting contribution towards resolution. The study focuses on: Biblical coordinates concerning death, God's will and comforting by fellow believers; a literature study on the process of mourning and effective means of support and comforting; a qualitative investigation as to how the bereaved experience support; and a concept manual with guidelines for comforting the bereaved. Item Open AccessA homiletical comparative study of the principles and methods of communication in the preaching of John R.W. Stott and Martyn Lloyd-Jones(University of the Free State, 2000-05) Kim, Myung-Soo; KeIlerman, J. S.English: For the purposes of achieving the aim of this study the following objectives have been pursued: (1) The investigation and comparison of the principles and methods of Stott and Lloyd-Jones' s preaching and communication (2)The analysis of their principles and methods of preaching and communication in their homilies. (3) An evaluation within the broader spectrum of the Reformational and Biblical theology has also been completed. * Stott and Lloyd- Jones's preaching emphasises the following: (l)They emphasize that preaching is central to and has a predominating position in the life of the church. (2) The definition of preaching is that God's people will hear his voice and respond to Him in obedience with the total person. (3) They have the same faith and submission to the triune God, and the Holy Bible. (4) There must always be a controlling factor in our preparation of our sermons and messages. And, both kerygma and didache belong to the essence of Reformed or Evangelical theology and cannot be separated. (5) The aim of preaching is much more than the unveiling of Christ; it is to see him, hear the Lord's voice; to glorify Him. to fall down and worship Him. And they emphasize expository preaching. * Stott and Lloyd-Jones' s communication emphasises following: (1) They emphasize the importance of the preacher as a communicator. Because, we preachers will always be pastor, steward, herald, father, servant, minister, ambassador, witness of Christ Jesus at all times. (2) Their belief in the empowering of the Spirit in the delivery of sermons gave shape to their ministry. (3) The definition of communication in their preaching is that it is not a one-sided delivery of the message. It is an exchange (or interaction) between preacher and congregation. (4) Their final views on communication is bringing about a change in the Christian way of life. (5) They regard the incarnation of Jesus Christ as the theological basis of their communication. The Son of God became flesh. It is a good model of theological communication. (6) We must remember their effective communication. Because, we need the bridge-building between the biblical world and modern world, And the element of freedom of the Spirit during sermon time. (7) The Holy Spirit makes communication in preaching effective. The Holy Ghost is the most excellent communicator. It is clear that this study has proved that preaching and communication of the gospel are still very important at the beginning of the 21st century. Preachers can learn from Stott and Lloyd-Jones and in that way fulfil their calling: "Preaching is the flower of Christianity!" Item Open AccessDie ontwerp van Skrifgetroue en tyd-ruimtelik relevante eredienste binne die huidige konteks van die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk(University of the Free State, 2001-05) Janse van Rensburg, Johan; Kellerman, J. S.English: The question may be asked whether the church worship meeting could, at the same time, be relevant in regard to its spatial and time frame as well as faithful to Scripture. This question highlights the problemalique of Reformed tradition and the requirements pertinent to the ministry of the Dutch Reformed Church within its present context. Even though Scripture does not contain a blueprint for the worship meeting, there are in fact clear indications in regard to the broader concept of "worship-andservice". From these indications the fundamentally necessary elements may be deduced for the worship meeting, seen as a concrete manifestation of the broader concept of worship-and-service. In the historical investigation five nodal points were identified at which the structuring of the Biblical theology of worship was decisively influenced. During the historical development of the worship meeting certain elements were misunderstood and were structured in an obstructive manner. At some points, however, there was indeed a Scriptural and dynamic actualisation of the fundamental elements of worship. In any event, it was found that the term "Reformed" in itself implies time and spatial relevance of the worship meeting. Emanating from the investigation of Scripture and Reformed tradition the requirement of time and spatial relevance became clear either explicitly or by inference. The time and spatial context of the worship meeting alters because of identifiable variables in a given context. While the fundamentals of the worship meeting must remain unchanged for all time and circumstances, it must also be dynamically relevant for its time-spatial context. Therefore, if the Dutch Reformed Church wants its worship meeting to be true to both Scripture and Reformed tradition, it must also be time and spatially relevant. The present context of the Dutch Reformed Church contains disconcerting and confusing challenges, which must be taken into consideration in the structuring of the worship meeting. The conclusion is inescapable that certain changes must be made in order for the worship meeting to be contextually relevant. In conclusion a number of possible directives are suggested for a Dutch Reformed Church worship meeting, in order to be Scriptural and time-spacially relevant. These directives are included in a model which offers five points of focus or lenses which determine the structuring of the worship meeting. These are • the pre-scientific point of departure • Scriptural theology of worship (redemptive-historical perspective) • reformed tradition • time-spatial context (historical-cultural perspective) and • types of spirituality. Item Open AccessDie ontwerp van 'n terapeutiese model vir die pastorale seksuologie(University of the Free State, 2001-09) Casaleggio, Enrico; Janse van Rensburg, JohanEnglish: Although numerous theological pieces have been written about sexuality, the majority of those cover the ethics of sexuality. The rights and wrongs of issues such as homosexuality, illegitimate relationships and sexual disorders - to mention a few - have been argued in theological writings. Rendering assistance is, however, still fallow land as far as theology is concerned. To a limited degree articles and chapters with the purpose of counseling have been published. A theologically based therapeutic model for pastoral sexology does not exist. The purpose of this thesis is in fact to make a contribution towards adressing the need. The chapters of the thesis form the pieces of a puzzle which eventually culminate to create a complete picture of a therapeutic model for pastoral therapy in the final chapters. This model is termed a phase model, as it takes both pastor and parishioner through certain phases until the sexual problems have been resolved satisfactorily. For the member of the parish, the first phase commences with general aspects which could bring about solutions, ranging from a visit to a physician to adressing conflict or communication problems within the marriage. It then proceeds, from general problems to more specific sexual issues, such as sexual exercises and sexual aids which can be prescribed. Certain phases concern the pastor as well. Although the aim of compiling this model is to assist each pastor to render help to his parishioners as far as he possibly can, the extent to which the pastor will be able to help in solving sexual problems, depends on his training. Each pastor is enabled to support a parishioner through the first phases, while the later phases demand more specialized knowledge about sexuality and sexual problems. The author aims to have pastoral sexology acknowledged as a field of speciality, as a subdivision of pastoral therapy. In this thesis it is pointed out that the therapist's point of departure is decisive for the therapy eventually to be ministered. It is thus illustrated that it is essential that pastoral sexology should have a diaconiological point of departure, with the Bible as basis. Human sciences such as psychology and psychiatry are to be supportive resources as interdisciplinary co-operation is strongly recommended. Human sciences can never be the basis with the Bible merely as support. The therapist's view of anthropology is vital for the practice of sexology. Not only does it indicate whether he views man as image of God or as a developed primate, but is also indicative of aspects vital for solving sexual problems, for instance, the fact that the human being is both a sexual creature and a being of relationships. There is reference to the influence the Platonic philosophy had on the church and its devastating effects on people's perception and understanding of sexuality. Plato made a dualistic distinction between body - where the physical embodies what is sinful - and the spirit, which represents purity. Theological anthropology therefore forms one of the cornerstones for this model for pastoral sexology. Item Open AccessThe common critical success factors determining the mission impact of the local church : an analytical study(University of the Free State, 2001-11) Hancke, Frans Johannes Van Heerden; Verster, P.English: From research referred to in this study it is clear that a growing missions awareness and involvement is developing across the globe. This statement is supported by the recent publication of growth figures in the Christendom. In apparent contrast, church .leaders and Missiologists indicate that a vast number of local churches are not involved in the proclamation of the Gospel in the world. This situation gives birth to the research problem which is addressed by this study: "What are the common critical success factors enabling churches, involved in mission, to mobilise people for the Kingdom of God?" The goals of the study therefore are: o to analyse and identify common critical success factors lil congregations who are effectively involved in mission; o to develop a conceptual model of such factors for the church-on-mission; and, o to identify specific areas for further research, as a follow-up on this exploratory research. The research approach can therefore be described as follows: 1. The founding of the Church's missionary task. Is it Scripturally sound to describe mission as the essential calling of the local church? Can we accept that mission is not just a New Testament phenomenon but that it finds its roots in the whole Scripture? Does the whole Scripture support God's involvement with humankind, or do we find uniquely new attributes of God in the New Testament? Is God exclusively concerned with Israel in the Old Testament? The study accentuates that God's plan of redemption is already made known early during Old Testament times. God calls Abraham in Genesis 12:3 and consistently promises His blessing in order for Abraham to be a blessing unto the riations - through Abraham all the families on the earth were to be blessed. It is indicated that the Great Commission is not a surprising, isolated New Testament phenomenon, but that God is truly the God of the Nations! The whole Scripture testifies about His involvement with His creation. 2. The development of a biblical paradigm for the church-on-mission. With the mission mandate of the local church firmly based on Scripture this study proceeds to develop a biblical paradigm for the church. Various perspectives are reviewed in this process. Charles van Engen's book, God's missionary people - Rethinking the purpose of the local church, is used as essential reference in developing a biblical paradigm for the church-on-mission. A series of other sources are utilised to evaluate Van Engen's views. 3. Empirical research determine the critical success factors in the local church. Five churches were selected and are reviewed in the study. Through qualitative research, supported by quantitative data, the critical factors in these churches are isolated and described. The study concludes by evaluating the empirical research against the created biblical paradigm. Through this evaluation ten critical success factors are integrated in a model supported by the biblical perspective of the missional church. This research re-affirms the essential commission of the Church. It integrates the biblical being and essence of the local church with those factors detectable in churches impacting creation. Eventually, this study should contribute towards the whole Church taking the whole gospel to the whole world. Item Open AccessContextual preaching within the Dutch Reformed Church in Africa(University of the Free State, 2002-05) Kofa, Moeti Johannes; KeIlerman, J. S.English: Summary of contextual preaching within the Dutch Reformed Church in Africa. This research has proved that preaching is very essential. It is not just an oration that a person or preacher can give to listeners. This means it is very dynamic, and it needs the whole commitment when one is preaching. Not everybody can preach. It comes from God to the listeners and it should be Christ centered. God makes use of the preachers to fuifiii and execute His will. The message delivered by the preacher is not his, but belongs to God himself. A preacher is a messenqer, As a messenger should always adhere to what the prophets said when saying, that whatever they say is from God. This means that a preacher who is to deliver the Word of God to the listeners should be a person who has been called to carry out God's message. That category is a category of legitimate messengers of God. They are spiritually driven. They are also guided by the type of training they have received from their theological training institutes. So preaching is not just an easy thing to do, its modus operandi needs some certain knowledgeable information, a commitment and self-determination. The study has revealed that the relevant and effective preaching, as well as the contextual preaching is essential to the lives of today's people, as such preachers should adopt to bring contextual preachinq to the congregations they are going to preach for. Scriptural It is explicit that there is no relevant preaching unless it emanates from the Holy Scripture itself. This means that the Holy Scripture characterizes both the relevant and contextual preaching. To reinforce preaching itself, a preacher should make use of supplimentaries like commentaries, literatures and any other relevant resources. Historical A relevant and contextual preaching is the one that a preacher does not regard him as a founder. This means that a preacher is not an alpha and omega in this regard. This is a continuation that he received from his predecessors. He should acknowledge that thecongregation he is preaching for does not receive the Word of God for the first time. Through the historical background in theology it is clear that some of them have been exposed to the Word of God long ago. Language God created His people in diversity of races and languages. This has been done through His good will. The Word of God should be conveyed to the people in the language they will understand. Due to this reason a preaching will remain a contextual preaching to the listeners. Culture The Word of God was brought to the people of multicultural believes. This means that they have accepted it in collaboration with their different cultures. The diversity of different cultures should not be regarded as detrimental to preaching. Pastoral The training of pastors should be contextual and relevant to the prevailing circumstances of the new South Africa. The pastors should adopt themselves positively with the prevailing situations in which their congregations live. Theological The most important aspect in this regard is that a preaching that is brought to the people should also be educative to those people who are going to receive it as the Word of God. Item Open AccessGeestelike groei as kommunikasieproses tussen die lewensverhaal van 'n gelowige en God se verhaal met die gelowige(University of the Free State, 2002-05) Kleynhans, Daniël Jacobus Bruwer; Kellerman, J. S.English: According to social constructionism, every person has a selfconstructed self-narrative. This self-narrative has power and controls a person’s life. Change is thus impossible without changing the story of one’s life (self-narrative). Because a person’s life before God (spirituality) is part of his self-narrative, it is clear that spiritual growth cannot take place without changing the story of his life. Research aims to make the principles used in social constructionism to bring about deconstruction in the self-narratives of people, available to the church with the aim of spiritual growth. Research also aims to free the christian disciplines, which as seen from a certain perspective as the keys to change, on one hand from one-sidedness (partiality), and on the other hand to reconcile with the principles of deconstruction of the social constructionism. In the process the researcher emphasizes the power of communication between God’s story (the Bible) and the self-narrative of a believer as the key to spiritual growth (deconstruction). Item Open AccessGesinsbediening as 'n geïntegreerde deel van die opbou van die gemeente(University of the Free State, 2002-05) Bergh, Stephanus Jacobus; Kellerman, J. S.English: The congregation of the Lord Jesus must be raised to spiritual maturity. The rationale of this study is that building-up the congregation, amongst others, is possible when families are being built up. Ministering to families is therefore an integral part of the total building-up process of the congregation - a ministering to, by and for families. It is, however, necessary that ministering to families in the congregation should take place on a continuous and consistent basis. The covenant and predestination were taken as base-theory and premise of this study. The covenant, of God's own devising, are carried by and within families through to generation after generation. The predestination in Christ, set as basis to the covenant, are therefore also realised in and through the covenant. A further premise is that the ministering to families and the resultant building-up of congregations must be directed towards the Kingdom of God. From this theological base the building-up of congregations was discussed. Particular attention was also given to the way that God, through His Spirit, involve the faithful and the families of the covenant, as contributors to the building-up of the congregation. Genesis 1 - 3 in particular illuminated the Scriptural basis for marriage and families. Marriage is an indivisible part of the family; therefore marriage and marital-relationships, as well as other forms of relationship, such as co-habitation, were also discussed. However in this study, the searchlight is focused firmly on the family. The structuring of families, and the development of various family structures, such as the nucleus family, were historically sketched up until the present, our own time, which is typified as post modernistic. The present state of the family and the sense of the concept of what family means was also discussed. The internal workings of the family as well as family problematic issues were appeared in the discussed themes, which included intimacy, the I-generation, prestige, gender roles, conflicts, divorce, remarriage etc. The family as a social unit as well as a system were dealt with and this concept opened up certain other perspectives. In the discussion it was clearly indicated that families have their own stories and spirituality. This illuminated some aspects of the concept of family unity and it's functioning in order for families to reach understanding of this themselves. The themes dealing with the value and function of the family clearly illustrated the importance of the family in society. A theological definition for ministering to families could therefore be formulated - a most important facet of this study. Regarding the theme of the study-subject it was important to indicate the relationship between the building-up of the congregation and the ministering to families. Eleven issues were discussed. The empirical study regarding ministering to families done in the Western Transvaal amongst ministers, were discussed and valuable results about the state of family ministering was gathered. As a result, with reference to the total study, a practical theory for family ministering could be formulated and a method of how it can be implemented in the congregations was proposed. This discussion was held with the viewpoint that family ministering has a pro-active, active and reactive focus. The discussion was ended with ten assessments and ten recommendations made. Item Open Access'n Prakties-teologiese basisteorie vir gemeente-analise(University of the Free State, 2002-06) Schoeman, Willem Jacobus; Kellerman, J. S.; Janse van Rensburg, J.English: Looking at a congregation from a practical-theological viewpoint, the congregational building process plays an important part. Planning of the ministry is implemented as a method of stimulating the process of change in the congregation and setting a course for it. Although it is possible to approach the growth and development of a congregation from various angles, one of the primary questions to be asked will always be the importance and nature of the analysis of the current situation of the congregation. The essentiality of an effective and accountable analysis of the congregation, as a stimulus for purposeful growth of the congregation, therefore speaks for itself. By using the problem-setting as a point of departure, a theory is developed for a congregational analysis. The process for the development of this theory lies on the three levels set out below. 1. The orientation points describe the supposition used as the basic point of departure in a congregational analysis. A hermeneutic model is used as practical theological point of departure, which means that Word and context stand in asymmetrical relation; the covenant between God and human being leads to specific structures of service in the congregation; and there is supposed to be a critical assumption between Word and context. The congregation is scrutinised both as defined and empirical subject. The building of a congregation is a process, which assists a congregation in giving structure (form-giving) - from its identity within its service structures - to its being a congregation; so that the congregation finally reaches its goal. 2. The fundamental points of departure indicates the principles which are handled when a congregation is scrutinised. The identity of the congregation lies on the level of an exclusive covenant relationship with the Holy Trinity; a reformed congregation offering the Word of God and the sacraments in pure form; a congregation bound to the denomination by keeping it amongst themselves; and a congregation who uses the four characteristics of the church (unity, holiness, universality and apostolicity) as guidelines for their work. The purpose of the congregation belongs to the nature of the congregation and this is not negotiable; a healed world of which the congregation is a witness in word and deed. The four service areas integrate the total ministry of the congregation. Leitourgia - worship; Kerugma - preaching; Koinonia - love and acceptance; and Diakonia - to be of service to others. The concrete congregation can only be understood by looking at the Identity, purpose and service structures of the congregation. The spirituality of the congregation results in the congregation getting a concrete structure at a specific place, time, and in a specific way by giving the four service areas their set places. The congregation and its members are formed by the context and should be of service within the South African community. 3. The methodological suppositions indicate the way in which the procedures are followed in implementing an analysis of a congregation. A congregational analysis should comply with the following methodological requirements: Reliability, validity, and generalisation. In carrying out an analysis of a congregation,qualitative, quantitative or narrative methods may be used. Congregational analysis is a research method in its own right and it forms a part of the bigger process of building a congregation. This process is never completed. Item Open AccessLeadership in African context: a missiological approach(University of the Free State, 2002-06) Afeke, Bright; Verster, PieterEnglish: Good leadership is of utmost importance for the people of Africa and the political future of the continent. In the African context it is clear that important new directives for sound leadership is needed. From the missiological perspective an overview of leadership and biblical guidelines are given. In chapter one an outline of the context, scope and purpose of the thesis is given In chapter two leadership is defined in the secular literature and given theories on leadership is discussed. In chapter three a biblical overview of leadership is put forward. The Old Testament’s view of king, prophet and priest is discussed. According to the New Testament Jesus replied to the environmental problems of his time and age. Jesus himself was a shepherd of his people, servant and steward. Paul’s views are also discussed. In chapter four the context of Africa is reviewed. Africa is a continent with as terrible past and important aspects of the pre-colonial and colonial rule is discussed. However, the problems of Africa are not only as a result of its colonial past. Leadership is often lacking and dictators and military leaders often bring about disaster to their people. In chapter five the socio-economic an political stance of the church is discussed. The church has an important role to play in Africa to help the continent on a new way. In chapter six the churches’ involvement in Africa’s revolution is defined and discussed. The church must influence the leadership of Africa. The way in which the worldview must be influenced is also important. Chapter seven ends of with a short evaluation. Item Open AccessPastoraat aan adolessente wat by okkultiese subkulture betrokke is - 'n pastoraal terapeutiese benadering(University of the Free State, 2003) Cilliers, Johannes Hendrik Jordaan; Janse van Rensburg, J.; Groenewald, D. C.English: Pastoral therapy is placed within the context of post modernity. Pastoral therapy for occult troubled adolescents can take place only if the Bible is the point of departure. The implication of this is that the therapeutic model is structured within a diaconiological epistemology. This implies a critical stance towards Practical Theology as well as postmodern epistemological therapies. It also means that the use of certain therapeutic strategies must comply with the diaconiological epistemology as point of departure. Pastoral theology must never become secular. The postmodern critique on modernism is plausible but the negative influence of the New Age movement on postmodernism must be emphasized. Qualified postmodernism is however, maintained. The pastoral therapy may use postmodern strategies without accepting assumptions such as relativism. The epistemology of the diaconiological approach, with the Bible as point of departure, is accepted rather than Practical Theology. For this reason the poimenetic models and postmodern epistemologies may be used for pastoral therapy provided the reformed aspects of Biblical truth, covenant orientation and redemption occupy center stage. The research methodology has looked at the pastoral therapy of occult troubled adolescents by means of a reformed dogma. The semantic clarification assists the therapist to eliminate misunderstandings regarding problems in the field of occult related phenomena. It is necessary for the therapist to establish the nature of his or her client's involvement in occultism. Clients may sometimes feel bound because of a certain psychopathological problem. The pastoral therapist has the responsibility to discern these symptoms from occult manifestations by means of a process of elimination. Therefore the therapeutic process may have a different approach. It won't help using conventional pastoral strategies. Rather a pastoral process of proclaiming the Gospel message in conjunction with a ministry of deliverance must be undertaken when symptoms of occult manifestations are diagnosed. If drug abuse is prevalent in the client, he or she needs to be rehabilitated while the therapist is included in the multi-professional team. The therapist must take note of the scope of adolescence as well as the pastoral therapeutic markers for adolescent personality and behaviour. The therapist must acquire a working knowledge of delinquency, peer groups and subcultures. The elements of an occult subculture have been distinguished. In the phenomenological study reasons for involvement with occult subcultures have been established. In general the findings of the media search had the same correlation with the findings of the phenomenological study. Mention was made of cases where the pastoral intervention had no success. The profiles of adolescents who can be helped involve those who commit themselves to both a spiritual growth programme and pastoral therapy. The multi-professional approach is part of this commitment. The insights of the semantic discussion and both the nature of adolescence and subcultures as well as the research results of the empirical study, pastoral therapy may use the theoretical results in the basis theory to minister to the occult troubled adolescent. In the use of the poimenetic principles the therapist must take particular note of psychopathology and anxiety disorders. Especially post-traumatic stress disorder is to be highlighted. Therefore the pastoral therapeutic intervention towards occult troubled adolescents needs to incorporate trauma counselling. The guidelines for therapists concerning survivors of sexual abuse must be incorporated within the pastoral therapeutic framework. In conclusion the pastoral process must be highlighted for adolescents who were trafficking in occult subcultures. Item Open AccessDie verkondiging van die Evangelie van Christus aan Suid-Afrikaanse Moslems: 'n gemeentegebaseerde model(University of the Free State, 2003-05) Scheepers, Phillip Johan; Kellerman, J. S.; Verster, P.English: The aim of this study is the establishment, for outreach amongst South African Muslims, of a model which recognizes and utilizes the presence of local Christian churches. Insights from both Practical Theology and Missiology are being considered. The study is divided into three main parts, namely a) foundation b) context and c) strategy. The following issues are discussed under these headings: Foundation: It was the intention of the researcher to avoid the pitfall of formulating a strategy on purely pragmatic grounds through the laying of a solid Biblical and Theological basis. This is done through focussing on: a) A theological discussion of the calling of the Church to reach out to those who have not yet responded to the Christian Gospel. b) An analysis of the relationship between the Gospel and Culture with a specific emphasis on outreach amongst South African Muslims. The conclusion is reached that the establishment of mono-cultural congregations should not be part of the outreach strategy, and that everything possible should be done to ensure that the Gospel is communicated in culturally understandable ways. c) The issue of the relationship between different faiths is discussed using three basic approaches namely pluralism, inclusivism and particularism. A particularist approach wherein the uniqueness of the Christian message is maintained, is chosen as the basis of this study. It is emphasized that it is the calling and task of every believer and congregation to proclaim the Gospel in an unbelieving world. Context: In this part of the study the ‘environment’ in which outreach to South African Muslims will occur, is researched. The following issues are discussed: a) The main theological differences between Islam and Christianity as well as an historical overview of the relations between adherents of the two faiths. b) The Muslim community in South Africa is analysed. Specific attention is paid to its history, organisation and priorities. Differences within the community are also discussed. c) Interaction between South African Christians and Muslims is discussed with a specific focus on the relationship between the communities, their perceptions of each other, efforts at Christian outreach and the impact of conversion. Strategy: In this section an attempt is made to formulate a model for Christian outreach amongst South African Muslims based in local churches. It is divided into two main parts. They are: a) A section focusing on outreach among Muslims and b) A section focusing on the pastoral care of those who accepted the Christian faith from an Islamic background. In the first sections suggestions are made for both corporate and individual outreach. Emphasis is laid on the fact that Muslims should be approached with gentleness and respect, and that every effort should be made to introduce them to the message of the Christian Gospel in a culturally understandable way. In the section focusing on the care of Christian believers from an Islamic background the issues that can make the integration of new Christians from a Muslim background, into the church difficult, are highlighted. In response to this, a fivefold model (which entails proclamation and teaching, worship, service, community and encouragement) for the care of converts is suggested. The researcher is convinced that a practical and workable model for outreach among South African Muslims is presented in this study. Item Open AccessThe spirituality of a preacher in African context : reflections from the life and ministry of the apostle Paul(University of the Free State, 2003-06) Keta, Tsotetsi David; Kellerman, J. S.; Van Zyl, H. C.English: The subject spirituality is very popular in these days. There are different ways in which people try to give a definition to it. Some people see it as a personal feeling in his inner-most, which we consider as too narrow. Other scholars see it as something pertaining to a particular way of life, which is too one-sided. In this study we try to show how the subject spirituality is comprehensive and embraces the whole life of a person before God. In the history of the church we encounter moments when certain teachings were held so high as if that would constitute the whole teaching of the Bible. The rescue from this pitfall was brought about by the Reformation of the sixteenth century when people returned to the Bible. A scramble to Africa came also with the spread of Christianity. The carriers of the message were not all people of the same stock and also their motives were not the same - there were gospel missionaries, travellers, traders and also imperialists. Amidst all these competing streams there was a not so clear understanding of the cultures of the nationals with the result that there appeared to be tension between culture and Christianity. This study highlights some of these cultural aspects in order to enlighten the church so that it will devise ways of bringing the gospel holistically. African spirituality needs be informed of reformation spirituality as entailed in both Testaments of Scripture. In this study the ministry of the apostle Paul is taken as a case study for both the preacher and his flock, especially Philippians. Suggestions are given to the preacher as to how he can enhance his ministry. Item Open AccessThe characterisation of Pontius Pilate in the four gospels(University of the Free State, 2003-09) Nthuping, Michael; Tolmie, D. F.English: The absence of a consistent narratological analysis of Pontius Pilate may be indicated as a gap in the research on this interesting figure. The aim of this study is to rectify this by presenting a detailed study of the portrayal of Pontius Pilate in terms of a narratological approach, in particular in terms of a narratological approach to characterisation in texts.This is achieved by means of a detailed narratological analysis of the characterisation of Pontius Pilate in each of the Four Gospels. The results are as follow. In the Gospel according to Mark Pilate is portrayed as a flat character since only a few traits are revealed. His character does not show any development and relatively little of his inner life is revealed. In terms of the plot of the Gospel Pilate is portrayed as having two objectives: first he tries to see that justice prevails, but in the end he is forced to replace this objective by another one, namely that of pleasing the people, thus knowing that justice does not prevail. He is also portrayed throughout as reacting to events as they unfold instead of taking the initiative. The narrator characterises Pilate as a flat character and therefore only a few traits are revealed to the implied reader, namely "attempting to be just", "weak >> wanting to please people", "unable to understand Jesus", "shrewd", and "thorough". Of these, the first two are the most important to such an extent that it can be said that the characterisation of Pilate in the Gospel according to Mark is dominated by the conflict between these two traits. In the Gospel according to Matthew, Pilate is portrayed as being somewhere between a flat and a round character since a relatively large number of traits are revealed. His character does not show any development and relatively little is revealed of his inner life. In terms of the plot of the Gospel Pilate is portrayed as having two objectives: first, he tries to see that justice prevails, but in the end he is forced to replace this objective by another one, namely that of (unsuccessfully!) trying to convince the crowd that he is innocent of Jesus' blood. Pilate is also portrayed throughout as unwillingly doing something he is forced to do and shows more resistance than the Pilate of the Gospel according to Mark. In terms of the traits associated with this character the following four dominate: "attempting to be just", "unwilling to act as God wants him to", "weak >> succumb to pressure", and "trying to shift the blame". The implied reader thus has a very negative picture of Pilate. In the Gospel according to Luke, Pilate is portrayed as somewhere between a flat and a round character since a relatively large number of traits are revealed. His character shows some development, as he develops from an enemy of Herod to a friend of Herod. Almost nothing is revealed of his inner life: his inner thoughts are revealed only once when the narrator tells that he wants to release Jesus. In terms of the plot of the Gospel Pilate is portrayed as having three objectives: first, he tries to see that justice prevails. This is followed by the second objective, namely getting out of the situation by sending Jesus to Herod. Lastly, he attempts to convince the crowd of Jesus' innocence. With regard to the traits associated with Pilate in the Gospel according to Luke, a number of these were identified, namely "authority", "cruelty", "shrewd", "attempting to be just", "witness to Jesus' innocence", "weak", and "enemy of Herod >> friend of Herod". The narrator portrays Pilate in such a way that only one trait dominates his characterisation, namely "witness to Jesus' innocence". In the Gospel according to John, Pilate can be described as being somewhere between a flat and a round character since a relatively large number of traits are revealed. His character shows no development and almost nothing is revealed of his inner life: his inner thoughts are revealed only once when the narrator tells that he became more afraid than ever. In terms of the plot of the Gospel Pilate is portrayed as having three objectives: first, he tries to see that justice prevails. In doing so, his objective shifts to something new, namely that of determining the identity of Jesus. However, he fails in this objective, as he is unable to grasp the real nature of Jesus' kingship. In the end both objectives (seeing that justice prevails, and determining the identity of Jesus) give way to a final objective, namely being a friend of the emperor. The only way in which Pilate could reach this objective was by failing to reach the other two objectives. A fairly large number of traits are associated with this character in the Gospel according to John. Two of these traits dominate, namely "unable to understand the identity of Jesus" and "powerful <> afraid of Jesus". The characterisation of Pilate fits a general pattern in the gospel in that it shows a negative reaction to the identity of Jesus: although Pilate is shrewd and attempts to be just, he is unable to understand the identity of Jesus. It should also be pointed out that the narrator succeeds in creating a fairly complex picture of Pilate by revealing some interesting traits not found in the other Gospels, namely "respecting the religious feelings of the Jews", "irritable", "cynical" and "wilful". Item Open AccessSkrif en kerkorde: enkele konstantes vanuit 'n veelkantige beeld(University of the Free State, 2003-09) Celliers, Albertus; Strauss, P. J.; Tolmie, D. F.English: The viewpoint for this dissertation is that God still speaks through His Word and Spirit to His church about the latter's fundamental nature and order. From this it can be concluded that the church is continuously being called to listen to the Word so that. under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. it can remain church in and for it's time, as God intended it to be. In the first section of the dissertation it is clear that the Word shows a unique, complex multifaceted image of the church. At times, it even shows contradictory views. and in many instances demonstrates a reflection of the demands of circumstances. It also reflects something about the dynamic way in which the Lord enables His church to be church in its particular circumstances. In the second section of the dissertation. the constants which appear the most in the corpusses. are taken collectively to form the outlines of the nature and order of the church. It goes without saying that these issues are restricted to what is important for the functioning of the church. It became clear that the church originates from God. in that His Spirit. within the framework of the covenant. ties individuals to Him in faith, on the grounds of the atonement work of Jesus Christ, thus including them in His church. These . individuals are tied together in Christ and cannot function without one another. The church is thus by nature a corporate unit. whether universally as the new Israel. or in its more visible state as a local congregation. Furthermore. because of its origin. the church exists as a seperate group of people in the world with the responsibility to hold fast to the gospel of Jesus Christ. and thus to be equipped to be God's witnesses in the world. As far as the organizational aspects are concerned. it is clear that the church is both in her universal and local state, an integrated entity. In this regard. it is important to realize that Jesus Christ himselfis the structure of the church. and see at the same time to it that it is being served in an orderly fashion. Within the scope of this structure. every member has a Godgiven clerical responsibility. At the same time. existing ministeries form. together with the Spirit. the skeleton that makes the congregation a dynamic. motivated body on the move. These specific ministeries are charismatic in origin. function non-hierarchial in . the congregation and have the responsibility to instruct the congregation in especially the teaching of the gospel. The reason for this is to enable, the congregation to adhere to its calling for obedience, love. and witness, and that the church's particular existence can be maintained. In all of this there is a definite openness for change depending on the demands of circumstances. In the third section specific implications for church order were highligted from the constants, which should be addressed in one way or another in all church order to avoid pragmatism and arbitrariness on the one hand. and to create space on the other hand for diversity of the demands oflocal circumstances. In the course of the dissertation, reference is made to both the traditional Reformed church order as it manifests itself in the Dutch Reformed Church. and some newer models which have come to the fore in the place of the traditional order. It became clear in the discussion that both sides show partiality. Although the demands of circumstances contributed to this. it is especially the new models that are standing on wavering Scriptual truths. Item Open AccessPastorale terapie met die MIV/VIGS geaffekteerde familie: 'n narratiewe benadering(University of the Free State, 2003-11) Bothma, Jan Daniel; Janse van Rensburg, JohanEnglish: HIV/AIDS has become an increasing concern, especially in South Africa. Recent statistics have revealed no significant decrease in the number of HIV/AIDS-infected individuals – this, in spite of numerous campaigns aiming to increase awareness and stop the virus from spreading. Aside from having an enormous impact on a country’s economy and population structures, HIV/AIDS also has a great influence on an infected person’s identity as well as on his friends and family. Although a number of pastoral methods of therapy already exist, certain theological components have been irreversibly radicalized by HIV/AIDS. Subsequently, a need has developed for a suitable pastoral method of therapy, concerning the HIV/AIDS-affected family. The narrative method is one that combines all the positive aspects already present in existing pastoral methods. When applied in conjunction with qualitative research, it is the method most suited to use for the purpose of this particular study. The nature of qualitative research is descriptive, exploratory, it examines complex manifestations situated deep within our social realities and it also enables the researcher to conduct his study in a participating manner. By taking basic theoretical perspectives on pastoral therapy into consideration, an attempt is made to set up alternative guidelines, by which to approach this specific problem situation. The extent to which HIV/AIDS disrupts the emotional atmosphere of the family, can clearly be observed in the obvious withdrawal in the behavior of especially the toddler, but also in those of the remaining members of this family (consisting of the parents and a toddler). By following the guidelines of the narrative approach, each family member, traumatized by the gripping influence of HIV/AIDS, is given the chance to express his/her experience (this is done in a reflective and meaningful way). Through these reflective conversations, the aim of this study is achieved as these (revealing) descriptions of each member’s experiences are shared among the participants, creating an atmosphere of acceptance – and ultimately restoring brittle relationships within the family. Within the pastoral encounter (a metaphorical encounter with God) a radical transformation takes place in every family member’s heart. This transformation is brought to pass by the Holy Ghost, which continuously influences, renews and supports our human spirit. Accordingly, the roles fulfilled by the parents also undergo significant change: Where (at first) survival is seen as the main priority, transformed attitudes gain the insight to realize that group work between the parents and the toddler is in truth, of much greater importance. Take note that the purpose of this study is not to prove anything; neither to examine the causes and/or consequences of HIV/AIDS, but rather to provide traumatized family members with an adequate chance to explain their experiences. Afterwards, (and based on a theoretical and theological background knowledge) these experiences are thoroughly reflected upon. The research group as a whole undergoes spiritual and emotional growth and thus the aim of practical theology (to bring about a transformation in conjunction with the Gospel) is reached – by means of the narrative method. By finally examining expressive results of the study, a suitable approach to pastoral therapy is revealed through which to bring about such a transformation in the lives of Christians from all culture groups. This specific approach has the necessary ability to counteract the crumbling process in traumatized families and bring forth a complete renewal in the family as a whole.