Die ontwerp van 'n terapeutiese model vir die pastorale seksuologie

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Casaleggio, Enrico
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University of the Free State
English: Although numerous theological pieces have been written about sexuality, the majority of those cover the ethics of sexuality. The rights and wrongs of issues such as homosexuality, illegitimate relationships and sexual disorders - to mention a few - have been argued in theological writings. Rendering assistance is, however, still fallow land as far as theology is concerned. To a limited degree articles and chapters with the purpose of counseling have been published. A theologically based therapeutic model for pastoral sexology does not exist. The purpose of this thesis is in fact to make a contribution towards adressing the need. The chapters of the thesis form the pieces of a puzzle which eventually culminate to create a complete picture of a therapeutic model for pastoral therapy in the final chapters. This model is termed a phase model, as it takes both pastor and parishioner through certain phases until the sexual problems have been resolved satisfactorily. For the member of the parish, the first phase commences with general aspects which could bring about solutions, ranging from a visit to a physician to adressing conflict or communication problems within the marriage. It then proceeds, from general problems to more specific sexual issues, such as sexual exercises and sexual aids which can be prescribed. Certain phases concern the pastor as well. Although the aim of compiling this model is to assist each pastor to render help to his parishioners as far as he possibly can, the extent to which the pastor will be able to help in solving sexual problems, depends on his training. Each pastor is enabled to support a parishioner through the first phases, while the later phases demand more specialized knowledge about sexuality and sexual problems. The author aims to have pastoral sexology acknowledged as a field of speciality, as a subdivision of pastoral therapy. In this thesis it is pointed out that the therapist's point of departure is decisive for the therapy eventually to be ministered. It is thus illustrated that it is essential that pastoral sexology should have a diaconiological point of departure, with the Bible as basis. Human sciences such as psychology and psychiatry are to be supportive resources as interdisciplinary co-operation is strongly recommended. Human sciences can never be the basis with the Bible merely as support. The therapist's view of anthropology is vital for the practice of sexology. Not only does it indicate whether he views man as image of God or as a developed primate, but is also indicative of aspects vital for solving sexual problems, for instance, the fact that the human being is both a sexual creature and a being of relationships. There is reference to the influence the Platonic philosophy had on the church and its devastating effects on people's perception and understanding of sexuality. Plato made a dualistic distinction between body - where the physical embodies what is sinful - and the spirit, which represents purity. Theological anthropology therefore forms one of the cornerstones for this model for pastoral sexology.
Afrikaans: Hoewel daar in die teologie baie oor seksualiteit geskryf is, handel die meeste daarvan oor die etiese aspekte van seksualiteit. Die reg en verkeerd van sake soos homoseksualiteit, buite egtelike verhoudings en seksuele afwykings - om maar enkeles te noem - kom onder die loep in teologiese geskrifte. Wat hulpverlening betref, is daar egter nog 'n braakveld in die teologie. Daar het wel in 'n beperkte mate artikels en hoofstukke in publikasies verskyn vanuit die teologie met hulpverlening in die oog. Daar bestaan egter geen terapeutiese model in die teologie vir 'n pastorale seksuologie nie. Die doel van hierdie proefskrif is juis om daardie leemte te help vul. Die hoofstukke van die proefskrif kan gesien word as die stukke van 'n legkaart wat uiteindelik kulmineer in die laaste hoofstuk waar die stukke van die legkaart inmekaar gepas word om die geheelprentjie, of te wel die terapeutiese model vir die pastorale terapie te vorm. Die model word 'n fase-model genoem, omdat dit vir sowel die lidmaat as die pastor deur sekere fases neem totdat die seksuele probleme bevredigend opgelos is. Wat die lidmaat betref begin die fase met algemene sake wat tot die oplossing van die seksuele probleme kan lei, soos die besoek aan 'n medikus en die oplossing van konfliksituasies en kommunikasieprobleme in die huwelik. Dit vorder dan van algemene sake na meer spesifieke seksuele sake soos seksuele oefeninge en seksuele hulpmiddels wat voorgeskryf kan word. Vir die pastor is daar ook sekere fases ter sprake. Hoewel hierdie model in die oog het om elke pastor te help om lidmate so ver moontlik te help met hulle seksuele probleme, sal die mate waartoe elke pastor 'n lidmaat kan help bepaal word deur sy opleiding. So sal elke pastor by vermoê wees om 'n lidmaat by te staan in die eerste fases, terwyl die latere fases meer gespesialiseerde kennis oor seksualiteit en seksuele problematiek vereis. Die outeur betoog dat pastorale seksuologie as 'n spesialisasieveld in die teologie, as onderafdeling van die pastorale terapie, erken moetword. In die proefskrif word uitgewys dat die vertrekpunt van die terapeut bepalend is vir die terapie wat hy uiteindelik sal bedien. Daar word in hierdie verband gewys daarop dat die pastorale seksuologie nie anders kan as om 'n diakoniologiese vertrekpunt te hê nie, waar die Bybel as uitgangspunt dien en die menswetenskappe soos die sielkunde en psigiatrie aanvullend gebruik word. Interdissiplinêre samewerking word sterk aanbeveel. Die menswetenskappe kan egter nooit die vertrekpunt word, terwyl die Bybel net as 'n aanvulling daarvoor gebruik word nie. Die terapeut se mensbeskouing is van kardinale belang vir die seksuologie. Dit bepaal nie net of die terapeut die mens as beeld van God beskou of as 'n ontwikkelde primaat nie, maar ander sake van belang vir die oplossing van seksuele probleme, soos die feit dat die mens 'n verhoudingswese en geslagtelike wese is, kom ook ter sprake. Daar word uitgewys hoe die Platoniese denke, waar daar 'n dualisme tussen liggaam en gees gemaak is, en waar die liggaam die sondige verteenwoordig en die gees die edele verteenwoordig, ook in die kerk neerslag gevind het met rampspoedige gevolge vir die mens se verstaan van seksualiteit. Die teologiese antropologie is dan ook een van die fondamentstene van die terapeutiese model vir die pastorale seksuologie.
Theology, Sexology, Anthropology, Pastoral therapy, Sexuality, Sexual dysfunction, Diaconiological, Pastoral sexology, Phase model, Marriage, Pastoral counseling, Sex -- Religious aspects -- Christianity, Thesis (D.Th. (Practical Theology))--University of the Free State, 2001