Item Open AccessSignposting the inferencing route: a relevance theoretic analysis of intertextuality and metaphors in print advertisements(University of the Free State, 2013) Conradie, MarthinusEnglish: This article reports an analysis of the manner in which copywriters use direct and indirect product claims to guide consumers’ interpretations of metaphors in print advertisements. The analysis utilises a relevance theoretic framework, and the results are illustrated by means of a qualitative analysis of four case studies, taken from a larger sample of 120 print advertisements. The first stage of the analysis employs the concept ‘intertextuality’ to study the manner in which advertising texts construct the intertext as the source of a metaphor, with the advertised product as the target. In the second stage, a relevance theoretic framework is used to investigate the role that direct and indirect claims play in guiding consumers’ interpretations of the product claims inherent in these metaphors. To achieve the latter aim, Simpson’s (2001) ‘reason’ and ‘tickle’ constructs are used. Item Open AccessTonality and texture in Arnold van Wyk’s Vier weemoedige liedjies: musical, poetic and personal considerations(University of the Free State, 2013) Viljoen, Nicol; Drennan, IanEnglish: The four poems as set in Arnold van Wyk’s (1916-1983) Vier weemoedige liedjies (Four sad little songs [1934, published 1949]) present a continuum of consciousness that explores various aspects of a sense of loss shared by the poets and echoed by the composer; whether on a cultural or personal level, the underlying motive that inspires their creative impulse is one of engagement reaching out to the unattainable. Van Wyk’s unique portrayal of melancholy in these songs is the result of a remarkable interaction of tonal and textural elements that give sensitive expression to the content of the carefully selected poetic texts. Through this interaction, the nature of van Wyk’s tonal language, albeit in an early stage of development in this instance, can already be determined, pointing to very specific ways of fusing together elements of structure and expression. Particularly notable are the ways in which tonality and texture are used in the immediate sense to capture the mood of the poems of these songs. On a more profound level, these elements bring forth deeper dimensions of meaning both with regard to the content of the poems and Van Wyk’s personal life experiences. Item Open AccessReifying things or relations: substantialism versus functionalism(University of the Free State, 2013) Strauss, DanieEnglish: Our awareness of a diversity of things as well as a multiplicity of relationships took shape in the history of philosophy and the various academic disciplines, embodied in a constant struggle between allegedly independent substances or encompassing relations. Viewing entities as independent (self-sufficient) substances dominated Greek and Medieval philosophy. Since the Renaissance, a definite shift towards the primacy of relations has taken place. Kant claims that our knowledge about matter is limited to knowledge about relationships. Entities are not independent substances, because through the universal modal aspects in which they function they are related, as embodied in the wave-particle duality. Item Open AccessPerceptions of bonus incentive schemes at a major South African private bank(University of the Free State, 2013) Coetzee, JohanEnglish: Private bankers are scarce and the type of bonus incentive scheme banks use to attract and retain them plays a vital role in ensuring that they are motivated to perform in accordance with the outputs expected from them. This study assesses the perceptions of private bankers at a major South African private bank of their current discretionary bonus scheme and of the alternative mechanistic approach. The results indicate that they are dissatisfied with their current scheme and prefer one that incorporates many, if not all, aspects of a mechanistic approach. The subjectivity of management and an unclear ‘line-of-sight’ were common reasons provided by the private bankers. This study is the first of its kind to focus on the perceptions of private bankers regarding their bonus incentive schemes in the South African context. Item Open AccessWordless picture books in parent-child reading in a South African context(University of the Free State, 2013) Le Roux, Aldrie; Costandius, ElmarieEnglish: This article is the result of an exploratory study into the feasibility of the use of wordless picture books with the aim of developing a culture and love of reading within the South African context, as approached from the viewpoint of an illustrator. The characteristics of wordless picture books serve as motivating factors towards developing positive attitudes towards books in general. A semiotic and narratological framework illustrates their relevance within South Africa. An empirical study endeavours to gain better understanding of how these books would function in joint reading by a child and a parent/primary caregiver Item Open AccessEngaging with the literature in postgraduate research(University of the Free State, 2013) Botha, NonnieEnglish: Although supervisors provide relevant guidance, many postgraduate students find it difficult to make sense of the roles and functions of the literature in the various phases of their research work. This article describes how the problem presented itself in a masters class, the typical route students followed to address the problem, the inadequacy of this route and, finally, linking this type of learning to the theory on transformative learning as developed by Mezirow and furthered by Berger. This culminated in a framework which could enhance transformative learning and the development of the research and dissertation. Item Open AccessHIV and AIDS policy implementation: the case of a major South African hotel group(University of the Free State, 2013) Kokt, Deseré; Van der Berg, ChristineEnglish: HIV and AIDS have a disrupting impact on all businesses by increasing costs and decreasing productivity. This applies, in particular, to South Africa, a country faced with extremely high HIV and AIDS infection rates which, in turn, are exacerbated by social and economic inequalities and poverty. Service-intensive industries such as the hospitality industry are more likely to be directly affected by the effects of HIV and AIDS, as their employees are expected to work long and strenuous hours. This study confirms that the effective implementation of HIV and AIDS policies could mitigate the detrimental effects of the disease in the hospitality industry, and presents the empirical findings of a study conducted at a major South African hotel group. Item Open AccessThe relationship between marital status and life satisfaction among South African adults(University of the Free State, 2013) Botha, Ferdi; Booysen, FrikkieEnglish: This article examines the association between marital status and reported life satisfaction in South Africa. Using the 2008 National Income Dynamics Survey, the relationship between marital status and life satisfaction is heterogeneous. In the overall sample, life satisfaction is significantly higher for married compared to widowed individuals, while the former are more satisfied than those from all other marital statuses. In the overall and female samples, married people are more satisfied compared to those from all other marital status groups. Married men are not significantly more satisfied than men from other marital statuses as a whole. Marriage is positively associated with life satisfaction among women, but not among men. Item Open AccessPsychological resources as predictors of academic performance of first-year students in higher education(University of the Free State, 2013) Kotzé, Martina; Niemann, RitaEnglish: This article aims to determine whether psychological resources (hope, optimism and resilience) can be potential predictors of academic performance. A cross-sectional survey design was used and the sample consisted of 789 first-year students in Industrial Psychology. The measuring instruments included the State Hope Scale (SHS), the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), and the Adult Resilience Indicator (ARI). The results of the simple multiple regression analysis showed that state hope, and specifically pathways, and three dimensions of resilience were statistically significantly related to academic performance, whereas optimism was not a statistically significant predictor of academic performance Item Open AccessTracing some consensus regarding pre-scientific frameworks in philosophy of science(University of the Free State, 2013) Loubser, AnankaEnglish: The wide and sophisticated terminology of contemporary philosophy of science seemingly points toward a multitude of different pre-scientific frameworks (for example, worldviews, philosophy) directing our scientific investigations. This study, however, illustrates forms of consensus between the views of various prominent twentieth-century philosophers of science on the characteristics and functions of pre-scientific frameworks in scientific activity. It specifically highlights various helpful insights offered by reformational philosophy as its point of departure. This study finds that, on the pre-scientific level, fundamental motives and worldviews are usually recognised as pre-theoretical frameworks – with specific characteristics and functions – influencing scientific investigation. Reformational notions such as ‘ground motive’ and certain definitions of ‘worldview’ that did not originate in the context of ‘philosophy of science’ are introduced with a two-fold purpose: to establish a fruitful dialogue between reformational philosophers and more recognised philosophers of science, as well as to better equip us to trace what their views have in common.