Item Open AccessDie dissiplinêre samestelling en geledinge van leerinhoude in menslike bewegingskunde(University of the Free State, 2002) Coetzee, NicoEnglish: For decades the teaching of human movement studies (previously physical education) at universities has been the subject of debate. Various adjustments are currently being made in respect of subject content, names of departments, and their allocation to certain faculties. In this study, a critical analysis was performed in order to determine which component(s) of the subject content have remained constant over the years. Next, the international situation was considered, followed by a sharper focus on the RSA, to determine the current state of affairs regarding the subject content of human movement studies and its place in the contemporary university context. In conclusion a possible guideline for the future positioning of human movement studies at universities is provided. Item Open AccessImplementing inclusive education in South Africa: teachers’ attitudes and experiences(University of the Free State, 2002) Swart, Estelle; Engelbrecht, Petra; Eloff, Irma; Pettipher, RaineEnglish: The central argument is that the creation of inclusive schools will require more than merely the implementation of new policies. Practising teachers are the key to the successful implementation of an inclusive system and they will need time, ongoing support and in-service training. Real change therefore requires a long-term commitment to professional development. This article presents a comparative analysis of the findings of three independent studies aimed at identifying and describing teachers’ attitudes to and experiences in implementing inclusive education in South Africa. The main themes identified in all three studies include inadequate knowledge, skills and training for the implementation of inclusive education; lack of educational and teacher support; insufficient facilities and resources, and the potential effects of inclusive education on learners. Item Open AccessHuwelikstevredenheid en vryetydsbesteding(University of the Free State, 2002) Viljoen, Hendrik; Greeff, AbrahamEnglsh: The aim of this study was to investigate patterns in leisure activities and their relation to marital satisfaction. A biographical questionnaire, a leisure activity questionnaire and two sub-scales of the Enriching and Nurturing Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) scale were completed independently by 35 married couples with adolescent children. The results indicated a significant positive relationship between marital satisfaction and contentment with the use of leisure time in both joint and individual-and-joint leisure activities. These results have important implications for premarital guidance, the enrichment of married life and marriage counselling. Item Open AccessThe wide-ranging influence of the 1928 decree of the Communist International(University of the Free State, 2002) Roth, MiaEnglsih: This article deals with the impact of a decree passed by the Communist International in Moscow in 1928. It shows how it influenced not only the most important communist party outside the Soviet Union at that time, namely the German Communist Party, but also the smallest, the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA), both of which were hampered by the rigid doctrinaire beliefs forced upon them by Stalin via the Comintern. The paper argues that the CPSA would have been more successful if it had listened to the views of some black party members. This might have shortened its long period in the political wilderness. Item Open AccessFrom politics to passion: recent developments in German-language literature(University of the Free State, 2002) Knobloch, Hans-JörgGerman: Die deutsche Literatur der neunziger Jahre stand im Zeichen der Politik. Der Grund dafür war die deutsche Wiedervereinigung, die nicht nur einen Rückblick auf die verschwundene Deutsche Demokratische Republik nahelegte, sondern auch eine neuerliche Auseinandersetzung mit der gesamtdeutschen Vergangenheit, insbesondere dem Nationalsozialismus. Das Wiedererstehen eines mächtigen deutschen Staates im Herzen Europas führte überdies in einigen Nachbarländern, vor allem in Österreich und der Schweiz, zu einer heftigen Debatte über die eigene Position, die diese Staaten gegenüber Nazi-Deutschland eingenommen hatten, und diese Debatte schlug sich natürlich auch in der Literatur nieder. Doch mit dem Beginn des neuen Millenniums ist eine Wende zu beobachten: Die meisten Autoren scheinen das Interesse an Politik und Geschichte verloren zu haben und kehren zu einem der ältesten Themen in der Literatur überhaupt zurück: zur Liebe. Item Open AccessSuid-Afrika en die beslegting van gewapende konflik in Afrika sedert 1994(University of the Free State, 2002) Esterhuyse, AbelEnglish: An understanding of the anatomy of conflict is essential to any effort to resolve armed conflict. This implies that South Africa should take cognisance of the causes of conflict, its progression and the ways in which it can be ended, before the country can be meaningfully involved in conflict resolution in Africa. Her foreign and domestic policies and her intention to keep South African involvement within the framework of regional and international organisations underpin her involvement. Thus far, South African involvement has been characterised by neutrality, an emphasis on diplomatic solutions, ex-president Mandela’s personification thereof and the avoidance of high-risk peace keeping operations. Item Open AccessSocial justice and geography: towards a South African geographical research agenda(University of the Free State, 2002) Visser, GustavEnglish: Drawing on arguments seeking a grounded development of the concept of social justice, this article investigates the potential bearing of the concept on South African geographical research. It is argued that it is philosophically desirable to conduct empirical research focused on the interpretations which agents give to the concept of social justice. It is then suggested that a re-thinking of the debates on normative social justice in the light of arguments for contextual interpretations of this concept provide a framework for a discourse of social justice within South African geographical studies. In particular, three avenues of enquiry are suggested. First, that South African geographers aim at uncovering what the concept of social justice represents with reference to multiple variables and institutions within various spatio-temporal settings. Secondly, that these empirical descriptions of social justice can be compared with various debates on social justice currently found in the social sciences. Finally, that geographical theorisation of the concept of social justice be developed with reference to empirical illustrations of the meaning of the concept. Item Open Access‘Nature’, ‘law’, ‘humanity’ — the rise of Positivism, with reference to Quesnay, Turgot and Comte(University of the Free State, 2002) Venter, PontiEnglsih: The positivist expansion of the metaphorical conception of (natural) law over all aspects of human life (ending in technicism) dialectically denies the supposedly autonomous rational control of humankind (modernity, Kant, Marx). The two meanings of natural law — the moral and the physical — were unified by the physiocrat Quesnay in a single formula stressing both the advantage of humankind and humanity’s dependence upon the subhuman environment. Another physiocrat, Turgot, understood human history in terms of inevitable laws of progress, and stressed the fundamental role of natural necessity in human social formations. Auguste Comte, attempting, like Quesnay, to unify the moral and the physical, completed the natural science approach to human life, which forced him to find a natural divinity in Humanity in order to give meaning to human life, but the course towards naturalism had already been set Item Open AccessNon-governmental organisations and sustainable rural development in Lesotho(University of the Free State, 2002) Mashinini, Vusi; De Villiers, GawieEnglish: Non-governmental organisations are increasingly considered a viable source of development assistance for the promotion of sustainable development. This article analyses the contribution of non-governmental organisations to sustainable rural development, with special emphasis on agriculture, in Lesotho. The findings are that they have made a significant contribution, but that their efforts were not sustainable, due to the fact that the communities were not willing to forego their old lifestyles and accept the sacrifices needed to achieve the advances introduced by sustainable rural development. Communities need to embrace the challenges and changes aimed at improving their lifestyles.