Item Open AccessExpenditure-based segmentation of tourists to the Kruger National Park(University of the Free State, 2009) Saayman, Melville; Van der Merwe, Peet; Pienaar, JacoEnglish: Although expenditure-based segmentation is a popular method, it has never previously been applied in the study of national parks in South Africa. The advantage of this method is that one can distinguish between different levels of expenditure markets. This article aims to apply expenditure-based segmentation of tourists to the Kruger National Park in South Africa. Only tourists per definition formed part of this study, excluding day visitors. Tourist surveys were conducted between 2001 and 2007, yielding 2904 completed questionnaires. Item Open AccessIntended and enacted curricula: tracing the trajectory of an enduring problem(University of the Free State, 2009) Blignaut, SylvanEnglish: This article reviews the literature on educational change and investigates the complex nature of putting educational ideas into practice. It also sheds light on the similarity between the intended and the implemented curriculum by arguing that a preoccupation with two conventional models of curriculum implementation has foiled meaningful classroom practice. An alternative model that could significantly enhance our understanding of implementation is suggested. Focusing on why and how teachers’ understanding of curriculum policy is critical to the translation of policy into practice, alternative ways in which policy might be conceived, developed and put into practice are considered. Item Open AccessRecent legislation regarding the appointment of public school educators: the end of the decentralisation debate in education?(University of the Free State, 2009) Beckmann, JohanEnglish: After 1994 it was generally expected that the decentralisation of powers would give parents in school governing bodies significant power regarding the governance of schools concerning the appointment of staff and recommendations for appointment. The South African Schools Act of 1996 appeared to meet these expectations. However, a number of amendments to the law since then have apparently diminished the powers of parents in this regard. This article analyses the powers parents received in this regard circa 1996 and the amendments effected since then, and argues that the recent changes do not necessarily mean an end to decentralisation. Item Open AccessWomen as department chairs at universities in South Africa and Britain(University of the Free State, 2009) Zulu, Constance; Lemmer, EleanorEnglish: The article reports on the findings of a qualitative inquiry into the lived experiences of a small sample of women chairs at universities in South Africa and Britain selected by purposeful sampling. Data were collected by means of video conference focus group interviews. Findings indicated that women department chairs require managerial competencies: rigorous scholarship as well as certain structures and procedures are necessary for the smooth management of a department. They face broader contextual issues in higher education owing to change, and the dual role influences their career experiences. Item Open AccessHigh-school teachers’ perceptions of challenging learner behaviour(University of the Free State, 2009) Saunderson, Claudia; Oswald, MarietjieEnglish: This focuses on persistent behaviour that disrupts teaching and learning on a daily basis. Teachers’ perceptions have been investigated within the framework provided by eco-systemic and asset-based approaches to learner behaviour and support. The intensity and prevalence of behavioural challenges were reportedly higher in urban than in rural schools. The eco-systemic and asset-based approaches can be recommended for training teachers to understand and manage learner behaviour. Item Open AccessModel for the education of neonatal nurses as reflective practitioners(University of the Free State, 2009) Maree, Carin; Van der Walt, Christa; Van Rensburg, GiselaEnglish: A model is developed for the education of neonatal nurses as reflective practitioners in a South African context to prepare them for their demanding role in neonatal nursing practice. An exploratory and descriptive design was used, which was in essence qualitative and contextual in nature. Neonatal nursing practice related to education of reflective neonatal nurses was explored and verified to synthesise competences and professional characteristics expected of reflective neonatal nurses and to deduce the content outline of an educational programme. The model was constructed, described and evaluated by experts in model development, higher education, nursing education and/or neonatal nursing practice. Item Open AccessDeon Opperman’s Donkerland: the rise and fall of Afrikaner nationalism(University of the Free State, 2009) Keuris, MarisaEnglish: In his epic play on Afrikaner history (from the Great Trek in 1838 to the birth of the new South Africa in 1994) Deon Opperman (award-winning South African playwright) presents the parallel and interlinked histories of two families – represented by a white patriarch and a black matriarch and their various descendants – against the background of important historical developments in South Africa. The article focuses on the depiction of the birth and demise of Afrikaner nationalism by identifying the “self” in Opperman’s Donkerland, and by discussing the relationship of the self versus the “other” in this play. Item Open AccessStudents with disabilities in higher education(University of the Free State, 2009) Morrison, John; Brand, Handre; Cilliers, CharlEnglish: This study reviews and critically analyses literature from 2000 onwards to obtain a perspective of the latest research trends and interests as well as the theoretical development in the study of students with special education needs in higher education. The diversity of research themes indicates that higher education faces multiple challenges. The research further finds that this field of study is still in an exploratory phase. Qualitative studies in smaller settings are the most popular, and progress towards generalisable theories is still relatively young. It is encouraging to note that research is increasingly addressing the empirical issues experienced in higher education institutions. Suggestions for future research are given. Item Open AccessStress, coping resources and personality types: an exploratory study of teachers(University of the Free State, 2009) Coetzee, Melinde; Jansen, Cecelia; Muller, HeleneEnglish: This article explores the relationship between the coping resources (as measured by the Coping Resources Inventory) and personality types (as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) of a sample of 49 secondary school teachers in Gauteng. The results indicate that personality types differ in terms of the level of their coping resources and that the participants’ personality types have a significant influence on the level of their coping resources. The findings show that it can be helpful for educators and school principals to be sensitive to the different ways in which each personality type copes with stress and the coping resources available to them. Recommendations are made to promote the overall well-being of teachers in the South African school environment. Item Open AccessChristian scholarship within reformed circles(University of the Free State, 2009) Coletto, RenatoEnglish: This article analyses and evaluates a specific strategy for the elaboration of Christian scholarship which may be defined as “theology-based scholarship”, using a case study in the Instituto di Formazione Evangelica e Documentazione (IFED) based in Padua, Italy. According to the theology-based approach, theology is the key factor for achieving Christian perspectives in various scientific disciplines. The basic tenets of this approach are explored and some of the shortcomings, tensions and paradoxes resulting from this model are indicated. It is also argued that the approach is integrated by a particular world view, unlike that underlining reformed thinking and culture. Several concrete negative consequences of this approach are also pointed out, and the article concludes that this approach needs considerable alterations.