Item Open AccessImagining yourself one of a multitude: ideology critique of urban crowd depictions(University of the Free State, 2002) Van den Berg, DirkEnglish: Revisiting the array of image formats for the scenic picturing of urban environments and concomitant spectator roles, the topic of this investigation is how certain crowd formations serve as manifestations of ideological power in modern cities. Examples of crowd depictions are drawn from both visual art and popular culture. Michel de Certeau sees panoptic surveillance in the modern city as calling forth a “scenic other” located below its threshold of visibility. Prompted by this notion, the aim of this study is to investigate the historical conjunctions between stereotypical views of urban masses and urban spaces in ideological perspectives, as well as certain typiconic features of a number of alternative visual traditions in Western depictions of the populace in urban settings. Item Open Access“I” and “we”: writing the black female self in Kuzwayo’s Call me woman and Morrison’s Beloved(University of the Free State, 2002) Sarinjeive, DeviEnglsih: In the last two decades of the twentieth century there has been an upsurge of interest in self and identity studies. Through the bifocal lens of consciousness studies and black feminisms this article sets out to explore how the self is textually represented by the South African writer Ellen Kuzwayo, in her autobiography Call me woman, and the African-American author Toni Morrison, in her fictional Beloved. The aim is to show that although both writers are black and may represent commonalities there are also many differences in their depictions of the female consciousness that ultimately takes its shape from interactions within its own social milieu. Item Open AccessEducation for sustainable development and the virtue of education(University of the Free State, 2002) Higgs, PhilipEnglish: In this article I shall critically reflect on the discourse of education for “sustainable development”. When referring to the virtue of education, I shall argue that the discourse on education for “sustainable development” should be informed not only by economic, environmental and sociological considerations, but also by an educational content which regards education as a matter of personal engagement. Such an educational content will ensure the safeguarding of the virtues which sustain a human/e world and the self-empowerment of people. Item Open AccessDirect marketing as a solution to unsafe retail shopping(University of the Free State, 2002) Jordaan, YolandaEnglish: Fear of crime has become an important issue, largely because of its perceived effects on people’s social behaviour. The purpose of this article is to focus on the impact of crime on South African consumers and on how the retail environment is influenced by the changes in social behaviour brought about by fear of victimisation. Special attention is paid to the implications for South African retailers because, in a society plagued by crime, retailers can consider direct marketing as a value-added shopping channel to consumers in need of a safer alternative. The main findings of an exploratory study indicate that those who have been victims of crime at a store or shopping centre, and especially women, are more sensitive to safety concerns while shopping. Item Open AccessThe politics of social protection in South Africa: reflections on establishing a welfare state(University of the Free State, 2002) Venter, AlbertEnglish: The purpose of this article is to reflect on the advances made in the direction of a welfare state in South Africa, and the possibility of its establishment. In order to reflect on the question whether South Africa’s political economy is moving towards a welfare state, certain arguments are advanced. First, a brief comment on South Africa’s political economy is offered. Secondly, some key theories and actors that could influence the South African political economy’s movement towards a welfare state are identified. Thirdly, the author reflects on the question of whether such a movement is taking place as well as the likelihood of a welfare state’s developing in South Africa. Item Open AccessMathematics learning in the foundation phase: facilitating a parent-teacher partnership(University of the Free State, 2002) Du Toit, Petrusa; Froneman, Dorothea; Maree, KobusEnglish: The approach to mathematical learning and teaching in South Africa has changed considerably in recent years. The new curriculum, Curriculum 2005, promotes a problem-centred, outcomes-based approach to mathematics instruction based on constructivist viewpoints. In this article, co-operation between parents and teachers involving the education of parents in the new approach to teaching mathematics, is advocated. Guidelines are provided for the encouragement and education of parents in the support of their children’s mathematical learning. It is hoped that this will contribute towards stimulating parental involvement in the prevention of learners’ mathematical problems, especially in the Foundation Phase, and ultimately towards better achievement in mathematics throughout education. Item Open AccessWhite Afrikaners’ search for new identities(University of the Free State, 2002) Erasmus, PietEnglish: Theoretical points of view that are useful in gaining an understanding of and explaining identity are identified, and the following themes are developed: The Afrikaner was responsible for apartheid. On the other hand, Afrikaner identity is largely defined, determined and influenced by this same creation. Given this ambivalence, it was decided, first, to typify the conceptual framework of apartheid, and, secondly, to list the characteristics of Afrikaner identity within the apartheid framework. Thirdly, attention is devoted to the current debate on Afrikaner identity and the identity markers that are highlighted. Item Open AccessWalking the tightrope: the diplomacy of human rights(University of the Free State, 2002) Stemmet, Andreenglish: This article explores the historical and normative framework of human rights as an international issue, the tensions and conflicts faced by states in implementing diplomatic policies aimed at the protection and promotion of human rights, the salient debates in the human rights discourse and the instruments and institutional mechanisms available, in both the domestic and the international context, to implement human rights diplomacy. Finally, the limits of human rights diplomacy and its relationship to the use of force to achieve the same objectives is investigated. Item Open AccessAvoiding drunk driving: the behaviour of South African general drivers(University of the Free State, 2002) Peltzer, KarlEnglsih: The aim of this article is to examine the degree to which drivers participate in activities aimed at avoiding drunk-driving victimisation, and to assess protective behaviour in relation to drunk driving. The sample included 100 black and 100 white drivers drawn from the general public of an urban area in the then Northern Province of South Africa. 59% reported having practised three out of four self-protective behaviours and 68% having practised all four other-protective behaviours in the preceding twelve months. Some evidence was found to support the fear-andvictimisation model, since one or more individual factors were related to each of the four self-protective behaviours and three of the four other-protective behaviours. Important gender and racial differences were also found.