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Item Open AccessA systematic literature review on migration and remittances in mountainous regions: key takeaways for Phuthaditjhaba, Free State, South Africa(MDPI, 2023) Sunge, Regret; Mudzingiri, CalvinRemittances are essential to the sustainability of economies in mountainous regions that face massive labour migration due to limited income generation and employment opportunities. In 2021, the share of remittances in GDP in the top 10 mountainous economies in the world was over 20%. Nonetheless, most are characterised by relatively lower GDP per capita and high poverty levels. Drawing a comparison with other mountainous areas, Phuthaditjhaba, an emerging mountainous city of South Africa on the border with Lesotho, faces similar out-migration and inferior socio-economic parameters. A global systematic literature review on the impact of remittances on livelihoods, specifically targeting mountainous areas, is missing. We, therefore, interrogate the role that remittances can play in Phuthaditjhaba. To inform our intended research, we seek to draw lessons from evidence on how migration and remittances affect mountainous communities globally. Accordingly, we carry out a systematic literature review (SLR) based on an updated Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) 2020 statement supported by bibliometric (co-word) analysis (BA) in VOSViewer. We collected data from the Scopus and Dimensions websites and drew 165 publications, of which only 88 were included after exclusion and inclusion assessments. The PRISMA results show that Mountain Research and Development, Russell King, and Nepal are the most productive and cited journal, the most productive and cited author, and the most researched country, respectively. The bibliometric analysis on keyword co-occurrences revealed that women, agriculture, labour migration, land management, forest, and poverty are the research hotspots. In light of these findings, we proffer important recommendations for future researchers and policymakers and identify thematic research areas for Phuthaditjhaba. Item Open AccessAbsenteeism of factory workers at the Grain Field Chickens Abattoir(University of the Free State, 2022) De Villiers, Kevin; Markham, L. G.This research was conducted to assess absenteeism at the Grain Field Chickens broiler abattoir in Reitz. This was assessed through the analyses of absenteeism by contextualizing the different forms of absenteeism according to the literature; determining the contributing factors of absenteeism; determining how absenteeism affects the workplace and determining if strategies exist to assist in reducing absenteeism. The researcher adopted a quantitative research design where questionnaires were distributed. The researcher used Regression Analysis, Kruskall-Wallis analysis, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, and Chi-Squared Analysis to analyse the results. The population consisted of 352 factory workers working at the Grain Field Chickens Abattoir. The primary explanatory factor of absenteeism was found to be years of employment, followed by family responsibility. It was found that as the years of employment increase, the rate of absenteeism increases. The average absent days for employees that are employed for less than three years were 8.93 days per year, while employees that are employed for longer than three years were absent on average of 20.39 days per year. It was found that the average absent days for employees with family members in their care were 18.67 days per year, as opposed to 9.16 days per year for employees who do not have a family member in their care. Based on the findings, absenteeism figures should be documented in such a way as to inform managers of any adverse trends that may exist. Item Open AccessAccounting ethics in the accounting profession: a sample stakeholder survey in Bloemfontein(University of the Free State, 2015-11) Makhabane, Frank Thebe; Massyn, LiezelRecent years have witnessed an increase in the emphasis on accountability and transparency in both private and public sectors, largely because of a need to optimize efficiencies and productivity. Accompanying this trend has been an increasing appreciation of the centrality of ethics in public life. A key profession in meeting these demands is the accounting profession. An often-understated aspect of the accounting profession that strives to ensure adherence to ethics by accounting professionals is accounting ethics, which is defined as an example of professional ethics and, in particular, the study and practice of moral values and judgments in the field of applied ethics as they apply to accountancy. Against this background and with a specific focus on Bloemfontein, this study sought answers from the following research question: (i) Why are accounting ethics important/critical to the accounting profession? To answer the above, the secondary objectives of the study were: (a) To identify the development of accounting ethics in accounting as a profession. (b) To assess the importance of accounting ethics in the accounting profession in Bloemfontein. (c) To evaluate the role of accounting ethics education in the accounting profession among stakeholders in Bloemfontein and thereafter map the range of these stakeholder perceptions. The research methods used was a quantitative approach through the use of questionnaires. Questionnaires were coded and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results from questionnaire data show a high percentage of the sampled population being aware of accounting ethics and that they chose to be ethical in their business decisions. Further, the overwhelming majority (85%) of the sampled population indicated that ethics should be integral to all modules that form the basis of accountancy training. It is for this reason that the study recommends that (accounting) ethics should not be a stand-alone module or subject but one that is integrated vertically (in a succession of study years, i.e. first, second and third years of study as the case may be) and horizontally (in different modules/subjects in a particular year of study). Other recommendations of the study include continuous development and support in the form of workshops and other forms of in-service training and development programmes for accounting professionals and corporate leaders, aimed at engendering accounting ethics in the workplace and as an integral part of personal values. Additionally, these recommendations include professional bodies in the accounting profession that should enforce registration by accounting professionals so as to be in a position to enforce their codes of conduct. Another recommendation is that there is a need for close cooperation in all aspects of accountancy training (from curriculum design through to curriculum delivery) between educational institutions and professional and regulatory bodies in the accounting profession so as to guarantee organic development of training in alignment with the changing demands of the profession. Item Open AccessAdapting music teaching methods for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders(University of the Free State, 2019) Nell, Nadia; De Villiers, A. M. F.; Griessel, D.Teaching piano to an autistic learner requires a piano teacher who understands autism and can adapt teaching material according to the individual’s learning strengths. Literature revealed little information about practical and structural piano teaching methods that can be applied in a private lesson for autistic learners. This dissertation explored the practical adaptation of piano teaching methods to tutor autistic learners in a one-on-one music environment. A qualitative research method was applied and a practical action research strategy was used to teach 12 autistic learners to play the piano. Participants were selected using purposeful, stratified sampling. Journal writings and observations were kept, evaluating each participant’s progress at the piano over a period of six months, while secondary information was gathered through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were completed by parents and schoolteachers. The data were analysed thematically and themes as well as subthemes emerged that were synthesised with existing literature. The findings indicate that piano lessons should be taught by using visual adaptation as well as considering the learners’ physical development and comorbidities. Piano lessons also had a positive effect on autistic learners’ daily activities and progress was noticed in physical improvement, communication and social interaction, and academic improvement as well as emotional development. The results showed that 10 of the 12 participants could play easy piano pieces with confidence after six months of weekly lessons. The conclusion of this study could be valuable for teachers interested in teaching autistic learners piano, providing practical guidance how teachers could adapt the teaching methods and the environment as well as the inclusion of physical activities in the lessons. The lessons also fit into the theoretical scheme of the Naturalistic Developmental Behavioural Interventions (NDBI), allowing parents to practise and apply concepts learned in class at home and in daily activities, strengthening the child’s motivation. Item Open AccessAgricultural production as a youth livelihood approach in a rural context: a case study of Namahadi, Qwaqwa(University of the Free State, 2021) Taole-Kolisang, Lieketseng; Magaiza, GreyMost young people in the developing countries still prefer working in cities and towns to sustain their lives. They do not believe in working in their rural areas, and participating in agricultural production to earn a living. In South Africa, this is despite government interventions such as the one held in the eastern Free State, at Thabo Mofutsanyana District named the Comprehensive Rural Development Programme (CRDP). This initiative was facilitated by the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform meant to train youth from Namahadi, QwaQwa in agricultural production. The objective of this programme was to empower them with skills in agriculture, and assist in minimising food insecurity at household level. The current study was investigating why young people are not participating in the agricultural sector. The specific objectives were to explore the livelihood portfolios of rural youths, to determine perceptions, experiences and challenges of the CRDP trained youths regarding agricultural production, to identify potential agricultural value chains for CRDP youths and to develop recommendations to strengthen youth based rural agriculture projects. Qualitative research methods were used, where a total of twenty-four participants were interviewed (19 focus groups, 3 key informants and the community leader). Results of the study revealed that some youth members were producing from their home gardens, just to feed their families and not participating at a larger scale because they did not have production resources, like land, seeds and tools, water, electricity, fertilizers and pest control agents. They also did not receive support from the municipality and were not able to increase the scale of production. If the youth receive the required support, they will be able to work with others for the development of their area. The interventions which are provided to the youth will assist them in investing in agricultural production as a livelihood, and contribute to food security. Support from local authorities will enable continuation of these programmes. Item Open AccessAlgemeen aanvaarde rekeningkundige praktyk vir niewinsgewende organisasies, met verwysing na die NG Kerk in die Vrystaat(University of the Free State, 2006) Rossouw, Jacobus; Van Wyk, H. A.English: Not-for-profit organisations, and thus the congregations and welfare organisations of the Dutch Reformed Church in the Free State, exhibit certain unique characteristics, different from businesses. In essence, the primary objective of not-for-profit organisations is not to realise a profit to be distributed to equity participants (e.g. shareholders), but to meet certain religious, cultural, social and other non-commercial needs of the community. Not-for-profit organisations’ need for relevant accounting standards in fact emanates from their unique characteristics. Owing to the nature of not-for-profit organisations, the users of their financial statements require information (financial and non-financial) which is different from the information required by users of financial statements of businesses. Financial reporting which makes it possible for the users of financial statements of not-for-profit organisations to assess the stewardship of the organisation’s management, is the central focus because management are accountable to the members of the organisation, and also especially to donors. Standards of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice (GAAP) are drawn up primarily for businesses, and specifically to enable users of financial statements of companies in the international capital markets, to make economic decisions. Given this fact, and the unique nature and characteristics of not-for-profit organisations, it follows that Standards of GAAP are neither relevant nor appropriate in the case of not-for-profit organisations. Standards of GAAP therefore cannot be applied indiscriminately to not-for-profit organisations, albeit that appropriate South African legislation (Nonprofit Organisations Act) probably requires compliance with Standards of GAAP. In the international accounting environment, attempts have been made to develop unique accounting standards for small- and medium-sized entities, while unique accounting standards have also been drawn up for government institutions on the basis of their unique accounting needs. The same approach should also be followed for not-for-profit organisations since their unique nature and characteristics also necessitate typical accounting standards. Where not-for-profit organisations do indeed attempt to apply Standards of GAAP, they nonetheless experience problems in this regard. Some of these problems derive from the theoretical irrelevance of Standards of GAAP, while other problems are of a more practical nature. The fundamental problem derives from the question whether the cash or the accrual basis is the most appropriate in the case of not-for-profit organisations. Moreover, “fund accounting” is typical of not-for-profit organisations; however, an accounting standard for treatment of “funds” does not exist. In addition, various problems are also experienced with the recognition of assets, impairments and depreciation of assets, because the definition of “assets” and the recognition criteria do not consider the unique nature of not-for-profit organisations. Various questions exist with respect to the recognitio n of receipts as income. The question in particular is whether donations received for a specific purpose, donations which may only be utilised in future periods, as well as capital donations, should be recorded as income, liabilities or directly as funds. Not-for-profit organisations also experience problems with the recognition of so-called “in natura” receipts, and other forms of income. Given the nature and characteristics of not-for-profit organisations, performance reporting is also problematic because the “profit figure” and other reported financial information often do not capture the real “performance” (i.e. the achievement of objectives) of not-for-profit organisations. Furthermore, certain terminologies in GAAP are also not applicable to not-for-profit organisations. In some countries, accounting standards have been developed and issued specifically for not-for-profit organisations. The standards issued by the United States of America , the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia have been analyse d and compared to establish appropriate accounting principles for not-for-profit organisations. Accounting practice, applied in the above-mentioned countries, was reviewed by means of empirical tests among congregations and welfare organisations of the Dutch Reformed Church in the Free State. Specific aspects that were addressed and which have led to proposals for typical standards of generally accepted accounting practice for not-for-profit organisations are the following: · Presentation of financial statements; · Reporting on the restrictions imposed by donors on the utilisation of funds; · Accounting in terms of a cash basis versus the accrual basis ; · Recognition and measurement of fixed assets and accompanying expenses, such as depreciation and impairments, as well as the recognition and measurement of inventory; · Recognition and measurement of income in general, and in particular, recognition of donations and contributions, “restricted donations received”, and donations “in natura”; · Performance reporting by not-for-profit organisations; and · Aspects related to fund accounting. The core recommendations derive from the position that existing and formal Standards of GAAP should be used as a basis, and these standards should be modified to deal with the typical accounting concerns that pertain to not-for-profit organisations. The accounting profession, not-for-profit organisations, and other stakeholders must take note of the irrelevance of GAAP for not-for-profit organisations, the accounting problems experienced in the context, as well as the need for, and the recommendations made with respect to typical accounting standards for not-for-profit organisations. Like some other countries, South Africa should also play an active role in developing accounting standards which are applicable and relevant to not-for-profit organisations. Item Open AccessThe alignment between corporate and business level strategies in South African public entities(University of the Free State, 2018-10) Gasela, Moses Mongezi; Vermeulen, W.𝑬𝒏𝒈𝒍𝒊𝒔𝒉 The South African public entities play a significant role in the South African economy as they assist the government to achieve different service delivery mandates in key sectors of the economy. However, the public entities are experiencing service delivery and performance problems that affect the South African economy negatively. This study investigated the alignment between the corporate and business level strategies in South African public entities with the aim of providing recommendations that would improve the alignment of the aforesaid strategies resulting in improved organisational performance in the entities. The unit of analysis for the study is a public entity that is based in the Northern Cape Province. The study was located within the post-positivist as well as constructivist/interpretivist philosophical assumptions. The convergent mixed research design was used. For the qualitative part of the study, the multicase study design was used. A purposive sample of eleven executives, representing each of the eight public entities and three provincial departments that control the entities was selected for the study. Data was also collected from the official documents of corporate and business level strategies of the entities. For the data collected through the individual interviews and strategic documents, data analysis involved organising details about a case (in this study, the entity), categorising data and clustering it into meaningful groups; and identifying patterns, trends and themes. Then, the researcher synthesised and generalised, giving an overall portrait of the case, with a conclusion and an implication beyond the case. The researcher looked for convergence from a triangulated study. For the study‘s quantitative part, the survey design was adopted using the probability sampling techniques, and a questionnaire to collect the data. Thirty-eight self- administered structured questionnaires were distributed to the executives of the eight entities and the three controlling departments. The response rate was 78%. Descriptive data analysis as well as inferential data analysis involving the correlational analysis and regression analysis were done. The use of the mixed methods served as a triangulation which ensured validity and reliability of the study findings. Four key findings emerged from the study. Firstly, it was found that there are many challenges that the public entities have, including financial and human capital inadequacy or/and lack of human resources, poor organisational culture, leadership issues (including ineffective boards) and working in silos with no effective communication, to mention but a few, that bring about strategy misalignment. These challenges affect the alignment of the two-level strategies and organisational performance negatively because the entities cannot deliver on their mandate by achieving their strategic objectives. Secondly, it was found that the alignment between corporate-level and business- level strategies contributes to organisational performance in South African public entities. Thirdly, the study found that strategy implementation of the business strategies in the South African public entities is a big problem. This is because of the many challenges these entities are facing, which include a lack of resources, leadership inadequacy, inefficient boards, lack of a good organisational culture, lack of support from their parent departments and the flexibility they need to be able to respond fast enough to their business needs. This causes a misalignment of the two strategies practically on the ground. Eventually this results in poor strategy implementation and unsatisfactory organisational performance. Fourthly, it was found that corporate controls affect strategy implementation negatively due to the abovementioned challenges. Finally, recommendations were developed to minimise the alignment gaps between the corporate and business level strategies in South African public entities, and therefore increase organisational performance. Item Open AccessAnalysing the effectiveness of the reward strategy of the Department of Justice in the Northern Cape in motivating its employees: a case study(University of the Free State, 2014-10) De Klerk, Ronel; Huysamen, C. A.Chapter 6 highlighted the problem areas identified in the findings of the study, and those were verified against the literature review which was discussed in Chapter 2. Each of the different sub-problems as identified in Chapter 1 was addressed and recommendations were made on how each of the sub-problems might be solved. The first sub-problem concentrated on determining whether the monetary reward strategy of performance bonuses leads to employee motivation. The second subproblem was focused on determining whether the monetary reward strategy of notch increments leads to employee motivation in the Department. The third sub-problem involved the different facets of a total reward strategy, and was aimed at determining which of these facets are important in motivating employees. The facets concerned are: Recognition; communication; the work environment; training, and career development. The aim of the research was to determine which of the above-mentioned reward strategies were regarded as important motivating factors to the employees of the Department of Justice in the Northern Cape. The „components of total reward‟ model of Shields (2012), as illustrated in Chapter 1, was used as a guide in the research. Conclusions drawn from the data provided in Chapter 5 were summarised, and based on these conclusions and the theory discussed in Chapter 2, recommendations were made with a view to improve and reinforce the performance and reward management processes in place in the Department. 140 The value of the study is that it has contributed to research-based studies on the effectiveness of performance and reward management practices aimed at motivating employees. The research was successful in building theory on the implementation of individual reward strategies that will address the individual needs of employees, as people have different needs and aspirations. It is hoped that the outcome of this study will make a contribution to performance management policies by providing guidelines for the implementation of a total reward management system based on Shields‟ components of a total reward model. Item Open AccessAn analysis of the management framework for development in the South African public sector(University of the Free State, 2001-11) Minnaar, Francois; Bekker, J. C. O.Development must be contextually understood. Not all persons will react similarly to circumstances in their environment. Their behaviour in certain situations will be determined by a wide variety of factors, including their upbringing, their cultural framework within which they reason and function, for example. Similarly government will react within the contextual framework composed of its predominant ideological perspective, its understanding of history, its perception of the dominant viewpoint regarding the matter in society, and so forth. South Africa's economic limitations have placed serious constrains on the country's ability to formulate and implement sustainable development policies. One of the extremely negative side-effects of this reality was the continuous cash flow problems experienced by various Provincial and National authorities in the country, where the National Government was eventually required to bail them out in terms of Section 100 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. The implications of this were that these authorities surrendered their autonomy in terms of the Constitution to the central government. South Africa is a "developing" country, which made it a bit more 'unequal amongst equals' in the global economic structure. In this regard it is essential for the country to take cognisance of the reality of the global village in which it find itself; characterised by the domination of a single remaining superpower, a declining ability of the physical environment to sustain life and a rapidly changing world-order. Limited economic resources to facilitate development caused various socioeconomic problems in the country. Amongst these are the enormous gap between the rich and the poor in the country. This reality is threatening to explode and plunge the country in anarchy. A declining infrastructure is further eroding South Africa's ability to construct meaningful economic growth. A decrease in the role and function of religion and churches in the country has gradually eroded the moral fiber of society. The result is a South African reality characterized by a staggering crime rate and the transformation of the normative foundation to guide management activity in the South African public service. Other characteristics of the South African environment are persistent racial divisions, inequality and staggering unemployment. The question that might be asked is how responsive the political set-up in South Africa is to the fostering of effective management of development. The answer to this issue can be formulated by evaluating the South African government's response to the environmental challenges in the country. A very positive aspect in the political set-up of the South African society, that undoubtedly foster improvement in the quality of life of ordinary South Africans, is the massive increase in the levels of public participation in the decision - and policy-making processes of the country. Contemporary involvement of the community by means of continuous and extensive road shows and open meetings with the community is a massive improvement on the traditional involvement in the form of party-political meeting during election campaigns and a formal speech at the opening (or launch) of one or the other project. Aggressive union activity, and the concept of rolling mass action have also fostered a culture of participation. However, on the negative side it is worth mentioning that a growing feeling of apathy can be detected, especially amongst the youth, and that the level of active participation in the political process is relatively low, and ever declining. The euphoria of the freedom struggle, and eventual victory over the oppressor have come and gone, in spite of active attempts on the side of the government to keep these feelings and emotions alive (mostly for party-political gain). These feelings have been replaced with despair in the face of ongoing unemployment and poverty. The structural management capacity of the public sector to realise ambitious development progress has improved - although a move away from bureaucratic management structures will surely benefit this ability. The introduction of a performance management framework, multi-year planning and improved accountability measures have strengthened the ability of the South African public sector to facilitate effective development management. However, aspects that will certainly impact negatively on the ability of the public sector to effectively management development initiatives are also numerous: o A serious lack of financial management competency and expertise. o The 'affirmative-action-at-all-cost' policy, where desperately needed expertise are often pro-actively chased away to make way for politically acceptable appointments. The same goes for indiscretional political appointments at high and senior organizational positions. These days just about all personnel-related matters in the public sector are based on 'representivity' - even personnel performance appraisals. If these kind of appraisals do not reflect the racial composition of a the staff component of a department, the process is stopped for further investigation. o Persistent racism - white public officials who, often unconsciously, still believe that black workers are inferior and their contribution less impressive. In some instances white public officials also hampers effective service delivery because they will still advantage whites at service delivery points. o However, and this point the government denies flat-out: Black-an-white discrimination is also thriving. Newly appointed black managers often have very deep anti-white feelings, and are barely able to hide these preferences. o Bureaucratic, organic organizational structures. Several of South Africa's service delivery agencies are still involved in a process of re-structuring seven years after the 1994 general election. More often than not this 'restructuring' refers to a state of structural mess - with meaningful service delivery a practical impossibility. Service delivery in South Africa has been enhanced by renewed emphasis on quality management and a drive towards increased transparency and accountability. The formal structural framework for service delivery was improved by introducing various Service Delivery Charters and the White Paper on Transformation of Public Service Delivery. However, the official service delivery agencies are neglecting to properly implement these initiatives. So, has South Africa managed to achieve sustainable development? There are two perceptions regarding the answer to this question. The one holds the view that, in spite of the sincere and honest efforts of government to take the plight of ordinary South Africans seriously during the policy-making process, is it still hard to conclude that the ideal of sustainable development has been realised in South Africa. A lot of houses have been built; the focus on clinical services has ensure that primary health care services are now more readily available to ordinary South Africans - yes; for example But, perhaps the most damaging reflection on the post-1994 government's performance in respect of development, come from the anti-apartheid veteran of so many years, Helen Suzman when she stated that while I, like others, am greatly relieved that South Africa is rid of all the heinous laws of the apartheid regime and immensely pleased at no longer being a citizen of a pariah country, my high hopes of a good performance by our new government have not been realised. "Government has failed to deliver on its promise of 'a better life for all.' True, I, as a privileged white, continue to live at the same high standard, but equally true, the standard of living of the majority of blacks have deteriorated." The proof of the pudding is in the eating. The ultimate test to determine whether or not development has realized, for the purposes of this study, was the question of whether or not there was an improvement in the quality of life of ordinary citizens. The other viewpoint is best expressed by The Economist of 24 February 2001 at the end of a series of articles which aim was to analyse the state of affairs in South Africa seven years after the 1994 general elections. The author concluded that, whatever its shortcomings today, (South Africa) is a far happier place than it used to be, and a far happier place than it might have been. In time, it may yet fulfil the promise of the Mandela years." Item Open AccessAn analysis of the process from innovation to commercialization: a South African perspective(University of the Free State, 2010) Booysen, Karen; Van Zyl, J. H.Afrikaans: Ekonomieë, ondernemings (klein, medium en groot) en individue moet nuwe produkte ontdek en kommersialiseer om mee te ding en vooruit te gaan in die globale 21ste eeu ekonomie. Die belangrikheid daarvan om nuwe produkte aan die mark bekend te stel kan gesien word in die feit dat dit ‘n volhoubare mededingende voordeel vir ekonomieë, ondernemings en individue meebring. Die nuwe produkte lei nie net na wins vir individue en ondernemings nie, maar dit verbeter ook die kwaliteit van lewe van alle individue en genereer verdere ekonomiese geleenthede. Deur die kommersialisering van innovasie word die gaping tussen die behoeftes van die mark en die uitvindsels van die innoveerders oorbrug. Dit bly tog ‘n kern uitdaging vir alle innoveerders om ‘n uitvindsel van idée-fase na die mark te neem, ten einde ekonomiese opbrengste te produseer. Idees of uitvindsels kan nie ekonomiese opbrengste vir die innoveerder lewer nie. Slegs wanneer die uitvindsel suksesvol in die mark absorbeer word kan die innoveerder wins genereer en hierdeur word die belangrikheid van kommersialisering weer beklemtoon. Die mislukkingskoers van nuwe produkte is internasionaal baie hoog en dus verhoed dit innoveerders om finansiële voordele te bekom. Nuwe produkte se mislukkingskoers word bereken op tussen 50-80% en selfs groot ondernemings met genoegsame hulpbronne sukkel met die kommersialisering van uitvindsels. Die hoë mislukkingskoers van uitvindsels kan toegeskryf word aan ‘n wye verskeidenheid faktore, insluitend beperkte toegang tot hulpbronne, die onvermoë van innoveerders om hul uitvindsels genoegsaam te beskerm of swak bemarkingspogings, Een so ‘n rede vir mislukking is die feit dat innoveerders onseker is oor die stappe om te volg in die kommersialisering van hul uitvindsel. Innoveerders neem vals stappe en mors kosbare tyd, of hulle laat kritiese stappe in die proses uit. Dit is belangrik vir innoveerders om te weet wat die stappe in die kommersialiseringsproses is en dit te volg ten einde te verseker dat hulle ‘n logiese proses volg, beplan vir al die belangrike aspekte aangaande kommersialisering en bewus is van wat van hulle vereis sal word in die verskillende fases van die proses. Suid Afrika vaar nie goed daarmee om nuwe navorsingsuitvindsels na die mark te bring nie en daar kan verskeie redes vir die probleem wees. Ten einde suksesvol nuwe uitvindsels aan die mark voor te stel deur kommersialisasie is dit belangrik om te weet wat die probleem/hindernisse is wat innoveerders gedurende die kommersialiseringsproses ondervind. Dit is ook belangrik om die behoefte aan ‘n gemeenskaplike raamwerk wat verstaan word deur die regering, hoër onderwys, navorsingsrade, tegnologie ondernemings en risikodraende kapitaliste, ten opsigte van die rolle en funksionele verhoudings in die sisteem van innovasie uit te wys. Die studie het gepoog om inligting rakende die probleme en/of hindernisse wat entrepreneurs in die kommersialiseringsproses konfronteer te bekom deur te bepaal hoe suksesvol individue en SMMEs was in die kommersialisering van hul innovasie. Die kliëntebasis van die Centrum for Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing (CRPPM) en die Tegnologie Stasie (PDTS) vir 2005 tot 2010 is gebruik in die studie. Die sekondêre doelwitte het ingesluit om die stappe wat die entrepreneur in die kommersialiseringsproses gevolg het, te ondersoek; om die faktore, beide positief en negatief, wat die die kommersialisering van innovasie beïnvloed te identifiseer; om die probleme/foute wat entrepreneurs maak in die kommersialiseringsproses te bepaal; en om die suksesfaktore vir entrepreneurs in die kommersialiseringsproses te bepaal. Die resultate het gewys dat die minderheid van die respondente (20%) suksesvol hul uitvindsels kommersialiseer het. Die oorblywende 80% van die respondente was of steeds besig om deur die kommersialiseringsproses te beweeg of het stagneer. Die resultate het verder ook uitgewys dat die tipiese innoveerder nie die kronologiese orde van die stappe in die kommersialiseringsproses, soos aangedui in die literatuur, volg nie. Baie van die stappe in die kommersialiseringsproses is nie so deeglik voltooi soos wat nodig is nie en verskeie van die stappe is bloot uitgelaat. Die redes wat die respondente die gereeldste aangehaal het vir hul tekort aan vordering en/of stagnasie in die kommersialiseringsproses was ‘n tekort aan fondse en ‘n tekort aan ondersteuning. Met ander woorde, die respondente het nie genoegsame kapitaal gehad om die uitvindsel op hul eie te kommersialiseer nie en het of nie geweet waar om finansiële hulp te kry nie, of was onsuksesvol in hul aansoek om finansiering. Die tekort aan ondersteuning waarna verwys word, sluit in ondersteuning ten opsigte van kennis aangaande die kommersialiseringsproses (maw. wat die stappe in die kommersialiseringsproses behels) sowel as wat volgende gedoen moet word in die kommersialiseringsproses. Die twee redes is gereeld genoem as hindernisse tot die suksesvolle kommersialisering. Ten einde die bogenoemde hindernisse te oorkom word verskeie aanbevelings aan die einde van die studie gemaak. Die fokus val hoofsaaklik op die regering, en verskeie aanbevelings aangaande die regeringsondersteuningsinstellings word gemaak ten einde innoveerders beter deur die kommersialiseringsproses te help. Item Open AccessAn analysis of virtual teams working in higher education online programme management projects in South Africa(University of the Free State, 2019) Musgrave, Sarah; Van Zyl, H.Virtual teams (VTs) achieve shared goals despite not being co located, by relying on electronic communicati on media. The use of VTs trans pires into higher education (HE), allowing them to participate and compete in an ever changing world. In this study, the focus is on VTs that work on higher education projects in partnership with an online programme management (OPM) company in South Africa (SA). It provides the opportunity to study VTs not only in a single organisation, but between different organisations and at different levels between organisations. The study aims to investigate VTs, in particular the advanta ges, challenges and success fa ctors that contribute towards the performance of VTs. The study was an explorative qualitative case study, making use of nine semi structured interviews followed by a thematic analysis of the data. The experience and opinions of participants in this study were, in general, not surprising, and aligned with those documented in previous research studies. The participants did, however, confirm that VTs in combination with working virtually across two different organisations (Higher Ed Partners SA and HE institu tions) present unique challenges and advantages. The interviewees shared challenges that all VTs face, e.g. the absence of face to face contact, challenges caused by technology due to bandwidth issues and unstable internet con nections, and barriers to comm unication and the building of trust. However, circumstances beyond their control such as load shedding and on campus student riots added to a more complex work environment. The participants did, despite the challenges, indicat e that these challenges are no t insurmountable and that they would prefer to continue working as VTs due to the advantages offered. Item Open AccessAnastatiese- en transendentale ontleding van administratiewe transformasie binne die raamwerk van Masakhane(University of the Free State, Sep-05) Buys, Willem Frederick; Bekker, J. C. O.Afrikaans: In ‘n veranderende wêreld is transformasie vanaf die vroegste tye aan die mensdom bekend. Daar kan dus geargumenteer word dat die betekenis van die begrip weens d ie bekendheid daarvan, nie verklaar hoef te word nie. ‘n Vraagstuk begin egter reeds by die betekenis van die begrip omdat rolspelers dikwels nie eenstemmig is oor wat met transformasie bedoel word nie. Die doel is dan om die betekenis, asook verskillende benaderings, menings en standpunte oor transformasie uit te lig. Sodoende kan transformasie in perspektief geplaas word. Die begrip is in verskillende soorte kategoriseer om die betekenis daarvan te differensie e r. Die waarde hiervan is dat weerstand teen transformasie nie noodwendig ‘n beginsel saak is nie, maar moontlik is die weerstand teen die soort transformasie of wyse waarvolgens dit toegepas word. Daar behoort ingedagte gehou te word, dat ‘n verband tussen verskillende soorte transformasie kan bestaa n. Daarom behoort die kategorisering van transformasie nie as ‘n rigiede afbakening van soorte transformasie beskou te word nie. M enings en standpunte oor transformasie kan op persepsies berus. D ie betekenis van persepsies word verklaar, weens die impak d aarvan op benaderings tot transformasie. Die doel daarvan is om aan te toon dat persepsies van transformasie nie noodwendig ‘n ware weergawe van die werklikheid is nie. Dit is egter op grond van persepsies dat individue kan reageer en optree en waarop besl uite in terme van transformasie ge baseer kan word. Daarom is dit noodsaaklik om te bepaal wat persepsies beteken asook wat die invloed daarvan op transformasie is. Met ‘n anastatiese benadering word spesifieke fokuspunte uitgelig waarmee transformasie toe paslik vernuwe kan word. In hierdie verband kan die elemente van ‘n anastatiese konsep as ‘n benadering tot transformasie benut word. Die betekenis van anastaties word verklaar en daar word verduidelik waarom ‘n ideale toestand as staties 222 beskou word. D ie veranderende v erhoudings waarin staatsinstellings en die gemeenskap in ‘n transformasieproses herposisioneer word, word ook verduidelik. Die fases van transformasie word binne die raamwerk van ‘n anastatiese benadering verduidelik. S pesifieke elemente van ‘n anastatiese benadering word op grond van die betekenis van anastaties uitgel u g. Daar word deurgaans op hierdie elemente gefokus om in terme daarvan ‘n anastatiese benadering tot transformasie uit een te sit. ‘n Anastatiese benadering wys daarop dat ‘n t ransformasieproses kan vervaag en in die denke van rolspelers vernuwe kan word . Vernuwing kan geskied deur byvoorbeeld op die sin, doel, betekenis en noodsaaklikheid daarvan te fokus. M et behulp van ‘n transendentale benadering word verduidelik waarom be lemmerende grense in denkraamwerke van individue daartoe kan bydra dat die noodsaaklikheid van ‘n gedaanteverandering nie ingesien word nie. Wyses word bespreek waarop hierdie grense oorkom kan word. Daar word aangetoon waarom die benadering op die minderh eid aspekte in ‘n instelling gerig word, wat vir die meerderheid vraagstukke oor institusionele grense verantwoordelik kan wees. ‘n A nastatiese - en transendentale benadering word in wisselwerking met Masakhane vir die realisering van transformasie benade r. Die betekenis daar van word met die Masakhane - veldtog in verband gebring. Dit dien as agtergrond waarom Masakhane in die gestalte van ‘n veldtog vanaf 1995 tot tans. Beide benaderings wys daarop dat vier elemente of kategorieë vanaf Masakhane afgelei kan word. Met hierdie elemente kan spesifiseer word waarom hierdie konsep as noodsaaklik vir die realisering van transformasie beskou word. Die verband daarvan met verwante begrippe soos Ubuntu en Batho Pele word ook uit gel u g. Die aandag word met beide benade rings op uitgangspunte van ‘n wetenskapsidee van die vakwetenskap, Openbare Bestuur gevestig waarop Masakhane gebaseer kan word. Hierdie uitgangspunte bied ‘n alternatiewe benadering waarop laasgenoemde begrip vir die realisering van transformasie benader kan word. Item Open AccessThe antecedents and consequences of corporate reputation in higher education: A parental perspective(University of the Free State, 2022) Bakkes, Elizabeth; Nel, J.Higher education institutions (HEIs) in South Africa are increasingly realising the differentiating role that corporate reputation plays in a very competitive higher education marketplace. However, from the literature reviewed, there are uncertainties towards the dimensions of a HEI’s corporate reputation that impacts specifically the perspective and behavioral responses of parents of Grade 12 learners. Parents play a critical role in the selection of a HEI for post-school studies for their Grade 12 child. The field study set out to identify the antecedents and consequences of corporate reputation in higher education from a parental perspective. Service experience, information from others, and information from the media were identified as antecedents of corporate reputation of a HEI. Trust, identification, commitment, word-of-mouth intention, and supportive intention were identified as consequences of a HEI’s corporate reputation. A conceptual model of the parental perspective of a HEI’s corporate reputation was developed based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response Theory. The field study followed an ontological assumption, a positivism approach, and a cross-sectional time horizon. The theory development followed a deductive theory approach. A quantitative research method was followed using a simple random sampling technique to collect data from 163 Grade 12 learners’ parents of high schools in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Six high schools agreed to distribute the self-completion questionnaires to the parents of their respective Grade 12 learners. The self-completion questionnaire consisted of three sections. The first two sections contained screening and background questions, while the third section posed statements to test each of the eleven hypotheses according to a seven-point Likert scale. Data analysis was done to test the hypotheses using the statistical software package SmartPLS version 4.0. Findings indicated that the influence of information from others, information from media on corporate reputation were positive and statistically significant. The influence of corporate reputation on trust and identification was positive and statistically significant. Furthermore, the influence of trust and identification on commitment was also positive and statistically significant as well as the influence of commitment of word-of-mouth intention and supportive intentions. The field study’s findings provided a basis for HEI management teams to understand the perspective of parents on corporate reputation of HEIs and the impact of their perceptions on the selection of a suitable HEI for post-school studies for their children. Recommendations were given to HEI management teams to practically improve the perspectives of the HEI’s corporate reputation. Item Open AccessAntecedents of psychological well-being among workers within small and medium enterprises(AOSIS, 2019) Maziriri, Eugine T.; Chuchu, Tinashe; Madinga, Nkosivile W.Orientation: In the contemporary business environment, employee mental health is neglected, especially in mental health research and practice in African Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). This occurs even though this sector is the largest contributor to developed economies. This study highlights the importance of psychological well-being in SME performance and the individual employee. Research purpose: To investigate the influence of perceived organisational support, career goal development and empowering leadership on the psychological well-being of SME employees in Gauteng province, South Africa. Motivation for the study: Despite increasing research on SMEs, few studies have investigated the impact of perceived organisational support, career goal development, and empowering leadership on psychological well-being in a Southern African context. Research approach/design and method: This study followed a quantitative approach, using the survey methodology where a structured questionnaire was administered to 250 SME employees. To evaluate the psychometric properties of measurement scales, a confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses. Main findings: Perceived organisational support, career goal development and empowering leadership have a positive and significant impact on the psychological well-being of SME workers. A robust, positive and significant relationship exists between empowering leadership and psychological well-being. Practical/managerial implications: The results indicate that SME managers in South Africa should pay more attention to, or place greater emphasis on, supporting employees in their organisations, recognising and assisting them in achieving their goals, and empowering them to be happy at work. If the psychological well-being of employees is prioritised, SME business performance will ultimately improve. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the current body of Africa’s industrial psychology and mental health literature – a field that has received little research attention in developing countries like South Africa. Item Open AccessApplication of selected public sector management techniques to improve service delivery(University of the Free State, Nov-02) Luvuno, Londoloza L.; Bekker, Koos J. C. O.Afrikaans: In hierdie proefskrif word die konsep van Openbaresektor-bestuurstegnieke ondersoek. In die konteks van die toepassing van geselekteerde Openbaresektorbestuurstegnieke vir die verbetering van dienslewering in 'n openbarediens-organisasie impliseer die konsep 'verbetering van dienslewering' die verbetering van doeltreffendheid; effektiwiteit en produktiwiteit. Die Openbaresektor-bestuurstegnieke wat in hierdie proefskrif bespreek word, word gestel sodat staatsamptenare hul kennis kan verbreed deur soveel moontlik Openbaresektor-tegnieke te ontdek ten einde dienslewering in openbarediens-organisasies te verbeter. Die dokument moet voorts gesien word as beginpunt in die studie van ander relevante Openbaresektor-bestuurstegnieke soos Rasionele Probleemoplossing; Innoverende Dienslewering; Openbarehulpbron-bestuur; en Diensverbeteringbestuur. Dit sluit in die bewusmaking en ontwikkeling van die tegniese vaardighede; konseptueie vaardighede; implementeringsvaardighede; ekonomiesejbesigheidsvaardighede; bestuursvaardighede; kommunikasievaardighede; en onderhandelingsvaardighede van staatsamptenare. Die proefskrif verstrek 'n breedvoerige onderskeid tussen doeltreffendheid in hoofstuk 4; effektiwiteit in hoofstuk 5; en produktiwiteit in hoofstuk 6, asook eienskappe en bestuurstegnieke geïdentifiseer ~m onderskeidelik die doeltreffendheid, effektiwiteit en produktiwiteit van dienslewering in openbaresektor-organisasies te verbeter, waardeur die tydigheid; geskiktheid; en gehalte van openbaredienslewering teen bekostigbare tariewe verbeter sal word. Hoofstuk 1 bied 'n algemene oorsig van die proefskrif. In hoofstuk 2 word die teorie en rasionaal van Openbaresektor-bestuurstegnieke bespreek. In hoofstuk 3 word gefokus op bestuurspraktyk met betrekking tot doeltreffendheid; effektiwiteit en produktiwiteit om die weg te baan vir die toepassing van die geselekteerde Openbaresektor-bestuurstegnieke in openbarediens-organisasies. Van die 12 Openbaresektor-bestuurstegnieke wat in hoofstuk 2 geïdentifiseer en bespreek is, word drie vir toepassing gekies ten einde doeltreffendheid soos bespreek in hoofstuk 4 te verbeter; twee word vir toepassing gekies ten einde effektiwiteit soos bespreek in hoofstuk 5 te verbeter; en twee word vir toepassing gekies ten einde produktiwiteit soos bespreek in hoofstuk 6 te verbeter. Die proefskrif word afgesluit met 'n opsomming en aanbevelings in hoofstuk 7. Item Open AccessAssessing academic success among off-campus students: A case study of Majuba Technical, Vocational Educational and Training College, Centre for People's Development Campus, South Africa(University of the Free State, 2022) Sokhela, Sizangani Pinkie Imaan; Mkwananzi, F. W.The Department of Higher Education in South Africa merged all technical colleges, colleges of education, and training centres into 50 Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) colleges to turn the smaller, weaker colleges into stronger institutions. This merger allowed the new bigger colleges the capacity to offer more educational programmes and the capacity to take more students, thus improving the issue of access to education and training (Human Resource Development Council for South Africa, 2013). Human development views the TVET sector as one of the means to develop capabilities, which are the opportunities that can lead to what the capability approach terms as "functioning" that the individual and communities at large can value (Tikly, 2013). The merger of the colleges meant that the youth had to temporarily move from their home and stay in the towns where the colleges are to be able to attend classes frequently. Few colleges were able to build college-owned accommodation facilities and students have to rent privately owned accommodation from the households within the area where campuses are based. The study seeks to understand and assess the academic success of students staying in the off-campus private accommodation, with the focus being the students of Majuba TVET college, Centre for People's Development (CPD) Campus. The capability approach is employed in analyzing the experiences of the students. The researcher adopted the qualitative research approach in form of a case study design. The information was gathered through semi-structured interviews with a total of 20 students that are enrolled for N5 and N6 from report 191 programmes, and L3 and L4 from the National Certificate Vocational (NCV). A thematic data analysis method was applied using the CA tenets. Findings from the study show that the South African government provided students in the TVET sector with National Student Financial Aid Scheme (NSFAS) so that students from poor economic backgrounds can access education and training opportunities. The unavailability of college-owned accommodation forces the students to seek private off-campus accommodation, which exposes them to several negative conversion factors that negatively affect their overall academic experience. Item Open AccessAn assessment of agricultural green schemes in Kavango East Region in Namibia(University of the Free State, 2021) Shimafo, France Rudolf Haushiku; Wienecke, AndreasThe study focuses on Green Agricultural Schemes (GASs) in Northern Namibia with an aim of assessing the benefits, challenges, and opportunities of GASs farmers in Kavango East Region. Green schemes refers to a government programme aimed at increasing food production in rural areas through irrigation programmes, provision of inputs and provision of necessary services or infrastructure. The study investigated four GASs in Kavango East region, these are Uvhungu-vhungu, Shitemo, Shandikongoro, and Ndonga Linena. The study used qualitative research approach to collect data using interviews and to analyse and present data. The results of the study show that the GAS small-scale farmers in Kavango East region have plenty of physical, economic, and infrastructural opportunities that promotes farming and benefit the farmers’ to a large extent. The results also show that the government has a positive GAS policy that ensure that the small scale farmers are supported technically, financially, and materially. The results of the study indicated that GASs have improved local people’s social and economic livelihoods. Apart from benefitting the farmers and the local community, GAS products have found their way into regional, national, and international markets. The study revealed that GAS farmers face a host of natural, human, economic, financial, and leadership challenges that threaten the existence of the GASs programme in Namibia. The study recommended that GAS small-scale farmers must be given long term payment period so that the farmers get opportunities to become fully equipped with modern farming resources to increase their performance and productivity. The government must introduce GAS annual reports so that the GAS are subjected to regular government audits to end financial mismanagement. Small-scale farmers in GASs should not only be trained farming knowledge and skills but should also be trained marketing skills or business accounting so that they are enabled to effectively sell their products and calculate their income and expenditures. Item Open AccessAn assessment of the Swaziland Vision 2022 strategic plan: opportunities and challenges(University of the Free State, 17-Jan) Shongwe, Thulie; Thwala, Wellington D.Achieving sustainable development and sustainable improvement in the quality of life of the people is the ultimate goal of each and every government in the world. However, this requires setting up a plan of action to properly guide the governments throughout the whole process. Accordingly, the Government of Swaziland also aspired to achieve ‘first world status’ by the year 2022, aimed at improving the quality of life of the people through the use of the National Development Strategy / Vision 2022. The study therefore sought to assess the opportunities and challenges of the Swaziland Vision 2022 Strategic Plan with a focus on finding out progress made towards Vision 2022 attainment, challenges that have hindered successful implementation of the Strategy as well as opportunities available and strategies for improvement. The study used a descriptive research design and questionnaires were administered to eighty respondents who were purposefully selected and comprised of the Ministry of Economic Planning (Implementation Office), Parliament Portfolio Committee, Civil Society Organizations, Academics, Development Practitioners and Community Development Councillors. The data collected were categorized and classified into comparative ideas and opinions and presented in tables using simple percentage supplemented with actual statements from the respondents. The findings indicated that it will be hard for the country to achieve the first world status because people are still battling with the fulfilment of their basis needs, coupled with the misconceptions that the people have, insufficient resources, corruption, lack of civic education and the lack of citizen participation in decision making. The study also found out that opportunities exist in the regional and international partnerships that the country has, availability and existence of skilled/educated resources, fertile soil and availability of infrastructure to support implementation of the NDS/Vision 2022. The study recommend that civic education should be conducted to allow the people to fully understand and appreciate the NDS/Vision 2022 and that they should be involved in all development endeavours as well as associate freely to discuss their development. Another recommendation was that the distribution and allocation of the budget should be fair and concentrate on important aspects and areas. Item Open AccessAudit reports of the Free State provincial departments: an audit and corporate governance perspective(University of the Free State, 2012-07) Crous, Cornelie; Lubbe, D. S.English: This study has been undertaken against the background of public concern regarding the administration and financial management of public finances. Specific attention has been given to the 12 provincial departments in the Free State province. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not there are trends in the aspects which have led to qualification, disclaimer and emphasis of matter paragraphs in the audit reports of these departments. This study aims to contribute towards the debate on the causes of the financial decline of government financial management and to offer some solutions to these problematic aspects. The literature review in this study focused mainly on the historic development of auditing. This historical overview covered areas in both the public and the private audit sectors and included the following aspects: 1) the development of auditing itself in England, the United States of America and South Africa; 2) the development of the audit report; 3) the development of the audit expectation gap; 4) the development of different forms of business as a key link in developments regarding the need for audits; 5) international harmonisation; and 6) the development of corporate governance as an integral part of auditing. The literature review was followed by a detailed analysis of the audit reports of the 12 provincial departments in the Free State. The aspects mentioned in each of the audit reports, from 2000/2001 to 2009/2010, were summarised and analysed to identify possible aspects that occurred, in each department separately, more than once over this 10-year period. A further comparison was made between the different departments to identify provincial trends. A basic scorecard system was also developed to rate and compare the various departments on their performance as far as audit reports are concerned. Based on the results of the comparison of audit aspects, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to the Members of the Executive Council (MECs), the Chief Financial Officers (CFOs), senior officials, the Auditor-General and private audit firms who also perform audits of public departments. The results of the empirical study, the questionnaire and the interviews indicated that the aspects identified in the document analysis of the audit reports correspond with the views of the interviewees. Aspects such as non-compliance to laws and regulations, insufficient supporting documentation, irregular, fruitless, wasteful and unauthorised expenditure and poor asset management were identified as the main causes of qualified and disclaimer audit reports. The same aspects have also proven to be challenges that the provincial departments need to address within the next three years. In addition to this conclusion, basic recommendations are made for improvement of these aspects in future. This study contributes towards the national debate on the causes for concern in public finance management and possible improvement to the public service in South Africa. This study further contributes towards possibly similar situations in the remaining eight provinces in South Africa in that the provinces may benefit from the aspects identified and the recommendations made to improve their own financial management. Item Open AccessAwareness of living expenses after retirement for Lesotho public servants(University of the Free State, 2015-10-13) Mokhothu, Polello; Van Zyl, HelenaThe main objective of the study was to analyse the Lesotho public servants’ awareness of living expenses after retirement. The secondary objectives were to determine if Lesotho public servants engaged in financial planning, take retirement risks into consideration when planning for their retirement and the degree of their engagement with the Public Officers’ Defined Contribution Pension Fund. In the research, the epistemology assumption followed is objectivism while the ontology assumption followed is positivism. Quantitative data was collected by means of a structured questionnaire presented in English to a sample of 408 public servants formulated from 24 Lesotho government ministries using stratified random sampling and simple random sampling. The research revealed that the majority of public servants aged 50 years and younger will have to work during their retirement to supplement their retirement income, while most public servants do not have other pension and investment funds to supplement their retirement income. Furthermore, Lesotho public servants do not wish to downsize their residential homes when they retire and very few public servants will carry substantial debts into retirement. The research concluded that since almost all public servants who have to work in retirement to supplement their income wish to join the business sector, public servants must be made aware of and be equipped with business development and business management skills. The employer must also accept the responsibility of educating the public servants about different employment options in retirement. Public servants should be encouraged to acquire specialist skills that require experience which will make them more competitive than younger workers in the future. Most importantly, the research established that a substantial percentage of public servants do not review their pension plan statements because they do not understand the terms of the Public Officers’ Defined Contribution Pension Fund. This hinders the public servants’ ability to make proper retirement provisions. The employer should organise a team composed of human resources management benefits specialists to educate the public servants on their pension plans and to facilitate the provision of timely statements.