Item Open AccessThe postfigurative Christ in Morley Callaghan's Such is my beloved(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2005) Hale, F.English: Symbolic Christ figures, i.e. characters whose lives to greatly varying extents mirror those of Jesus of Nazareth without being fully fledged allegories thereof, were frequently employed as fictional devices in nineteenth- and twentieth-century literature as means of expressing diverse qualities, lessons, mores, and values in the modern world. One esteemed literary artist who made use of this technique was the Canadian liberal Roman Catholic layman Morley Callaghan (1903-1990). In his novel of 1934, Such Is My Beloved, the protagonist, a gifted young priest in a major city, is a latter-day reflection of Christ. In this embodiment, Social Gospel aspects of Christianity come to the fore. Item Open AccessThe perceptions of morality of secondary school learners: a cross-cultural study(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2005) Coetzee, J.; Louw, D. A.; Jooste, J. C.English: The focus of this research is to determine the perceptions of morality among a group of young South Africans. More specifically, the possible role that gender, culture, lifestyle, religion and sexual practices in these perceptions of morality may play will be investigated. To date, no studies have attempted to measure the youth’s perceptions of morality. Consequently, little South African literature is available. While many variables are believed to influence the development and expression of morality, the variables that were measured in this study included gender, culture, lifestyle, sexual experience and religion, as found in literature. Seven schools were involved in this study. They were classified as being high, average and below average with regards to academic performance. After statistical analysis, the variable found to have the greatest influence on the perception of morality was gender. A core finding of this study was that the female learner’s responses point towards a higher level of morality than the male learners do. This study also found cultural differences with regard to morality. Frequency of religious practices was also found to have an influence on moral expression. The study also indicated that past sexual experience has an effect on the perception and expression of morality. Lifestyle was not found to be a significant factor in the perception of morality in this study. The results of the research will help to give clearer understanding of the youth’s perception of morality, which could then be incorporated into combating immorality, for example, through developing programmes in this regard. For future and especially comparative purposes, the findings of this study could also serve as a base-line measurement of the perceptions of morality among the South African youth, should one wish to determine to what extent these perceptions are static or dynamic. Item Open AccessDie krag van simbole en rites in die liturgie(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2005) Vos, C. J. A.Engish: There is an old and dynamic relationship between cult and context. This relationship implies that worship is not experienced in a void. A contextual approach must take into consideration the rise and fall of post-modern saints, where the power of symbols can also be seen. This article considers liturgy as a creative process. The liturgical meaning of symbols are also investigated. There is a specific focus on the symbolism of the Holy Communion. The focus also falls on the Kyrie, the Gloria and the Agnus Dei. Reformed liturgy has placed the Kyrie and the Gloria amongst confessions and mercy declarations. The Kyrie and the Gloria are entwined, and this can be seen in the invocation of commiseration that flows out into the praise of the commiseration. This article states the case for the use of Kyrie, the Gloria and the Agnus Dei during Holy Communion. Item Open Access'n Teologies-dogmatiese beoordeling van die Suid-Afrikaanse grondwetlike konsep van menswaardigheid(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2005) Vorster, N.English: Human dignity is the key foundational value of the South African Constitution. As constitutional value it informs constitutional interpretation at a range of levels. It is therefore important that the concept should be given a concrete content that is juridically applicable. This article examines the ethical content that courts are giving to human dignity and compares it with a reformed biblical view of human dignity. It concludes that the courts are mainly relying on the classical-liberal notion of dignity as an inherent inalienable characteristic of man to define human dignity. The main problem with the classical-liberal concept is that it is an abstract notion which is not based on empirical evidence. This makes it difficult to concretise the concept. It also overemphasises individual rights at the expense of social responsibility, which complicates the balancing of individual and social rights and leads to moral degeneration. The Reformed Christian view defines human dignity as a relational concept and not an inherent possession. It closely links right and responsibility, as well as individual and social rights. Although the Christian concept of human dignity is not juridically applicable in all of its dimensions it can help to contextualise and broaden the concept of human dignity within a South African context. Item Open AccessDie verwerkliking van die geloof in die kerklike kategese: basisteoretiese perspektiewe(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2005) Venter, C. J. H.; Van der Merwe, C. N.English: Relevant subject-related literature and empirical studies indicate that the relation of children of the covenant with God often stagnates after their confirmation of faith. Furthermore, they often do not progress towards experiencing their faith. According to empirical data and views expressed in subject-related literature, it seems as if the Bible and biblical material are treated only objectively during the years of catechetical instruction and children are often not guided adequately towards a subjective experience of their faith. Dogmatically this article highlights the relation between the objective receiving of salvation (fides quae creditur) and the subjective receiving and practising of salvation (fides qua creditur). The grace of God does not imply that children of the covenant become passive beings. On the contrary, the promises and the call of salvation require of children of the covenant to acquire an active attitude towards faith and to experience the total extent of the covenant of grace. In the course of catechetical instruction children of the covenant should be actively guided to share in God’s covenantal grace. The baptism of children of the covenant actually implies an urge and responsibility towards a new obedience. God also uses the means of ecclesiastical catechism to guide children through the activity of the Word and Spirit towards the receiving of salvation. The promises of God, however, require a response. The confirmation of faith should lead to the experiencing and realisation of faith. Item Open AccessA rhetorical analysis of Philippians 1: 12-26(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2005) Snyman, A. H.English: In this article Philippians 1:12-26 is analysed from a rhetorical perspective that differs from the typical approach of researchers, who tend to force ancient rhetorical categories on a letter. The analysis is done in terms of what is called a “grounded theoretical approach”. This approach is briefly summarised, followed by a systematic analysis of Paul’s basic rhetorical strategy, as well as all the supportive rhetorical techniques in these fifteen verses. It will be argued that these verses are an integral part of Paul’s rhetorical strategy, constructed from the text itself and aimed at reassuring the Philippians that his adversities are for the advancement of the gospel. The conclusion is that a text-centred approach with its focus on the functional aspects of the text, provides a better understanding of Paul’s rhetorical strategy than a typical rhetorical analysis, with its focus on the formal aspects of the text. Item Open AccessDie geboortedatum van Christus as 'n historiese probleem(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2005) Retief, F. P.; Cilliers, J. F. G.; Hoffman, M. J. H.English: In the past attempts to establish the date of birth of Jesus have led to proposed dates as early as 20 BC but also as late as 2 AD. In this article the limited primary historical sources are carefully examined and contemporary interpretations of these sources are critically reviewed. Astronomical information concerning the so-called “star of Bethlehem” is examined to determine to what extent it can contribute to a more accurate pinpointing of the date of birth. This examination leads to the conclusion that the date of birth of Jesus should be placed in 5 BC or 6 BC (between March and November). Item Open AccessJohannes Calvyn oor gebedsverhoring(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2005) Potgieter, P. C.English: Calvin has written extensively on prayer, not only in his Institutes, but also in his commentaries, sermons and letters. His views in this regard have been reflected in a substantial number of publications by various Calvin scholars. This article particularly researches his views on God’s answering of prayer, on which relatively little has been published yet. Some of Calvin’s views in this regard may be debatable — for instance his huge and often repeated emphasis on repentance as primary element of prayer, and his view that in delaying his answer to our prayers God is exercising us in patience. On the other hand he has said much that may currently be of significant importance for theology, and particularly for the pastoral care of the faithful in their search for understanding the ways of God.