Doctoral Degrees (Hebrew)

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  • ItemOpen Access
    God is sage: human cognition and metaphorical conceptualisation in Biblical Hebrew wisdom
    (University of the Free State, 2016-01) Schmidt, Nicolaas Fryer; Nel, Philip J.
    English: The theme focuses on how sages pictured THE DIVINE in the Biblical Hebrew text of Proverbs. The research problem questions the way in which Israelite-Jewish sages conceptualised God metaphorically by means of religious and cognitive experiences in the BIBLICAL HEBREW WISDOM of PROVERBS. The textual subsections of Proverbs are subjected to a paradigmatic cognitive-scientific research methodology, and studied according to a cognitive-linguistic approach as stipulated by the CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR THEORY of Lakoff and Johnson – God is inferentially derived as a primordial and providential Sage in the proverbial wisdom tradition. The central research statement and hypothesis states that ISRAELITE AND JEWISH SAGES conceptualised God metaphorically as a Sage by means of cognitive and religious experiences peculiar to the PROVERBIAL WISDOM TRADITION and distinctive of the priestly and prophetic theologies of the Hebrew Bible. The introduction is followed by an exposé on the research and reception history of the Divine according to Kuhn‟s paradigm theory. As a consequence of the second chapter, the third and fourth chapters focus on the paradigmatic cognitive-scientific methodology and Lakoff and Johnson‟s Conceptual Metaphor theory, to explain how the Divine is metaphorically delimited, analysed and portrayed. The conceptual analysis of metaphorical categories and linguistic extensions of the Biblical Hebrew concepts for “heart” (√לבב ), “wisdom” (√חכם ) and “God-fearing” (√ירא ) are discussed as expressions which schematically structure God in terms of mental and prototypical-experiential, -educational and -ethical domains. These phrases provide more abstract projections and gestalt experiences of the Divine personification in Proverbs. The fourth chapter distinguishes the cognitive and mental character of Conceptual Metaphor Theory from other linguistic theories that are more strongly focused on the grammatical, syntactical and pragmatic aspects of metaphors. Reasons are provided for why the Divine should instead be conceptualised metaphorically. A five-fold CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR MODEL is proposed, which introduces, investigates and conceptually identifies metaphors for the God YHWH in Proverbs‟ proverbial wisdom tradition, as well as implicates necessary consequences. In chapter five this conceptual metaphor model is comprehensively applied to the Biblical Hebrew text of Proverbs and the underlying textual subsections of the proverbial wisdom tradition: YHWH is conceptualised by sages and editors as a patriarchal Father and King prior to the Babylonian Exile (Proverbs 10-29), as a Teacher and especially as Lady Wisdom during the Exile (chapter 1-9), as a Mysterious Sage and Sceptical Scribe in the Persian times and Diaspora (Proverbs 30), and eventually as a feminine Teacher and Lady Virtue during the Hellenistic times (Proverbs 31). The cognitive-ideological interpretation of Proverbs indicates that the ancient Israelite and early Jewish YHWH served as the Main Deity in the Israelite Assembly, with LADY WISDOM as his Daughter and Wife – Wisdom was venerated as a Hebrew Goddess by students, in contrast to Lady Folly and the prominent cultic-priestly and charismatic-prophetic traditions, which drastically edited and canonically portrayed YHWH in absolute, monotheistic fashions by the end of the Exile in absolute monotheistic fashions. The inherent nature of Biblical Hebrew proverbial wisdom boils down to natural theology, as expressed by the theological phrase of fides quaerens intellectum, or “FAITH SEEKING UNDERSTANDING”. The conclusion questions the reliability and validity of the research design. A discussion of the investigative theme is followed by critical remarks pertaining to the Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Model, an evaluation of research paradigms, the ideological nature of human understandings of Scripture, as well as the Divine importance for the SOUTH AFRICAN academic, ecclesiastic and theological societies. Four possible research proposals are followed with a discussion of our human incapability of thinking and reasoning about “God” in ways that are not conceptual and not metaphorical. In conclusion, reference is made to the University of the Free State‟s recent brand changes, as well as the possible future consequences of this for both the public institution and the majority of believing South Africans.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Spatial cognition and the death metaphor in the Hebrew Bible
    (University of the Free State, 2015-01) Lamprecht, Adriaan; Naudé, Jacobus. A.; Bergh, Luna
    ENGLISH: This study introduces a cognitive semantic approach to Biblical Hebrew linguistics with important implications for Biblical Hebrew semantic study, Biblical Hebrew lexicography, Bible interpretation and translation, and Conceptual Metaphor theory. Traditionally, the semantics of spatial-motion verbs in Biblical Hebrew has been interpreted in accordance with comparative, historical-comparative and structural approaches towards language. Consequently, the meanings of these spatial-motion verbs appear incoherent and arbitrary. This apparent gap between the so-called ‘discovery procedures’ that the Biblical Hebrew linguist should in practice adopt when facing a corpus of data for analysis and the meaning of the spatial-motion verbs, is bridged by applying the cognitive semantic approach to the analyses of the spatial motion verbs dry (jrd) and hl[ (`lh) in the Hebrew Bible. This is done in order to support the hypothesis that these verbs carry non-metaphorical (literal) meanings and metaphorical meanings, and that the linguistic processing of DEATH as an abstract concept involves activation of spatial systems. The study has three main parts. The first part (Chapter 3) reflects on the ancient Israelites’ conceptualisation of space which attempts to employ spatial cognition to uncover conventional image schematic patterns, categorisations and FRAMES at the conceptual level in order to understand the spatial motion verbs dry (jrd) and hl[ (`lh) and their related encyclopaedic knowledge systems. The second part (Chapters 4-5) focuses on the mental processes and semantic structure encoded by the spatial motion verbs dry (jrd) and hl[ (ˊlh) in context of use. In the last instance (Chapter 6), the study explores the concept of DEATH within the context of its essential and relational motion and spatial expressions. The study finds that the knowledge structures used by the ancient Israelites include image schemas, a spatial frame of reference, cognitive map knowledge and a HEAVEN-EARTH-SHEOL frame. The analyses of the data show that far from being solely topological, the primitives of dry (jrd) and hl[ (ˊlh) are packed with derived meaning; and that by unpacking these meanings we can shed light on the ancient Israelites’ spatial experiences, ideological presuppositions, cultural beliefs and abstract reasoning. Furthermore, the analyses of the data show that the verbs dry (jrd) and hl[ (ˊlh) can shift meanings in different contexts of use. The shift from the literal to the metaphorical aspects of the lexical meaning of the verbs dry (jrd) and hl[ (ˊlh) involves image schemas, FRAMES and binary structures found in the linguistic system and the conceptual system. An important finding regarding the ancient Israelites’ conceptual system is that abstract concepts are systematically structured in terms of conceptual domains deriving from their experience involving properties like motion in horizontal and vertical elevation, containment, structures and the body. The verbs dry (jrd) and hl[ (ˊlh) are mainly used for the conceptualisation of changes in the following target domains: HIERARCHY, BEHAVIOUR, QUANTITY, TIME and STATES. A discussion of certain narratives (Judges 11:37; 2 Kings 2:2; 2 Kings 2:11) validates the claim that abstract conceptual domains such as DEATH are structured by metaphorical mappings from more concrete experiential domains such as motion and space. Lastly, this study extends the existing knowledge of conceptual metaphor. Specifically, it expands the knowledge concerning verbs conflating a bipolar conceptual component, that is, MOTION and PATH. This study reveals that dry (jrd) and hl[ (ˊlh)’s bipolar lexical concept MOTION DOWN/UP may split into two unipolar lexical concepts MOTION and DOWN/UP in which only one unipolar lexical concept, that is DOWN/UP, is used for metaphorical conceptual mapping. AFRIKAANS: Hierdie studie gebruik ‘n kognitief-semantiese benadering tot Bybel-Hebreeuse linguistiek wat belangrike implikasies inhou vir Bybel-Hebreeuse semantiese studie, Bybel-Hebreeuse leksikografie, Bybelinterpretasie- en vertaling en Konseptuele Metafoor-teorie. Die semantiek van ruimtelik-bewegingswerkwoorde in Bybel-Hebreeus is tradisioneel in navolging van vergelykende-, histories-vergelykende- en strukturele benaderings tot taal bestudeer. Die betekenis van hierdie ruimtelik-bewegingswerkwoorde vertoon gevolglik ʼn inkonsekwente en arbitrêre karakter. Hierdie herkenbare gaping tussen die sogenaamde ‘ontdekkings prosedures’ wat die Bybel-Hebreeuse taalwetenskaplike in praktyk moet aanwend wanneer hy/sy ‘n databasis bestudeer, en daarmee saam die betekenis van die ruimtelik-bewegingswerkwoorde bepaal, word oorbrug deur die kognitief-semantiese benadering in die bestudering van die ruimtelik-bewegingswerkwoorde dry (jrd) en hl[ (`lh) in die Hebreeuse Bybel aan te wend. Dit word gedoen om die hipotese, naamlik dat hierdie werkwoorde ‘n nie-metaforiese (letterlike) en ‘n metaforiese betekenis vertoon, en ook dat die taalkundige beskrywing van die DOOD as abstrakte konsep die aktivering van ruimtelike sisteme insluit, te ondersteun. Die studie word volgens drie hoofdele georden. Die eerste afdeling (Hoofstuk 3) gee aandag aan die antieke Israeliete se konseptualisering van ruimte en poog om ruimtelike kognisie te gebruik om konvensionele beeldskema patrone, kategorisering en RAAMWERKE op konseptuele vlak bloot te lê. Die doelwit hiervan is om die ruimtelike-bewegingswerkwoorde dry (jrd) en hl[ (`lh) en hul verwante ensiklopediese kennissisteme te verstaan. Die tweede afdeling (Hoofstukke 4-5) fokus op die kognitiewe prosesse en semantiese struktuur wat deur die ruimtelike-bewegingswerkwoorde dry (jrd) en hl[ (ˊlh) in konteks van gebruik blootgelê word. In die laaste afdeling (Hoofstuk 6) bestudeer hierdie studie die konsep DOOD in die konteks van die konsep se fundamentele en verbandhoudende bewegings- en ruimtelike uitdrukkings. Die studie bevind dat die kennisstrukture wat deur die antieke Israeliete gebruik is die volgende insluit: beeldskemas, ʼn ruimtelike verwysingsraamwerk, ʼn kognitiewe kaart kennis en ʼn HEMEL-AARDE-SHEOL raamwerk. Die bestudering van die data toon dat die basiese betekenis van dry (jrd) en hl[ (ˊlh) nie alleenlik topologies van aard is nie, maar dat die basiese betekenis ryk is aan afgeleide betekenis. Deur hierdie betekenismoontlikhede bloot te lê kan ʼn mens meer lig werp op die antieke Israeliete se ruimtelike waarnemings, ideologiese voorveronderstellings, kulturele idees en abstrakte denkepatrone. Verder, die bestudering van die data toon dat die werkwoorde dry (jrd) en hl[ (ˊlh) hul betekenisse in verskillende gebruiks-kontekste kan aanpas. Die verplasing vanaf die letterlike na die metaforiese aspekte van die leksikale betekenisse van die werkwoorde dry (jrd) en hl[ (ˊlh) sluit beeldskemas, RAAMWERKE en binêre strukture in wat in die linguistiese sisteem en die konseptuele sisteem gevind is. ‘n Belangrike bevinding ten opsigte van die antieke Israeliete se konseptuele sisteem is dat abstrakte konsepte sistematies gestruktureer is in terme van konseptuele domeine wat afleibaar is van hul belewenis van beweging in horisontale- en vertikale ruimte, beweging in houers, beweging van strukture en die beweging van die liggaam. Die werkwoorde dry (jrd) en hl[ (ˊlh) word hoofsaaklik gebruik vir die konseptualisering van verandering in die volgede domeine: HIËRARGIE, GEDRAG, KWANTITEIT, TYD en STATUS. ‘n Bespreking van sekere verhale (Rigters 11:37, 2 Konings 2:2, 2 Konings 2:11) bevestig die aanname dat abstrakte konseptuele domeine soos DOOD gestruktureer is deur metaforiese passings van konkrete belewenis-domeine soos beweging en ruimte. Laastens, die studie verbreed die bestaande kennis van konseptuele metafore. Meer spesifiek, die studie verbreed die kennis met betrekking tot werkwoorde wat ‘n bipolêre konseptuele komponent vertoon, naamlik BEWEGING en ROETE. Die studie toon dat dry (jrd) en hl[ (ˊlh) se bipolêre konseptuele komponent BEWEGING AF/OP kan verdeel in twee een-kantige leksikale konsepte BEWEGING en AF/OP waarin net een een-kantige leksikale konsep, naamlik AF/OP gebruik word vir metaforiese konseptuele passing.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A descriptive analysis of Septuagint Micah
    (University of the Free State, 2015-07) Modugno, Steve Michael; Miller-Naudé, Cynthia L.; Naudé, Jacobus A.
    English: This study combines the strengths of both Septuagint Studies and Translation Studies to describe Septuagint Micah. It employs rigorous text critical tools and methods to assess translation errors that resulted from the translator’s insufficient grammatical/lexical knowledge or from orthographical/phonological mistakes. At times, it concludes that the translator’s Hebrew Vorlage differed from the MT. An important advance in this study involves the use of the most recent advances in translation theory to determine purposeful, idiosyncratic shifts introduced by the translator. The theoretical framework for this study is the recognition that translations exist within a cultural and literary polysystem where the translator affects change in the polysystem and the polysystem exerts some control over translation norms. Based on this theoretical framework, Descriptive Translation Studies scholars have developed three primary translation models—comparative, process and causal. Of these, Chesterman’s causal model was chosen for this study because it incorporates the strengths of both comparative and process models. The causal model accounts for three important aspects of the translation: the preliminary norms (causal conditions), translated text and translation effects (target culture reception). The translated text provides the core material of investigation, in which every coupled-pair (i.e., the source text phrase and the translation of it) is analysed thoroughly to discern and describe translation shifts. Through categorising these shifts, translation tendencies and patterns emerged. These reflect the translator’s operational norms, which are either obligatory (linguistically constrained) or non-obligatory (translation choices). Among the most important non-obligatory operational norms involve the translator’s style, concern for message clarity, theology and ideology. His preferred style led him to provide lexical variation and smooth syntax. Because he valued clarity in the translated text, he employed techniques of explicitisation, concretisation (rarely metaphorisation), harmonisation and interpretation. He introduced changes that reflected his own theology. For instance, through several shifts from singular “evil” to plural “evil deeds” the translator suggests that the sins of the Israelites were numerous and great to have warranted the punishment they endured. Similarly, they alone were culpable for their sins and God was justified in punishing them. Other shifts seem to indicate that God did not save them because they did not turn to him in prayer and they did not fear him. Ideologically, shifts occurred primarily through the technique of historicising. The translator effectively distinguished the Israelites of the past (who had brought upon themselves the exile) from the diaspora Jews living in the 3rd or 2nd century B.C.E. Alexandria who were contemporaneous with the translator. However, through two other shifts the translator included the post-exilic Jewish diaspora in God’s threats of future judgment. The intent of this study was to describe LXX-Micah and reveal how its translator intervened in the text to infuse his own idiosyncratic theological perspective. The results seem to indicate that he truly was an agent of change.