Masters Degrees (Psychology)

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 168
  • ItemOpen Access
    Emotional intelligence, adjustment, media and technology usage, and sex as predictors of psychological well-being amongst undergraduate university students
    (University of the Free State, 2021-06) Nel, Emma Nicole; Jordaan, J.
    Abstract not available
  • ItemOpen Access
    Repetitive negative thinking as a mediator between experiential avoidance and emotional distress amongst students at a South African university
    (University of the Free State, 2021-10) Munsamy, Kimberley Mariah; Walker, S. P.; McHugh, L. A.
    University students appear to report greater emotional distress than the general population. Experiential avoidance has been found to contribute to the development and exacerbation of emotional distress. Moreover, repetitive negative thinking may influence the relationship between experiential avoidance and emotional distress. However, no study has investigated the interaction of these variables amongst South African students. The current study thus sought to investigate (i) whether repetitive negative thinking mediates the relationship between experiential avoidance and emotional distress, and (ii) whether gender differences and/or educational status impact this interaction. Participants were 419 undergraduate students at a large public university in South Africa (Female=75.2%, First-generation students=37.5%). Participants completed measures of experiential avoidance, emotional distress, rumination, and worry. No significant differences were found with respect to emotional distress, experiential avoidance, or repetitive negative thinking across gender or educational status. Experiential avoidance and repetitive negative thinking accounted for 60.8% of the variance in emotional distress. Rumination emerged as the strongest predictor of experiential avoidance. Repetitive negative thinking partially mediated the relationship between experiential avoidance and emotional distress. Implications of these findings for mental health are discussed and areas for future research are identified.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Coping, resilience, self-esteem and age as predictors of psychological well-being amongst undergraduate university students
    (University of the Free State, 2021-06) Basson, Monique; Jordaan, J.
    Psychological Well-being is considered to be more than merely being free from stress and not having any psychological difficulties. It incorporates positive self-perception, positive relations with others, environmental mastery, autonomy, purpose in life, and emotions focused towards healthy development (Ryff, 1995; Ryff & Singer, 1998; Sosik et al., 2017). Stress is often used in the description of coping, as, without stress, there is no need to cope (Jurji et al., 2018). The coping style that university students adopt is often used as a predictor for PWB and their ease of settling into the university environment (Pluut et al., 2015). Additionally, individuals with high levels of resilience are more often able to maintain PWB in stressful and adverse situations (Shahdadi et al., 2017; Videlock et al., 2016). Moreover, high self-esteem contributes to greater PWB than low self-esteem overall (Swann & Bosson, 2010). PWB is beneficial for adults to live a healthy life, making it an important aspect of one's life in the university years, which can be chaotic and full of psychological stress (Molina-García et al., 2011). This study aimed to investigate which variables or combination of variables (Coping, Resilience, Self-esteem, and Age) explain a significant percentage of the variance in Psychological Well-being (PWB) amongst undergraduate university students. In order to determine the correlations between the variables, a correlational design was central to the non-experimental, quantitative study. This research study made use of an existing set of data from a larger research project. A non-probability convenience sampling method was employed in the original research project to recruit 1191 registered undergraduate university students between the ages of 18 and 29 at the University of the Free State. The sample included participants from all ethnic groups, cultures, languages, genders, provinces, majors and religious backgrounds. The measuring instruments included a biographical questionnaire, Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being (SPWB), the Resilience Scale (RS), the Coping Strategy Indicator (CSI), and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). A correlation analyses was conducted, followed by a hierarchical multiple regression analyses which was used to analyse the data. From this, the combination of the predictor variables (Coping, Resilience, Self-esteem, and Age) statistically significantly predicted PWB. In terms of the hierarchical multiple regression results there was one result that was statistically and practically significant. With Self-acceptance as the criterion variable, the hierarchical regression analyses found that the combination of the independent variables (coping, resilience, self-esteem, and age) accounted for 37.3% of the variance in the Self-acceptance scores of the sample indicating a statistically significant result on the 1% level. Practically, this indicates that 37.3% of the variance in the Self-acceptance scores of the university students can be explained by the combination of their coping skills, levels of resilience, their self-esteem, and age. From this, 11.5% of the variance in the Self-acceptance scores of the sample is accounted for by Self-esteem as a statistically significant predictor variable. The medium comparable effect size (f2 = 0.18) suggests that this finding is of practical significance and the statistical significance is at the 1% level. In addition to the hierarchical multiple regression analysis, stepwise regression analyses was further conducted independently for each subscale of the criterion variable (Autonomy, Personal Growth, Positive Relations, Purpose in Life, and Self-acceptance). From the stepwise regression analyses, the discussion of the results focused mainly on self-esteem, which proved to significantly (both practically and statistically) account for the variance in the PWB dimensions. More research on PWB amongst university students in South Africa is required to validate these findings.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Locus of control as moderator in the relationship between interpersonal relation behaviour and resilience in the High Reliability Organisation (HRO) environment of aviators
    (University of the Free State, 2021-11) Kotze, Izak Theo; Van Dijk, M.; Esterhuyse, K. G. F.
    The technological research and advancements of machines in the 21st century have accelerated the human endeavour into extreme and unusual environments. The establishment of these environments, such as the confined cockpit of an aircraft, has placed noted demands on the human capability to adapt to faster, more complex machines while saturated in an over stimulating environment (Antonovich, 2008; Driskell & Olmstead, 1989). The vast amount of research in this field has led to the enhancement and development of safer, more efficient machines. Consequently aviation is a field where errors occur rarely but where the consequences of any error are extreme. The potential for failure is high, however, the amount of actual occurring failures are low (Baker et al., 2006). This phenomenon qualifies aviation as a High Reliability Organization (HRO) (Baker et al., 2006; Bourrier, 2011; Rochlin, 2011). In the HRO environment the crew serves as the central core of all processes, thus highlighting human essence (Reason, 2001; Wesnser, 2015). Yet shortcomings exist in understanding and improving the social interaction of individuals as part of the crew in the cockpit of the aircraft (John Paul et al., 2010). Human beings are the source of resilience in the complex system of aviation and the reason that things go right (Dekker & Woods, 2010). The capacity to be resilient however is rooted within a bond of secure (close attachment) relationships yet cannot be attributed to one specific factor. These predictors are referred to as protective factors (Prince & Embury, 2013). Fundamental basic human needs, characterised by interactive relation behaviour (Sullivan, 1953) is deemed to be such an important protective factor. However, as much as the dynamic interplay of interpersonal needs are crucial for resilient behaviour when in distress, motivation to satisfy social needs can lead to behaviour that erodes resilience and interferes with preserving the living system. The phenomenon of locus of control (LOC), conceptualised as the belief that a person’s behaviour determines consequences either as an active agent, by being master of their own fate or by a function of chance (Thomas, 2017), may provide information on how to understand and improve the social interactive dynamic of the functioning of the cockpit crew and promote resilience (Woods, 2020). LOC may serve as the motivation for potential behaviour to attain interpersonal need satisfaction (Thomas, 2017). 2 Against this background the aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of human interaction and human social needs in an HRO. More specifically, the objective was to identify whether there is a significant relationship between resilience and fundamental interpersonal orientation and secondly to determine if the behaviour that results from this orientation is moderated by a pilot’s locus of control. A quantitative research approach, non-experimental type has been employed. A correlational design was utilised (Howell, 2017). The measuring instruments included a biographical questionnaire, Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavioural Scale (FIRO-B), Aviation Safety Locus of Control Scale (ASLOC) and the Inventory to assess Behaviour towards Organisational Resilience in Aviation (I-BORA). Results from this study indicated that only low I-LOC statistically significantly moderates the relationship between interpersonal relation orientation and resilience of aviators in a positive way. The results found that in aviators with a low I-LOC an increase in their overall interpersonal relation orientation will lead to a direct proportional increase in their resilience. Furthermore, the findings indicated that E-LOC does not have a moderating effect on the relationship between interpersonal relation orientation and resilience. The finding emphasises the need for further research on the influence of LOC regarding the relationship between interpersonal behaviour orientation and resilience in the HRO context.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Impulsive risk behaviours, self-harm, and demographic factors as predictors of coping amongst university students
    (University of the Free State, 2021-11) Harichand, Prianca; Jordaan, J.
    University students face significant levels of psychological distress due to the transitional period that they find themselves in, known as emerging adulthood, which, for young adults, is between the ages of 18 to 29 years. During this period, university students find it increasingly difficult as they encounter numerous stressors, have the tendency to lack the necessary coping mechanisms, have poor social support, experience rapid changes in social and psychological development, and have high academic expectations, while having to develop social roles and preparing for adult roles. Furthermore, university students tend to struggle with psychological challenges such as depression, anxiety, suicidality, a history of psychiatric hospitalisation, self-injury incidents, sexual assault concerns on campus, and alcohol-related issues. Consequently, due to the increase in the stressors and the psychological severity of problems during this transitional period, university students find it challenging to cope. This study aimed to investigate which variables or combination of variables (Impulsive Risk Behaviours, Self-Harm, Age, Gender, and Academic Level) explained a significant percentage of variance in Coping among university students. To determine the correlations between variables, a correlational design was necessary for this non-experimental, quantitative study. A non-probability sampling technique known as convenience sampling was used in this study. The sample comprised 471 university students from the University of the Free State from all ethnic groups and genders, aged between 18 and 29 years, enrolled for any major and on either undergraduate or postgraduate educational level from various departments within the Faculty of the Humanities. The students were from disciplines that included, but were not limited to, Psychology, Criminology, Anthropology, Communication Science, Sociology, and Political Science. The measuring instruments included a self-developed biographical questionnaire, the Impulsive Behaviour Scale (IBS), the Self-Harm Information Form (SHIF), and the Coping Orientation to Problem Experience (COPE) Inventory. Correlation analyses were conducted, followed by hierarchical regression analyses, which were used to analyse the data. The research findings highlighted that Impulsive Risk Behaviour demonstrated statistically significant positive correlations with (1) Behavioural Disengagement and (2) Substance Use Coping. Furthermore, a statistically significant positive correlation was found between Self-Harm and Substance Use Coping. Lastly, Impulsive Risk Behaviour statistically and practically significantly predicted Substance Use Coping among university students, which corresponded with previous research that stipulated a positive relationship between impulsive risk behaviours and substance use coping. However, the current study was not able to demonstrate a combination of predictor variables that predicted Coping among university students. Consequently, numerous variables yielded statistically significant results, although practical significance was not obtained and hence was not discussed in the study. The study’s findings demonstrate a relationship between Impulsive Risk Behaviour, Self-Harm, Disengagement Coping, and Substance Use Coping, which all are of concern among university students. These results indicate that students tend to utilise maladaptive behaviours and coping strategies to deal with their stressors. However, further research should be conducted on the predictors of coping among university students in South Africa to build on the knowledge created by this study.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The relationship between identity status and career maturity in male and female adolescents in the South African context
    (University of the Free State, 2021-11) Mahlaba, Siphesihle P.; Naude, L.
    Adolescence is a transitional stage between childhood and adulthood and is characterised by numerous and multidimensional developments. Identity development is one of the major developments that takes place during this developmental phase. Identity develops through a process of exploration and commitment, influenced by a range of proximal and distal contextual factors. Furthermore, this psychosocial task is linked to other key domains of development such as career development. The development of a career is a long-term process and it is in adolescence where the first formal steps of crafting a career are noted. Associated with a successful career development process is the psychosocial factor of career maturity. Against this background, adolescents are required to be concerned about vocational goals while simultaneously shaping their identities. Accordingly, this research study aimed to explore a relationship between identity status and career maturity in male and female adolescents in the South African context. This research study is anchored by numerous theoretical frameworks including the Psychosocial Development Theory by Erik Erikson and Identity Status Theory by James Marcia, which were utilised to inform on identity and the development thereof. For the variable of career maturity the Career Development Theory by Donald Super, the Career Maturity Model by John Crites and the Career Construction Theory by Mark Savickas are referenced. A non-experimental-type, quantitative research study and correlational and criterion group designs were employed in this research study. The final sample of participants totalled 362. The sample of participants was obtained from the Mangaung area using a non-probability, convenience sampling approach. The participants had to be in the adolescent developmental phase and up to the maximum age of 21. Data was collected through a questionnaire battery. A biographic questionnaire was used to obtain biographic information. To measure ego identity status, the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (OMEIS) by Adams et al. (1979) was used and to assess career maturity, the adapted Career Maturity Inventory (CMI) by Crites and Savickas (as cited in Savickas & Porfeli, 2011) was used. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, namely the multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) and the standard multiple regression analysis, which revealed a significant and positive relationship between achievement identity status and career maturity. Additionally, the results by gender were found to be non-significant. Based on the results, it is concluded that a coherent sense of identity is a positive predictor of career maturity, while gender in the South African context is not an associated factor.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Divorcees' experiences of emotional regulation within a co-parenting relationship
    (University of the Free State, 2021-10) Sangster, Heske; Kruger, I.
    Emotional regulation is generally defined as the process in which individuals attempt to control the intensity, duration and expressive behaviour concerning an emotion. It has been suggested that the context in which emotional regulation occurs significantly impacts the individual’s ability to successfully regulate emotions. A divorce can have a significant impact on an individual’s ability to successfully regulate emotions. Scant literature exists on divorcees’ experience of emotional regulation in a co-parenting context. Various factors can influence co-parents’ ability to regulate their emotions during co-parenting tasks after a divorce. This study focused on the experience of emotional regulation within divorced co-parents. The researcher aimed to gain insight into these experiences by making use of a qualitative research design which is aimed at gaining in depth, authentic experiences of the participants. A multiple, single case study design was employed. The data was analysed by making use of thematic analysis. Gross’s process model of emotional regulation has been argued to be the leading model in explaining emotional regulation and the different regulatory strategies as it encompasses strategies employed throughout the generative course of emotions. This model was originally presented in 1998 and has been extended to the extended process model. The model is grounded on the modal model of emotions which conceptualises emotions as a four step process. Results and findings were thus discussed at the hand of this model. Results indicated that divorced co-parents makes use of a wide variety of emotional regulation strategies including adaptive and maladaptive strategies. Prominent emotional regulation strategies utilised by participants included; redirection of focus, reappraisal, adaptive behaviours as well as maladaptive behaviours.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Time perspective as a predictor of academic competence among black first-year students in the Humanities
    (University of the Free State, 2012-11) Steyn, Rinet; Naude, L.
    English: The aim of the study was to explore the constructs of academic competence and time perspective amongst a population of Black African first-year students from the Faculty of the Humanities at the University of the Free State. A mixed method design was implemented to investigate the research aims in a conclusive manner. The potential of time perspective to predict academic competence was investigated during the quantitative phase. Greater in-depth knowledge was gained by exploring the participants' understanding of the constructs in the qualitative phase. In the quantitative phase of the study, participants' time perspective was measured with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), which divides time perspective into five frames: past-positive, past-negative, present-hedonistic, present-fatalistic, and future. Academic competence was conceptualised as the average result of all the modules that the participants had completed during 2011. A multiple regression analysis was conducted in order to measure the amount of variance in academic competence that is accounted for by time perspective. The quantitative results did not indicate a significant predictive value of time perspective in relation to academic competence. However, the past-negative time frame showed a significant negative correlation with academic competence. During the qualitative phase of the study, focus group sessions and individual interviews were conducted with a select number of participants in order to explore their personal understanding of the relevant constructs. A thematic analysis identified the challenges that were unique to the population as forces that limit academic competence. It was also found that participants apply different time frames and utilise all as motivational forces for achieving academic competence. The way in which social relationships are related to time perspective was identified as an important role player in participants' engagement with their studies.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Predictors of prison adjustment amongst male incarcerated offenders in a private maximum-security correctional centre
    (University of the Free State, 2019-06) Rogers, Codi; Jordaan, J.; Esterhuyse, K. G. F.
    English: Offenders adjust to incarceration in different ways. When adjusting to a highly structured, austere and unique maximum-security correctional centre, this adjustment process is further compounded. The aim of this research was to determine which variables are the best predictors of correctional adjustment amongst male incarcerated offenders in a private maximum-security correctional centre in South Africa. The subsequent purpose of the research was to determine how male offenders with different coping strategies, aggression levels, perceived social support, ages, offender type classifications (first time offender vs repeat offender) and sentence lengths adjust to incarceration in a private maximum-security correctional centre. The conceptualisation of this research was based on existing literature albeit very little prior research could be contextualised due to the very distinctive private, maximum-security correctional system in South Africa. N=418 offenders voluntarily participated in this study and the Prison Adjustment Questionnaire was used to measure the offenders’ Internal (uncomfortableness around other offenders, correctional staff, anger and trouble sleeping), External (heated arguments and fights with other offenders and correctional staff) and Physical Adjustment (frequency of illness, injury, fear of being attacked and taken advantage of). This study was the first South African research endeavour that made use of the PAQ. The PAQ indicated good internal consistencies and this validates the use of the instrument on a sample of male incarcerated offenders in a private, maximum-security correctional centre in South Africa. Participants conveniently situated within pockets of the correctional centre, such as the school, the skills development workshops and social work group sessions were invited to participate in this study. The results of this study indicated that offenders’ Internal and External Adjustment were predicted by a number of variables used in this study and these findings were of medium practical importance. Firstly, the combination of Friends and Avoidance Coping significantly predicted an offenders’ Internal Adjustment. The combination of Friends, Avoidance Coping and Problem-Solving also significantly predicted and explained 12.4% of the variance in the Internal Adjustment of offenders and the results were of medium practical importance. Furthermore, the combination of Anger and Friends significantly predicted the offenders External Adjustment. The combination of three predictor variables namely Anger, Friends and Verbal Aggression significantly predicted and explained 11.2% of the variance in the External Adjustment of the offenders and the results were of medium practical importance. None of the identified independent variables (coping strategies, aggression levels, perceived social support, age, offender type classification or sentence length) that predicted the Physical Adjustment of the offenders were of any practical importance. More research on offender adjustment to private, maximum-security correctional centres in South Africa is required to validate these findings.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Predictors of emotional intelligence amongst university students
    (University of the Free State, 2019-06) Cronje, Johrine; Jordaan; Esterhuyse
    The education of the labour force directly impacts the economy of a country. The successful employment of university students indicates a strong positive relationship with regards to students’ academic performance and emotional well-being, especially during their university years. University students experience several psychological challenges that often lead to a withdrawal from their studies. Various studies within South Africa identified psychological challenges, such as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress, which leave students feeling despondent and vulnerable, often resulting in academic failure. Almost 50% of students complete their three-year or four-year undergraduate degree within five years. These statistics raise a concern to South Africa’s competent labour market. The emotional intelligence of undergraduate university students is thus an important matter of concern, as it seems to be on the decrease, due to the technogenic age. These students’ attention is held captive by technology use, resulting in fewer opportunities to practice emotional competencies as they find safety in the digital space rather than face-to-face interactions. However, resilience enables undergraduate university students to persevere through turbulent times. Students with a high level of resilience are better capable to alter or sustain their emotional reactions to the demands of the constantly changing emotional environment. This ability has a strong positive correlation with emotional intelligence and a positive effect on the mental health of undergraduate university students. This study aims to investigate which variables or combination of variables explain a significant percentage in emotional intelligence amongst undergraduate university students. In order to determine the relationship between variables, a correlational design was central to the non-experimental, quantitative study. A non-probability convenience sampling method was employed to recruit 1191 registered undergraduate university students between the ages of 18 and 30 at the University of the Free State. The sample included participants from all ethnic groups, cultures, languages, genders, provinces, majors and religious backgrounds. The measuring instruments included a biographical questionnaire, The Schutte Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale and the Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data. The combination of the predictor variables (Resilience, Media and Technology usage, Age, Gender, Religious Affiliation and Religious Practice) statistically and practically significantly predicted emotional intelligence. The results further indicated that resilience is the only predictor variable with a statistically significant contribution to the emotional intelligence of undergraduate university students with a large corresponding effect size (f2 = 0.48). It was found that resilience accounted for 27.8% variance in the Emotional Intelligence scores of the undergraduate university students. This finding concurs with the building blocks of the model of emotional intelligence competencies (Mayer et al., 2000). It is suggested that resilient individuals are able to (1) recognise emotions, (2) use emotions to facilitate thought, (3) make sense of emotional information and (4) regulate their emotions (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000; Schutte, Malouff, & Thorsteinsson, 2013).
  • ItemOpen Access
    Predictors of coping amongst male incarcerated offenders in a private maximum-security correctional centre
    (University of the Free State, 2019-06) Pretorius, Sheree Elizabeth; Jordaan, Jacques; Esterhuyse, Karel
    Young adult male incarcerated offenders tend to lack adequate coping skills when addressing their personal problems within a correctional environment. Young adult male incarcerated offenders also tend to acquire problematic coping skills in order to survive in the correctional environment, which is marked by overcrowding, deviant subcultures, victimisation, role stripping, loss of goods and loss of autonomy. Although previous research has been conducted on the coping strategies of young adult male incarcerated offenders, relatively few studies have been done on the predictors of coping amongst South African young adult male incarcerated offenders in a private maximum-security correctional centre. There are several variables that can be utilised to predict coping in maximum-security correctional centres and the predictor variables included in this study were offender aggression, decision-making skills, type of offence and age. The goal of this research study was to determine which variable(s) or set of variables explain the highest variance in coping amongst young adult male incarcerated offenders in a private South African maximum-security correctional centre. Within this study, 187 literate young adult male incarcerated offenders between the ages of 21 and 25 years, with long-term sentences, were randomly selected by using the systematic random sampling technique which is a probability sampling method. The sample of this study included participants between 21 and 25 years of age from all ethnic groups, with various types of offences and differing sentence lengths. The results of the hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the combination of all the independent (predictor) variables (Type of Crime, Age, Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Hostility, Vigilance, Avoidance, Procrastination and Hyper-Vigilance) statistically and practically significantly predicted Social Support, Problem-Solving and Avoidance amongst young adult male incarcerated offenders. However, Vigilance (MDMQ subscale) was the only independent (predictor) variable that had a statistically and practically significant influence on the explanation of the variance in the young adult male incarcerated offenders’ Social Support and Problem-Solving. This finding implies that young adult offenders that are more vigilant regarding decision-making, are more inclined to solve problems better and to make use of social support in order to cope better.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The role of experiental avoidance in the relationship between perceived stress and emotional distress in a sample of university students
    (University of the Free State, 2019-01) Spengler, Eloise; Walker, S. P.
    The pervasiveness of mental health difficulties among students globally, and the negative effects thereof have become a cause for concern. The problem is compounded in South Africa, where a number of socioeconomic factors and a history of racial inequality create significant barriers to academic success for much of the student population. Experiential avoidance (EA) has been identified as a transdiagnostic process across a number of clinical and community populations. Consequently, the current study sought to investigate (1) whether a relationship exists between perceived stress, EA and emotional distress among South African university students, (2) whether demographic differences (gender and ethnicity) are apparent with regard to EA, emotional distress and perceived stress, and (3) whether EA mediates the relationship between perceived stress and emotional distress. A multicultural sample of South African undergraduate university students was drawn (n =1121; female = 79.9%; black = 42.5%; white = 49.1%; coloured = 8.5%; mean age = 19.9 years; SD = 1.26 years). The participants completed measures of EA (Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II), emotional distress (General Health Questionnaire) and perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale). Descriptive statistics, between-groups multivariate analysis and regression analyses were employed to analyse the data. The results of this study indicate that a significant and positive correlation exists between perceived stress, EA and emotional distress. No gender differences were found with regard to the study variables. However, racial differences were apparent with regard to perceived stress and emotional distress, with black and coloured participants reporting significantly higher levels of stress and emotional distress than their white counterparts. The regression analyses revealed that perceived stress and EA accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in emotional distress reported by the total sample (42.5%) and the white participants (46.1%), as well as the black and coloured participants (62.1%). Moreover, EA was found to partially mediate the relationship between perceived stress and emotional distress in the total sample, as well as in the white and black/coloured subsamples. These findings lend further support to EA as a transdiagnostic construct and suggest that interventions targeting EA might prove useful in alleviating emotional distress among university students, irrespective of their sociocultural background.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Die ontwikkeling en evaluering van 'n motiveringsprogram vir sportlui
    (University of the Free State, 1997-05) Geldenhuys, James Henry; Wessels, S. J.
    English: Sport Psychology is still a relatively young field in South Africa, especially when it comesto development programmes aimed at the development of sportsmen and -women in general, and motivation in specific. The aim of this study is to contribute in this regard to the developinging of a scientifically-based motivation program. Sportsmen and -women's need for high level functioning (physically and psychologically) points to the need for specialised development in the world of sport. It is on this terrain where the (Sport)psychologist can become involved. Through Psychology's endeavour to develop, among other things, the potential of individuals and groups, it is possible to integrate the terms "development" and "sport", enabling sportsmen and -women to function and perform at a higher level. The world of sport is an arena where human development (sportsmen and -women) occurs and provides individuals with the opportunity to stimulate their physical, social and cognitive development. The goal of this study is to enhance the performance of sportsmen and -women within the broader context of motivation. To realise and utilise the potential of sportsmen and-women, as well as reaching goals and the accompanying performance, the factors that influence motivation and aspects of motivation to include in the motivation program, were researched. The broad concept of motivation, the different theories on motivation, concepts related to the enhancement (development) of motivation and the implications thereof, were discussed. The contents of the development programme are based on the cognitive, humanistic, behaviouristic and existential-phenomenological approaches. With Psycho-development and the General Systems theory as point of departure, it was shown that the content of a development programme, and specifically a motivation programme, should focus on the generating of energy between the different systems and subsystems, which can be directed to, and utilised for the successful completion of the cybernetic cycle. Motivation is the natural result of the processes of human development in the broad, and cybernetic functioning in specific. The developmental consultant involves himself on different (systemic) levels, namely individuals, groups, or teams, intergroups, organisations or larger social systems (Kelly, 1981). The Model for Development (Schoeman, 1983) implies that the challenge is to become involved on different levels of complex systems. The developmental consultant is involved in the training of skills, competencies and insights by using different categories of methods. Above mentioned aspects were included in the respective components of the cybernetic, creating a climate leading to the functioning of systems in general, and specifically motivation, on a higher level. The clockwise functioning of the motivation cycle, on which the programme is based, leads to the reaching of set goals, competence motivation (Cox, 1990) and performance motivation. This process implies intrinsic motivation, and motivation in general, on a higher level. This study succeeded in: * providing a framework for the development programme, * applying literature on a motivation programme for rugbyplayers, * and evaluating the program in the sense that it complies, to a great extent, to the criteria the literature dictates.
  • ItemOpen Access
    'n Ondersoek na die verband tussen verskillende tipes van sportbeoefening en die sosiale ontwikkeling gedurende die middelkinderjare
    (University of the Free State, 1990) Kok, Len Christiaan; Wessels, S. J.; Esterhuyse, K. G. F.
    Afrikaans: In die eerste hoofstuk is daar gewys op die belangrike funksie wat sport in die totale ontwikkeling van menswees vervul asook die feit dat die middelkinderjare 'n kritieke fase by die ontwikkeling van 'n mens, veral op die gebied van sosialisering, is. Die vraag na die uitwerking van vroeë sportspesialisasie op die sosiale ontwikkeling van die kind gedurende die middelkinderjare, het dan tot hierdie projek aanleiding gegee. Die oorhoofse doelstelling van hierdie navorsingsprojek is om bespreking te wy aan die verwante literatuur in hierdie verband. Die doelstelling met die empiriese gedeelte van hierdie navorsingsprojek is om vas te stel watter uitwerking deelname aan sport, op individuele en gespesialiseerde vlak, op die ontwikkeling van die kind, met besondere verwysing na die sosiale ontwikkeling, kan hê. In hoofstuk twee is na die aard, asook die verskillende lewensfases en terreine van menslike ontwikkeling gekyk. Wat die aard van menslike ontwikkeling betref, is daar tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die bestudering van menslike ontwikkeling meer behels as slegs die beskrywing van die lewensloop van die mens. In die bespreking van die lewensfases en terreine van menslike ontwikkeling, is aandag gegee aan elke lewensfase vanaf die neonatale fase tot die fase van bejaardheid. Die terreine van fisiese, kognitiewe en psigososiale ontwikkeling is telkens bespreek. Hier word opnuut besef hoe belangrik normale ontwikkeling tydens elke ontwikkelingsfase in die lewensloop van die mens vir daaropvolgende ontwikkeling is. Daar is tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die middelkinderjare die fase in die ontwikkeling van die kind is wat gekenmerk word deur relatiewe rustigheid. Dit gun die kind genoeg tyd ter voorbereiding vir die stormagtige jare van adolessensie en is ook die fase waarin 'n stewige fondament vir verdere ontwikkeling tot en met bejaardheid gelê behoort te word. Die sosiale ontwikkeling van die kind gedurende die middelkinderjare is vervolgens in hoofstuk drie hanteer. Die kind bereik gedurende hierdie fase skoolgaande ouderdom en sy kontak met ander kinders en volwassenes verbreed aansienlik. Op sosiale gebied vind vinnige ontwikkeling plaas veral op die volgende gebiede, naamlik selfkonsepontwikkeling, die begrip van sosiale orde en sosiale waarneming, die invloed van die gesin, die invloed van die skool, die invloed van die portuurgroep asook die oorgang na adolessensie. Elk van hierdie fasette is in meer besonderhede in die derde hoofstuk bespreek. Daar word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die kind gedurende hierdie fase eerstens vra wie hy self is en daarna waar hy in die samelewing inpas. Die antwoorde wat hy op hierdie vrae kry, sal in 'n groot mate bepaal hoe goed of hoe swak sy sosiale ontwikkeling oor die res van hierdie fase verloop. Hy beweeg gewoonlik nou na 'n groter mate van altruïsme en begrip vir ander mense, terwyl hy verder begin om sosiaal aanvaarbare houdings en waardes aan te leer. Die belangrike rol wat ouers, die skool en die portuurgroep op die sosiale ontwikkeling van die kind uitoefen, word ook opnuut besef. Ter afsluiting is die oorgang vanaf die middelkinderjare na adolessensie en die gepaardgaande verandering in sosiale aktiwiteite hanteer, waarna in die vierdie hoofstuk bespreking gewy is aan die tweede belangrike faset van hierdie projek, naamlik sport - die aard en eienskappe daarvan en die daarmee gepaardgaande doelstellings. In die vierde hoofstuk is daar eerstens aan verskeie definisies van sport aandag gegee. Die uiteenlopende fasette wat deur verskeie skrywers in hul definisies van sport aangeraak word, word verder duidelik wanneer die verskillende eienskappe aan sport toegedig, bespreek word. Eienskappe soos vryheid tot deelname, tydruimtelike beperking, onsekerheid oor die uitslag met die aanvang van die wedstryd, onproduktiwiteit en die regulering van die spel deur reëls, is maar sommige van die eienskappe van sport wat bespreek word. So is daar ook verskeie betekenisse wat aan sport gekoppel kan word, naamlik die strewe na voortreflikheid, dominering en superioriteit, die definiëring van persoonlike grense, die waag van kanse, uitdrukking, sport as middel tot selfverwesenliking, sport as basis vir 'n kreatiewe lewe, sport as spel, sport as estetiese verskynsel, sportas middel tot etiese opleiding, sport as model vir die presterende samelewing, sport as kompensasiemiddel waarmee aanpassings gemaak kan word vir lewensomstandighede in 'n nywerheidswêreld en sport as 'n sisteem van tekens. Dit was vervolgens in hoofstuk vyf nodig om 'n koppeling tussen menslike ontwikkeling en sport te maak en dan veral te kyk na die uitwerking van gespesialiseerde deelname aan sport op menslike ontwikkeling, met die klem op veral die ontwikkeling van die kind gedurende die middelkinderjare. In hierdie vyfde hoofstuk is gereedheidvir kompeterende deelname eerstens in besonderhede bespreek. Daar is vervolgens aan vroeë sportspesialisasie, die doel met en beginsels van vroeë sportspesialisasie, die implikasies daarvan, die vraag ofvroeë sportspesialisasie reg of verkeerd is, wanneer kinders moet begin spesialiseer en wie moet spesialiseer, aandag gegee. Ter afsluiting van hierdie hoofstuk is bespreking gewy aan 'n ontwikkelingsperspektief om kinders betrokke by sport te bestudeer. Dit is 'n baie belangrike nuwe rigting wat vir toekomstige navorsing aangedui word. Die feit dat ontwikkelings- en kognitiewe ontwikkelingsaspekte by navorsing van kindergedrag op sportgebied inaggeneem word, is 'n belangrike faktor wat sodanige navorsing se resultate aansienlik meer betroubaar en bruikbaar kan maak. Dit gaan die navorser ook in staat stel om uiteindelik tot groter begrip van die kind wat hy bestudeer te kom. Riglyne oor hoe sodanige studie uitgevoer behoort te word, word ook kortliks uiteengesit. In die sesde hoofstuk is bespreking gevoer oor die metode van ondersoek wat tydens die empiriese gedeelte van hierdie projek gevolg is. Die volgende nul- en alternatiewe hipoteses is gestel: H0 : Daar is geen beduidende verskille in die vektorgemiddeldes van kinders wat gedurende die middelkinderjare aan spansporte deelneem en dié wat op gespesialiseerde vlak aan individuele sportsoorte deelneem, ten opsigte van hulle tellings op die subskale van die lVV nie. H1 : Daar is wel beduidende verskille in die vektorgemiddeldes van kinders wat gedurende die middelkinderjare aan spansporte deelneem en dié wat op gespesialiseerde vlak aan individuele sportsoorte deelneem, ten opsigte van hulle tellings op die subskale van die lVV. Die verskillende fasette onder bespreking was die samestelling van die ondersoekgroep, die veranderlikes en meetinstrumente (lVV), die hipotesestelling en ontledingsprosedure en die bespreking van die navorsingsresultate. Geen beduidende verskille betreffende die ondersoekgroep se gemiddelde aanpassingstellings is vir die twee onderskeie subgroepe (pro en nie-pro) gevind nie waar dit onderskeidelik volgens geslag en die skool wat deur hulle bygewoon is, ontleed is. Moontlike oorsake ter verklaring van die feit dat geen beduidende resultate verkry is nie, is laastens bespreek. Aangesien verskeie faktore soos onder andere die kind se seltbeeld, sosiale waarneming, gesin van oorsprong, gesin, skool en portuurgroep 'n effek op die kind se sosiale ontwikkeling uitoefen, is tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat verdere navorsing op hierdie gebied noodsaaklik is alvorens 'n finale uitspraak in verband met die uitwerking van individuele en gespesialiseerde deelname aan sport gedurende die middelkinderjare op die sosiale ontwikkeling van die kind, gelewer kan word.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Black African adolescents' experiences of gender identity exploration from a hegemonic masculinity perspective
    (University of the Free State, 2018-09) Higgs, Carmen; Naude, Luzelle
    In this study, the gender identity of black African adolescents residing in the Manguang district in central South Africa is explored. Transformation in the political, socioeconomic and social spheres of South Africa continues to influence the identity development of adolescents living in collectivistic and marginalised contexts. Adolescence is regarded as a complex and significant life stage in the human lifespan during which individuals explore and commit to identity-defining roles, values and norms in search of an authentic sense of self. In light of an ever-changing environment, adolescents may experience an array of opportunities and challenges as they pertain to exploring gender identity. The theoretical framework for the research study is the lifespan perspective. Gender identity has been conceptualised differently by several theorists. Some theorists are of the opinion that gender identity should be understood from a biological stance, while others are in support of gender identity being conceptualised as a psychosocial construct. From a biological base, gender identity is described in terms of essentialist and binary theories, and from a psychosocial base, it is explained in terms of socialisation processes and gender continuum theories. The psychosocial base of gender identity is valued and prioritised in this research. An additional perspective, namely ‘hegemonic masculinity’, is utilised in this study to indicate how some forms of gendered behaviour are favoured over others. The social constructivist paradigm governed the study, and the researcher approached the study in a qualitative manner. The researcher followed exploratory and descriptive research designs. The population group of interest consisted of both male and female black adolescents, as increased exploration processes characterise the developmental stage of adolescence. Including vulnerable individuals that occupy a turbulent life stage was important to the researcher as the research offered them the opportunity to voice their personal experiences that were regarded as worthy to the researcher. In order to recruit the participants from the secondary school in Mangaung for the study, the researcher employed purposive sampling. Both inclusion and exclusion criteria were utilised to select the participants. Four focus group discussions were conducted (two with male participants and two with female participants) to collect data for the research study. The data were analysed by following Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six phases of thematic analysis. In this study, the researcher employed a hybrid approach to data analysis, which consisted of both inductive and deductive methodologies. Four themes emerged from the thematic analysis, namely (a) Traditional views on what it means to be a boy or girl; (b) Exploring who I am: Balancing social context with personal agency; (c) Exploring gender identity in a changing environment; and (d) The complexity in exploring gender identity. The results indicated that the participants regard their gender identity exploration to be multidimensional in nature, consisting of biological, psychological and social dimensions. The exploration of gender identity was deemed to be not only personal and sensitive but also importantly influenced by the sociocultural environment. While the influences of culture, family, school and peers were deemed to contribute towards gender identity exploration processes, adolescents were also regarded to exercise personal agency in their striving for exploration. The social construction of gender identity exploration makes it a perplexing and complex task. Adding to these complexities was the fact that adolescents explore their gender identity in relation to culturally valued masculine ideologies. While increasing Westernisation influences gender roles and identity constructs, adolescents continue to be influenced by the deeply entrenched hegemonic structures in society, such as heteronormativity and the hegemonic form of masculinity. Especially in black African cultures, these are viewed as normative and, therefore, respected, which makes the exploration of alternative gender roles a challenging task for developing adolescents. By conducting this study, novel contributions were made to the scientific knowledge base on gender identity development and exploratory processes during adolescence.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Perceived dynamics of the family structure of sexually abused children - a cross-cultural study
    (University of the Free State, 1996-11) Garau, Alina; Louw, Anet
    English: Research studies on child sexual abuse are extremely valuable as it is a major problem in our society, especially since in the majority of cases, the perpetrator is known to the victim. Up to 50% of reported cases are due to the natural father's perpetration, while the stepfathers make up 20% of reported cases. Furthermore, there is a lack of cross-cultural research in South Africa. Most research studies have replicated North American and British ideologies and assumptions. There is a need to develop an understanding of child sexual abuse across cultures, so that the problem can be treated in ways which are appropriate to all cultures in the South African community. Overlooked in many research studies, is the relationship between male dominance and sexual abuse. Sexual abuse is an exploitation of power, thus the possibility exists of there being a dysfunctional power distribution in incestuous families. Male dominance within families may well be part of a wider system of male power bestowed upon men by society and from this stems the belief that women are subordinate to men. Thus the potential to misuse this structural power of women becomes greater if there is a misuse of personal power by the father-figure within a family system. The father-figure may employ various power and control tactics over family members. The aim of this study, was to ascertain through the investigation of the mothers' and daughters' perceptions of the family interactional patterns, whether power and control tactics were employed by the perpetrator. The Power and Control Wheel, which was developed by the Domestic Abuse Intervention Project in Duluth, Minnesota, was used as a basis to investigate the types of power and control constructs existent in the incestuous families. The names of black and white victims between the ages of five and 18 years, who were sexually abused by the father-figure were obtained through various organisations in Bloemfontein. Both the victims and their mothers (in total 46 persons) were given seperate questionnaires to complete. 134 Although this research sample is small and a number of confounding variables inhibit its generalisation, the following tendencies were evident. According to the mothers' perceptions of the family interactional patterns, the perpetrator employed the con- structs of "intimidation", "coercion and threats" and "using the mother". The first two constructs imply that the perpetrator used force, threats, as well as verbal and some- times physical violence to gain control. These tendencies were very predominant in the black families. The construct, "using the mother" indicates that the perpetrator either threatened to harm the mother or to send her away if the child did not comply with his sexual advances. The perpetrator also threatened the child by implying that the mother would be angry with her for causing the sexual abuse to take place. The daughters' perceptions confirmed the latter construct. The daughters indicated that the perpetrator used the mother to gain power and control over them. There was no difference between the black and white daughters' perceptions for this construct. Although these results cannot be generalised, the above research study indicates that there are certain patriarchal tendencies which form a part of the family dynamics and which should not be overlooked in the treatment of the family system.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The role of study orientation and casual attribution in mathematics achievement
    (University of the Free State, 2002-11) Moodaley, Reveni Rene; Grobler, A. A.; Lens, W.
    English: This study was conducted to investigate and clarify the role that certain study orientation variables play in predicting mathematics achievement. To achieve this, the empirical relationship between study orientation as measured by the SOM (study attitude, mathematics anxiety, study habits problem-solving behaviour and study milieu) and achievement in this subject was investigated for grade 9 learners from jive racially integrated, secondary schools in the Northern Cape. The role of gender and culture as possible moderator variables was considered. A series of hierarchical regression analyses were performed to determine the percentage of the criterion (mathematics achievement) variance that could be explained by study orientation in mathematics. This investigation was augmented by the further exploration of learners' perceived causes of their achievement in mathematics. Once again, the contribution of the attribution of causes (internal or external factors) to the variance in mathematics achievement for both gender and culture was investigated. The results emphasized the importance of the set of study orientation variables as predictors of achievement in mathematics for both genders and all three culture groups. Study milieu and problem-solving behaviour appeared to be the most significant (at the 1% level) individual predictors of mathematics achievement for both genders and both black and white grade 9 learners. The causal attribution of achievement scales jointly contributed significantly to the explanation of the variance in mathematics achievement for the following groups: male, white and coloured learners with positive perceptions of their achievement in mathematics and male, white and black learners with negative perceptions of their achievement in mathematics. The external factor only contributed significantly to the explanation of the variance in mathematics achievement for the white learners with positive perceptions of their achievement in mathematics. However, the internal factor made a significant contribution to the explanation of the variance in mathematics achievement for the following groups: the coloured learners with positive perceptions of their achievement in mathematics and both male and female and black and white learners with negative perceptions of their achievement in mathematics.
  • ItemOpen Access
    'n Kruiskulturele ondersoek van die kognitiewe prosesse ná 'n sportbesering
    (University of the Free State, 2001-11) Stanley, Ibet Liezel; Nel, Piere De Villiers; Heyns, M.
    Hierdie navorsmg het ten doel gehad om kennis aangaande kulturaliteit in die sportsielkunde uit te brei en kognisies tydens rehabilitasie van 'n sportbesering te ondersoek. Sportpersone se kognitiewe ervaringe blyk onderling te verskil. Toetslinge van verskillende ouderdomme, geslagte, kultuuragtergronde en sportsoorte is by die studie betrek. Kultuurgroepe wat by die studie ingesluit is, was swart-, witen bruin sportpersone. Toetslinge het onderskeidelik deelgeneem op provinsiale-, nasionale- en internasionale vlak van kompetisies. Toetslinge kon vir 'n minimum van twee maande nie aan hul sportsoorte deelneem nie as gevolg van hul sportbeserings. Daar is tydens 'n loodsstudie gebruik gemaak van 'n gestruktureerde vraelys. Hierdie vraelys het egter die invordering van data beperk en is daarom slegs ontwikkel en gefinaliseer as 'n semi-gestruktureerde onderhoudsgids. Onderhoude is dan met behulp van hierdie onderhoudsgids gevoer. Onderhoudsvrae was daarop gemik om 'n beskrywing van sportpersone se kognisies tydens rehabilitasie uit te lok. Die volgende kognitiewe prosesse is ondersoek: • Hanteringsmeganismes • Kognisies • Pynervaring • Vrae • Bekommernisse Bandopnames is van die onderhoude geneem en dit is getranskribeer na getikte vorm. Die inligting is hierna deur die QSR NUD*IST - rekenaarprogram gekodeer en geanaliseer. Hierdie rekenaarprogram is spesifiek ontwerp om kwalitatiewe dataverwerking te behartig. Die betroubaarheid is deur die proses van triangulasie verhoog, waar 'n tweede analiseerder by die data-ontledings betrek is. Verskille is bespreek totdat konsensus tussen die analiseerders bereik is. Sportpersone se kognitiewe ervaringe tydens rehabilitasie ná 'n sportbesering blyk individueel te wees. Kultuurspesifieke kognisies is nie deur die studie geïdentifiseer nie. Sportpersone se pynervaring blyk 'n individuele ervaring te wees waarop elkeen verskillend reageer. Sportpersone het ook verskeie verklarings vir hul pynervarings aan die hand gedoen. Hanteringsmeganismes wat sportpersone aangewend het tydens rehabilitasie is geïdentifiseer. Verder is die vrae en bekommernisse waarmee sportpersone tydens rehabilitasie gekonfronteer word, geïdentifiseer. Die doelwit van die navorsing is bereik deurdat kognitiewe prosesse van sportpersone geïdentifiseer is en bydraes gelewer is met betrekking tot kulturaliteit in die sportsielkunde.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The effect of work-stress and emotional intelligence on self-leadership amongst nurses in leadership positions in the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in Lesotho
    (University of the Free State, 2014) Mokuoane, Motselisi Lucy; Van Zyl, E. S.; Bezuidenhoud, L.; Griessiel, L.
    English: Self-leadership is a process of self-influence towards achieving an optimal state of motivation and self direction needed to perform what one sees as necessary and unavoidable. The self-leadership process includes mental, cognitive and behavioural strategies that give strength, purpose, meaning and direction to the effort, towards improving effectiveness in performing tasks (Neck & Houghton, 2006). Mental imagery and self-talks will also be employed. Natural reward strategies concern self search and the promotion of pleasant and enjoyable feelings directly related to the job. In constructive thought pattern strategies, an individual will assess thoughts to determine whether beliefs and assumptions are positive. An individual with self-leadership will use behavioural strategies to encourage positive behaviours, and to curtail negative behaviours that affect success at work (Neck & Houghton, 2006). The current work environment increasingly requires independent individuals who are able to take initiative and make responsible decisions in settings where they are not always supported by hierarchical superiors. In this context, the concept of self-leadership has been linked to professional and personal effectiveness. However, a further clarification of the self-leadership concept, as well as the factors that impact on its effectiveness, is needed. The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors that impact on individual’s self-leadership. The study investigated the effect that work-stress and emotional intelligence has on self-leadership. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature review on self-leadership, work-stress and emotional intelligence was presented. Futhermore, a sample of one-hundred and fifty five (155) nursing leaders working at the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare was selected. Self-leadership was measured using the Revised Self-leadership Questionnaire, while work-stress was measured using the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire, and the Emotional Intelligence Index was used to measure emotional intelligence. The study utilised multiple stepwise regression to predict which variables of work-stress and emotional intelligence affect employees’ self-leadership amongst nursing leadership in the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in Lesotho. The results indicated that there is a generally positive relationship between work-stress and self-leadership. This means that individuals experiencing work-stress will exhibit greater use of self-leadership skills. Some of work-stress sub-dimensions that lead to self-leadership are task charactiristics, physical working conditions and social matters. These sub-dimensions enhance self-leadership skills such as self-goal setting, self-talk and evaluating beliefs and assumptions, respectively. It was also found that self-leadership is negatively influeced by emotional intelligence in most cases. High scores in emotional intelligence skills such as self-regulation, motivation and empathy lead to lower scores in self-leadership skills such as self-observation, self-punishment and self-reward. It is in the light of these results that the null hypothesis 1 of this study was rejected, and the alternative hypothesis 1 namely, the varience in self-leadership scores can be statistically explained by work-stress and emotional intelligence amongst nurses in leadership positions in the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, was accepted. The independent t-test was used to determine if there are age differences with regard to self-leadership amongst nursing leadership. The results show that there are no statistically significant age differences with regard to self-leadership among nurses in leadership positions in the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in Lesotho. The null hypothesis 2 namely , there is no statistical significant difference in the scores achieved on self-leadership with regards to age of nurses in leadership positions in the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in Lesotho, is not rejected. General and specific recommendations for this study were made.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Persoonlikheid as voorspeller by stokkiesdraai
    (University of the Free State, 1975-12) Nel, Christiaan Matthys; Maas, F.
    Afrikaans: Alhoewel stokkiesdraaiers nie 'n besonder groot persentasie van die skoolbevolking uitmaak nie, is dit nogtans 'n betekenisvolle probleem. Hierdie probleem word geaksentueer deur die feit dat daar skynbaar 'n noue verband tussen stokkiesdraai en ernstiger vorms van misdaad bestaan. Hierdie ondersoek het die moontlikhede om stokkiesdraai te kan voorspel, ten doel gehad. Dit was eerstens noodsaaklik om 'n deeglike studie van die oorsake van stokkiesdraai te maak, om sodoende die area waarin voorspellers identifiseer kon word, af te baken. Dit het uit hierdie literatuurstudie geblyk dat die oorsake van stokkiesdraai op 'n primêre en sekondêre vlak bestudeer kan word. Omdat die oorsake van stokkiesdraai primêr geneties, maatskaplik, opvoedkundig en fisiologies van aard is, laai dit op die persoonlikheid van die kind en kan dit as ongunstige genetiesen omgewingsgevormde persoonlikheidseienskappe op sekondêre vlak waargeneem word. Ten einde enigsins aanspraak op resultate te kan maak, moet 'n voorspellingsmeetmiddel oor 'n hoë mate van geldigheid en betroubaarheid beskik en die resultate kwantifiseerbaar wees. Die wye spektrum van primêrveroorsakende faktore het 'n meervoudige voorspeller dikteer. Daar is verder besluit dat die voorspellingstudie praktykgerig moet wees. Die meetmiddels wat as voorspellers sou dien, moes geskik wees om in skole deur onderwysers wat nie spesifieke opleiding in toetsadministrasie gehad het nie, gebruik te kan word.Dit moes ook tot so 'n mate gestandardiseerd wees, dat dit beide ekonomies en objektief aangewend kan word. Twee moontlike bronne van voorspellingsdata, tewete biografiese gegewens en persoonlikheid saam met die metingstegnieke intrinsiek eie aan elk, is oorweeg. Na aanleiding van die gemak waarmee hulle aan die kriteria vir goeie voorspellers van stokkiesdraai kon I voldoen, is daar besluit op persoonlikheid as bron van voorspellingsdata en die selfondersoekvraelys as metingstegniek. Ten einde interpretasies van die resultate van die ondersoek te kan doen, is die matematiese persoonlikheidsmodel van Catteil as raamwerk gekies en bespreek. Vervolgens is 'n veldondersoek onderneem om sodoende die moontlikheid om stokkiesdraai via persoonlikheid te voorspel, te ondersoek. Al die beskikbare Afrikaanssprekende stokkiesdraaiermeisies uit departementele hoërskole van groter Bloemfontein is by die projek betrek. Die groep was dertig in getal. As kontroletegniek is hulle elkeen afgepaar met 'n Afrikaanssprekende meisie wat die skool gereeld besoek het en met intelligensiekoëffisiënt, die beroep van die broodwinner van die gesin, die sosio-ekonomiese omstandighede van die gesin, die klasonderwyser en die ouderdom as konstante veranderlikes. Die voorspellergegewens is met behulp van die HSPV, die IPAT-angsskaal en PHSF-verhoudingsvraelys ingesamel. Op grond van waarskynlikhede verkry uit die literatuuroorsig, is drie hipoteses gestel. Hipotese een het gelui dat daar wat stilistiese trekke betref, beduidende verskille tussen stokkiesdraaiers en nie-stokkiesdraaiers sal voorkom. Die hipotese is deur middel van die veertien HSPV-veranderlikes en die t-formule getoets. Die nulhipotese is ten opsigte van alle veranderlikes, behalwe faktor 0 (kalm teenoor bevreesd) gehandhaaf. Hipotese twee het gelui dat stokkiesdraaiers 'n beduidend groter mate van angs in vergelyking met nie-stokkiesdraaiers salopenbaar. Op grond van die bevindings van ander navorsers, is hierdie hipotese met behulp van die t-formule en die ses IPAT-angsskaalfaktore eenkantig getoets. Die nulhipotese is ten opsigte van alle veranderlikes, behalwe faktor Q4 (spanning as gevolg van frustrasie) gehandhaaf. Hipotese drie het gelui dat die stokkiesdraaier se persoonlikheidsaanpassing beduidend swakker as die nie-stokkiesdraaier s'n sal wees. Die twaalf PHSF-veranderlikes en die t-formule is gebruik om dié hipotese te toets. Omdat navorsing daarop dui dat die stokkiesdraaier se huislike invloede negatief op hom inwerk, is die hipotese ten opsigte van die gesinsinvloedekomponent eenkantig getoets. Die nulhipotese is ten opsigte van alle veranderlikes, behalwe die gesinsinvloedekomponent gehandhaaf. Die stokkiesdraaier-groep was dus meer bevrees, het meer spanning as gevolg van frustrasie ervaar en was volgens hulle eie mening aan negatiewer gesinsinvloede blootgestel, wanneer hulle met die gereelde skoolbesoekgroep vergelyk word. Daar is vervolgens twee voorspellingsmodelle implimenteer, naamlik meervoudige regressie en diskriminantontleding. In die geval van meervoudige regressie is al twee en dertig veranderlikes gepruik en volgens ICL-program XDS 3 verwerk. Die model met ses voorspellerveranderlikes, tewete HSPV-faktore G (opportunisties teenoor pligsgetrou), Q3 (geneigdheid tot ongedissiplineerde selfkonflik teenoor beheersdheid), Q4 (ontspanne teenoor gespanne), IPAT-angsskaalfaktor Q4 (spanning as gevolg van frustrasie) en PHSF-komponente selfbeheer en gesinsinvloede het die hoogste meervoudige korrelasie opgelewer. Hulle kon 41,0% van die variansie ten opsigte van stokkiesdraai verklaar. Hierdie resultaat is egter nie as bevredigend beskou nie en sou waarskynlik in die praktyk van min waarde wees, omdat dit min potensiële stokkiesdraaiers sal kan identifiseer. Vir die diskriminantontledingmodel is ook twee-en-dertig veranderlikes gebruik en volgens ICL-program XDS 3 verwerk. Met behulp van hierdie twee-en-dertig veranderlikes kon sewe-en-twintig of 89,9% van die werklike stokkiesdraaiers in die stokkiesdraaiergroep geplaas word. Van die gereelde skoolbesoeksters kon agt-en-twintig of 92,857% in die regte groep geplaas word. Hierdie resultaat is hoogs bevredigend en toon dat die geimplimenteerde persoonlikheidsveranderlikes tesame met 'n diskriminantontledingmodel in die praktyk waarskynlik uitstekende resultate sal lewer.