AS 2008 Volume 15 Issue 2

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  • ItemOpen Access
    A review on the effectiveness of the Joint Building Contracts Committee Series 2000 Principal Building Agreement – a contractors’ perspective
    (University of the Free State, 2008) Cumberlege, Roy; Buys, Fanie; Vosloo, Derick
    English: With the growth experienced in the building industry, it is increasingly important to have a contract document that can be used on projects that is reasonably acceptable to all parties concerned. The focus of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Joint Building Contracts Committee Series 2000 Principal Building Agreement (JBCC 2000 PBA) (Edition 4.1, March 2005) as used in the building industry. Although edition 5 (2007) was made available after this study was conducted, contractors still have the choice to use either one of them. Primary data was collected by means of interviews and a structured questionnaire sent to selected contractors in the South African building industry. Secondary data was obtained from the literature reviewed in relevant publications. The main findings were that the JBCC 2000 PBA is the most favoured contract document used by contractors in the building industry but that there are still areas of concern with regards to the difficulty in interpreting and implementing numerous clauses of the document, amendments being made to the document without any legal advice and that developing building contractors experience difficulties in general where the JBCC 2000 PBA is used as contract document on projects. The study concluded with recommendations for amendments to the contract document to ensure that the document will be acceptable to all contractors in the building industry and ultimately to be an internationally acceptable document.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Perceptions of crime and the built environment: the case of the Bloemfontein Central Business District (CBD)¹
    (University of the Free State, 2008) Hoogendoorn, Gijsbert; Marais, Lochner
    English: Internationally, inner-city crime has been a well-documented area of urban studies. In South African urban discourse, however, crime studies and inner-city crime studies per se have been scant. Therefore, it is the aim of this article to address the paucity of academic reflection, in this regard in South Africa, by means of a case study on the spatial patterns of crime distribution, perceptions of crime, and fear of crime in the inner city of Bloemfontein, and how these factors influence urban morphology (and vice versa). This case study on one of South Africa’s middle-order cities may potentially comprise a valuable contribution, since the majority of inner-city studies on crime thus far have focused predominantly on the three major metropolitan areas of South Africa. Therefore, three arguments shall be put forward. Firstly, the impact of decentralised shopping centres on the prevalence of crime in inner cities will be highlighted. Secondly, the relationship between crime and ‘grime’ (physical decay and neglect) as causal factors in inner-city areas will be discussed. Thirdly, it will be argued that the fear of crime in the inner-city is an important consideration to be taken into account when assessing the spatial patterns and perceptions of this occurrence. In the case of Bloemfontein, this fear does not seem to be only racially related as black and white people experience the same levels of fear. By means of these arguments, an attempt will be made to contribute to the understanding of inner-city crime and its relationship to the urban form.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparative analysis of design management procedures in manufacturing and architecture
    (University of the Free State, 2008) Buys, Fanie; Sidloyi, Xabiso
    English: Design changes due to lack of constructability, cost overruns, delays and dissatisfied clients are but a few of the problems experienced in construction on the account of the poor management of the design processes. This research was conducted to determine the adequacy of design management processes used by Eastern Cape (EC) architectural practices and compare these with the design management processes used in manufacturing in order to establish practices, theories, principles, technologies and deliverables that can be transferred from the manufacturing into the construction industry to improve efficiency of architectural design management. A questionnaire was designed to acquire primary, factual and attitudinal data from EC architectural practices while secondary data were acquired through a literature review. The main findings were that design management processes, continuous improvement philosophies, lean principles, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) used by EC architectural practices are not similar to those used in manufacturing. Therefore EC architectural practices could increase their efficiency by adopting some of the design management processes, ICT, continuous improvement philosophies and lean principles originating from the manufacturing industry.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A critical review of the effectiveness of the Department of Labour (DoL) Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) Inspectorate in relation to the construction industry in South Africa
    (University of the Free State, 2008) Geminiani, Franco; Smallwood, John
    English: Irrespective of all the efforts made by the Department of Labour (DoL) and other relevant stakeholders to improve construction occupational health and safety (OH&S) performance, there is still a very high level of accidents and fatalities in South Africa. Injuries and accidents to workers help no community in any nation. The construction industry in South Africa is generally known to be one of the most hazardous and has one of the most dismal OH&S records among all industrial segments with an unacceptably high level of injuries and fatalities resulting in considerable human suffering. A doctoral study was recently conducted with the aim of investigating the effectiveness and performance of the DoL OH&S Inspectorate in South Africa. Information was sought and obtained from various respondents including civil and building contractors, OH&S consultants, project managers, DoL inspectors, and designers by means of questionnaires. The research identifies interventions which could contribute to a significant reduction in the number of accidents, which in turn is likely to result in: a reduction in the cost of accidents (CoA); a reduction in the cost of workers’ compensation insurance; alleviation of fatalities, injuries, pain and suffering, and a reduction in the indirect CoA to society and the national health care system. The salient findings of the study are presented and elucidate that the DoL OH&S Inspectorate is not effective in terms of OH&S relative to the construction industry in South Africa. Conclusions and recommendations included reinforce the need for a reviewed OH&S Inspectorate model framework. The structured normative model consists of fundamental elements which guide to improve the effectiveness of the DoL OH&S Inspectorate. The findings of the study with recommendations are included.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The capacity of emerging civil engineering contractors
    (University of the Free State, 2008) Ramokolo, Bruce; Smallwood, John
    English: Construction management competencies are essential to realise sound practices among and to realise optimum performance by, inter alia, emerging civil engineering contractors. Such competencies enable the success of the business of construction and the management of projects, with increased efficiency and reduced costs as a benefit. The article presents the findings of a Masters study, the objectives in general being to determine the current practices and performance of emerging civil engineering contractors in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropole. The descriptive method was adopted in the empirical study. The salient findings of the study are: most of the emerging civil engineering contractors do not possess civil engineering related qualifications; construction resources are inappropriately managed leading to construction failures; skills programmes are not well structured and supported; there is a lack of capacity at all management levels of the organisations in terms of managing the business of construction and projects; the nine functions of organisations in the form of general management, technical or production, procurement, marketing, financial, human resources, public relations, legal, and administration and information technology, are not comprehensively represented; and self-ratings indicate inadequacy relative to the controlling function of management work, and relative to certain activities of the organising function. The article concludes that emerging civil engineering contractors lack the requisite competencies and resources to realise sustainable contracting organisations. The article recommends that formal civil engineering and construction management education and training should be promoted throughout the industry for all categories of civil engineering contracting organisations. The article further recommends that all nine functions should be adequately staffed with suitably qualified people in order to manage and undertake the work successfully. Organisations should have the requisite construction-related resources, and owners and managers should market their organisations to ensure the sustainability thereof.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Origin – cause matrix: a practical approach for identification of waste associated with variation orders
    (University of the Free State, 2008) Ndihokubwayo, Ruben; Haupt, Theo
    English: This article has a two-fold aim, namely of reviewing the literature pertaining to waste associated with variation orders and providing a tool for identification of waste zones arising from a variation order. Literature was reviewed about the administration and waste associated with variation orders. Two case studies for the purpose of the study consisted of completed apartment complexes in Cape Town. Variation orders on the respective projects were grouped by number and value in an origin-cause table. The literature review confirmed the likelihood of waste of resources following the occurrence of variation orders. Arguably, the excessive occurrence of variation orders was among factors that contributed to overall higher construction delivery costs and time overruns. By auditing each variation order in terms of the value, origin agent and the cause, it was possible to identify some project aspects that yielded waste of resources. Typically, these were the cost of errors originating from the consultant and the client. The origin-cause matrix could be a tool to provide a breakdown of the probable magnitude of waste associated with variation orders. The study was confined to a limited number of apartment-type construction projects to provide insight into the potential impact of variation orders on project performance. The origin-cause matrix could be a practical tool used to track construction project activities that yield waste. The topic discusses issues that have not been widely covered by previous research studies. The origin-cause matrix was designed as a tool for identification of waste based on a theory of waste formation.
  • ItemOpen Access
    An investigation of training and mentoring of emerging contractors in the Eastern Cape
    (University of the Free State, 2008) Moss, Ian; Smallwood, John
    English: Having an effective mentoring programme in place in the construction industry is critical to the development and growth of emerging contractors as well as the industry as a whole. A survey was undertaken among the mentees who attended a specific mentoring programme in the Eastern Cape to establish the need for training, mentoring and monitoring of emerging contractors. Primary data was collected by means of a telephonic survey of the emerging contractors as well as the mentors and service providers regarding the mentoring programme. Secondary data was obtained from the survey of the literature. The main findings were that there is a huge need for training and mentoring of emerging contractors and that monitoring after completion of the programme is a necessity. Furthermore, although it was determined that all facets of training and mentoring are important, in order to ensure the overall development of emerging contractors, the development of financial and management skills on site requires the most attention.