Research Articles (Hebrew)

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Missio politica in missio Dei: integrating politics into God’s eternal mission
    (AOSIS, 2022) Thinane, Jonas S.
    The understanding of the missio Dei from the point of view of the International Missionary Conference in Willingen has rightly broadened the missiological horizon and promoted new approaches to God’s mission in the world. This conference abandoned the ecclesiological approach to mission and focused attention on God as the foundation or source of mission. Inherently, this new perspective opened the door for other human institutions, such as politics, to be seen as critical participants together with the churches in the missio Dei. Apart from the writings of Saayman and Reimer, not much scholarly work is carried out to further develop the framework of the missio politica as an important tool to enable an analysis of politics in accordance with total salvation as the ultimate goal of the missio Dei. Relying upon literary analysis, this contribution orients itself on such exclusive important works as a basis on which missio politica is strengthened as a missiological framework that examines politics in relation to the ultimate goal of the missio Dei.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Mysterium Deus in missio: the mysterious God in mission
    (AOSIS, 2022) Thinane, Jonas S.
    As in all other world religions, a deep sense of the mystery is also central to the Christian religion. The mere existence of God is accepted as something mysterious beyond human comprehension. While theological literature speaks extensively of the mysterious nature of the triune God, little or nothing is said of such mysterious nature of God in missiology in the context of the missio Dei, particularly from the perspective of the Willlingen’s International Missionary Conference (IMC) of 1952. The question underlying this article is: how does the perception of the mysterious God relate to the context of the missio Dei? In other words, how mysterious is God in his own mission (missio Dei)? At its core, this article is more about the mysterious God in the mission leading to the mystery of the missio Dei itself. Consequently, this article made use of a search in literature to conceptualise the mystery encompassing the inherent character of the triune God in his own mission (missio Dei). In other words, it underlines the mysterious triune God through his innate attributes, namely omnipotent, omnipresent and omniscient, which are eternally at work in the missio Dei. It then concludes with the view that the understanding of the triune God as a mystery within the missio Dei economy may lead to different but comprehensive understandings of the missio Dei itself. Contribution: The content of this article will contribute immensely to a better understanding of the missio Dei and as such will subsequently be used by missiologists as a reference in their attempts to describe the character of God within the context of the missio Dei.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Missio hominum as commissioned by missio dei
    (AOSIS, 2022) Thinane, Jonas S.
    The Christian image of God rightly goes back to the Bible as the only source of revelation. According to the creation account in the book of Genesis, God is primarily seen as the creator of heaven, Earth and humankind. Following this understanding, the International Mission Conference (IMC) in Willingen in 1952 expanded the scope of mission beyond the ecclesiastical sphere and anchored it in the doctrine of the Triadic God. In other words, the Willingen Conference correctly classified the Triadic God as the only source of mission in the world. However, the question remains as to what a person’s mandate is in relation to the missio Dei. Based on a literature review, this article introduces missio hominum as a framework that encompasses human participation in missio Dei. Selectively, the extraordinary personalities of Noah, Jesus Christ and the Apostle Paul in the Bible are examined in order to validate the framework of the missio hominum as derived from the missio Dei. By its very nature, this article warrants further exploration of human involvement in the work of the missio Dei, in order to consolidate the missio hominum as an important framework for aligning human efforts with the work and ultimate goal of the missio Dei. Contribution: The contribution of this article is to deepen the reflection on the relationship between the Triadic God and human beings on the one hand and human temporal participation in the eternal economy of the missio Dei on the other. In doing so, it provides missio scholars and theologians with new insights that encompass the human mission in relation to the missio Dei.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Oath taking viewed biblically and perjury by South African politicians
    (Pharos, 2022) Thinane, Jonas Sello
    As it is the case with many other countries around the world, South Africa has a unique and strong tradition of religious devotion, encompassed by belief in God which is even expressed in the constitution’s preamble invoking the presence of God. To ensure that the judicial system carries out its duties responsibly and upholds the fair administration of justice, courts of law, judicial authority and commissions of inquiry discourage perjury by requiring witnesses or the accused to take an oath or certify that the content of their testimony is true and accurate. The recent lenient sentencing whereby the former Minister of Social Development, Ms Bathabile Dlamini was found guilty of perjury has certainly set a bad precedent and created the impression that anyone with more money can lie under oath and buy their way out of the transgression. The case of Ms Bathabile Dlamini is significant both from the perspective of the judicial system and perhaps more importantly from the perspective of the broader religious teachings in general and the Christian teachings in particular, as it points to a society that has lost its Christian ethics and is somewhat polluted by individuals, especially political figures who are conducting themselves as though they are not obliged to take the practice of oath seriously, thus inadvertently seriously questioning the religious doctrines of oaths and even the consequences of lying under oath. This paper will highlight the impact of perjury on both the religious and judicial integrity in a society like South Africa. It argues that the punishment of perjury should firstly, reflect differences in the seriousness of the offense that gave rise to the perjury and, secondly, take into account the public standing of the offender in relation to the extent of his or her influence on society. It then concludes with a plea that, on the one hand, the religious communities, especially Christianity, should strengthen their teachings about taking an oath. On the other hand, the courts must increase the punishment for perjurers, especially if these individuals hold public office.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Missio hominum guided by an understanding of Ubuntu for missio Dei: Nico Smith's discovery
    (AOSIS, 2021) Thinane, Jonas S.
    Missio hominum as a theological framework within the discipline of missiology in understanding missio Dei still lacks proper exploration. Few attempts have been made by theologians in the past but in different disciplines other than missiology. The exception is the previous studies by Nico Smith who investigated and conceptualised the subject at great length. This article builds on Smith’s perspectives on missio hominum with the aim of providing an in-depth understanding of the subject in an African context. This shall be achieved by juxtaposing missio hominum with an African concept of Ubuntu through a literary analysis. Ubuntu is imperative in understanding the significance of human beings within the Christian mission in fulfilling the purpose of missio Dei. Contribution: This article makes two important contributions in the field of missiology – first, by illustrating through missio hominum that human beings are God’s partners in accomplishing his mission on earth, and second, by illustrating through Ubuntu that human beings should partner with one another for the same purpose.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Syntactic patterns of πᾶς as a quantifier in New Testament Greek
    (AOSIS, 2021) Miller-Naude, Cynthia L.; Naude, Jacobus A.
    In linguistic terms, a quantifier is an item that appears with a noun to specify the number or amount of referents indicated by the noun. In English, various kinds of quantification are lexically differentiated—universal quantification (all), distributive quantification (each), and universal-distributive (every). In Greek, however, quantification is conveyed syntactically using primarily one lexical item, namely πᾶς. In this article, we examine the syntactic patterns of πᾶς as a quantifier from a linguistic point of view with attention to the determination of the noun (articular versus anarthrous), the number of the noun (singular versus plural) and the phrasal word order. We also examine the phenomenon of ‘floating’ quantification in which the quantifier moves to a new position in the noun phrase. Finally, we compare the patterns found in New Testament Greek with those of the quantifier כל in the Hebrew Bible in order to determine the extent and type of Semitic interference with respect to quantification in New Testament Greek grammar. Contribution: The syntactic patterns of πᾶς as a quantifier are identified and the semantic import of each pattern is described. The relationship of πᾶς to the quantifier כל in the Hebrew Bible shows evidence of Semitic interference in New Testament Greek grammar.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Conceptualisation of miss hominum as an expression of imago Dei: from missio Dei to missio hominum
    (AOSIS, 2022) Thinane, Jonas
    Academic data show little evidence that the concept of the missio hominum was ever explored beyond its context as developed by Nico Smith. There is little to no research that has conceptualised this phenomenon in light of imago Dei and the role it should play in fulfilling missio Dei’s mandate. It uses the relational nature of the Union of the Divine Trinity derived in imago Dei to conceptualise the idea of the missio hominum in the broader context of missio Dei. It aims to examine the role of missio hominum in fulfilling the objectives and scope of missio Dei. Missio Dei here means the mission of God, which uses human relationships as an instrument to achieve the eternal goal of missio Dei. Nico Smith’s account is used here to support the need for missio hominum within the broader understanding of missio Dei. This research is a first step towards a deeper understanding of the missio hominum in service to missio Christos and missio spiritus and the collective participation of missio ecclesiae towards the goal of missio Dei. The academic focus on missio hominum from Smith’s perspective is lacking or neglected by missiology scholars.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Religious perspectives on vaccination: Mandatory Covid-19 vaccine for SA churches
    (Pharos, 2022) Thinane, Jonas Sello
    In public health history, vaccinations have been seen as very helpful as they help protect societies from preventable diseases and save many lives around the world. Despite the fact that few religious groups oppose vaccination for a variety of reasons, almost all major religions in the world support vaccination as long as it complies with religious precepts for the preservation, protection, or well-being of livelihoods. However, during the surge of Covid-19 outbreak in South Africa and elsewhere, governments witnessed unprecedented hesitancy and opposition to the Covid-19 vaccination by the general public. Those who opposed the Covid-19 vaccine cited multiple concerns or reasons, ranging from possible side effects, adverse events, vaccine safety, vaccine effectiveness, conspiracy theories, and religious or cultural reasons. Based on a literature search, this paper attempts to discuss various religious views on the subject of vaccination in general and subsequently make use of such perspectives to support calls for a compulsory Covid-19 vaccination, especially for South African churches. This is a timely topic of central concern as it seeks to politely dispel religious misunderstandings and confusion that could arise as a result of debates on mandatory vaccines for Covid-19. Health and religion will be brought together to shape the ongoing discussions about the moral urgency of a mandatory Covid-19 vaccination in South Africa.
  • ItemOpen Access
    ANC’s step-aside rule through the eye of the missio politica as mandated by Missio Dei
    (Pharos, 2022) Thinane, Jonas Sello
    The broader practice of politics in the world, while detached from the religion, cannot be excluded from the mission of the Missio Dei. In fact, the question of mission and politics has prompted Professor Johannes Reimer to propose missio politica as a missiological framework that puts the mandate of mission and politics in one basket. Following this solid foundation, this paper will propose the use of missio politica as an important missiological framework to analyse the instrumentally useful politics in line with the ultimate goal of Missio Dei. In accordance with the tenets of both missio politica in the name of missio Dei, this paper will then consider the South African ANC's step-aside rule from a biblical perspective, arguing that the accounts of Samuel's leadership in 1 Samuel 8 and the story of Ananias with his wife in Acts 5:1-11 represent a somewhat biblical understanding of the step-aside rule. The ANC's step-aside rule only serves to relativize the need for a missio politica. This paper promises a better understanding of the relationship between mission and politics, such an understanding is a key to uncovering new ways to ensure a meaningful participation of all other sectors of society in achieving the goal of Missio Dei. Missio politica represent what has been missing in the missiological discourse. Therefore, this framework needs to be further explored in order to emphasize the mandate of politics in accordance with the Missio Dei.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Thuma Mina - an Isaiah 6:8 perspective in crossfire with Step-aside: SA ruling party’s moral restoration efforts
    (Pharos, 2021) Thinane, Jonas Sello
    This article builds on the excellent article by Prof. Kgatle and Mashau who examined the prospects and success of the presidency of Cyril Ramaphosas by reflecting on the concept of Thuma Mina. In this article, Ramaphosa's Thuma Mina's manifesto is placed in the same restorative context as the implementation of the African National Congress (ANC) step-aid resolution. Almost 27 years of democracy today since the ANC came to power in South Africa in 1994, and yet it's members' moral values continue to decline, as reflected in Gwede Mantashe's devastating Organizational Diagnostic Report. This paper reflects upon the concept of Thuma Mina at Isaiah 6: 8 as redirected into politics by Cyril Ramaphosa to fight corruption in collaboration with the resolution of the 54th Conference. The Thuma Mina Group's implementation of Step-Aside threatened the unity of the ANC when the then suspended ANC General Secretary suspended his own suspension to suspend the ANC's President Cyril Ramaphosa. If the Magashule group succeeds in flaunting the party rules and rejecting the Step-Aside policy, this will lead to a political catastrophe. This paper uses two disciplines (theology and politics) to shed light on the prospects of Thuma Mina as advocated by President Cyril Ramaphosa, along with the fair implementation of the ANC's Step Aside resolution. This paper is important as it provides a more concise understanding of the concept of Thuma Mina within political campaigning.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Misuse of Religious titles by self-proclaimed spiritual leaders: Prophets, apostles, and popes in South Africa
    (Pharos, 2021) Thinane, Jonas Sello
    In the world of religions, different religious officials are given different titles. Christianity as a religion in the world and in South Africa particularly, has been severely attacked by self-proclaimed spiritual leaders who perform false miracles and abuse titles that have been respected by traditional mainstream churches for decades. These self-appointed spiritual leaders make utilization of these titles either through self-propagating or by accepting them when utilized upon them by their followers. This paper argues that self-appointed spiritual leaders' mere use of these revered religious titles cannot be justified within Christianity's framework. This paper offers a closer look at the literature regarding the use of religious titles such as Prophet, Apostle, and Pope. These religious titles remain very respectable within the Christian religion and are used to honour the role played by both biblical and contemporary Christian leaders. This paper makes three arguments; First, the age of the prophets was washed away by God's written Word in the Holy Bible, so those given this title should be pressed to prove the truthfulness of their prophecies beyond doubt. Second, apostles were those who were eye and ear witnesses to the teachings and resurrection of Jesus. Contemporary apostles must be compelled to defend their apostleship, as is the case in 2 Corinthians 11.Lastly, the title of Pope is traditionally bestowed upon the Catholic Bishop of Rome, the head bishop of the Patriarchate of Alexandria, and other leaders of traditional ecclesial communities. In its entirety, this paper deals with the scientifically neglected aspect within the larger question of the regulation of religions in South Africa.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Missio hominum guided by an understanding of Ubuntu for missio Dei: Nico Smith’s discovery
    (AOSIS, 2021) Thinane, Jonas S.
    Missio hominum as a theological framework within the discipline of missiology in understanding missio Dei still lacks proper exploration. Few attempts have been made by theologians in the past but in different disciplines other than missiology. The exception is the previous studies by Nico Smith who investigated and conceptualised the subject at great length. This article builds on Smith’s perspectives on missio hominum with the aim of providing an in-depth understanding of the subject in an African context. This shall be achieved by juxtaposing missio hominum with an African concept of Ubuntu through a literary analysis. Ubuntu is imperative in understanding the significance of human beings within the Christian mission in fulfilling the purpose of missio Dei. Contribution: This article makes two important contributions in the field of missiology – first, by illustrating through missio hominum that human beings are God’s partners in accomplishing his mission on earth, and second, by illustrating through Ubuntu that human beings should partner with one another for the same purpose.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Missio hominum for social justice in South Africa: From missio Dei to missio hominum
    (AOSIS, 2021) Thinane, Jonas S.
    Decades after the fall of apartheid, South Africa continues to face problems such as racism, heterosexism, sexism, ableism, xenophobia, and gender-based violence leading to feminicide, which undermines all efforts being made to achieve social justice. Every Christian mission begins or flows out from missio Dei and has a common endeavour to achieve its goal. This article examines missio hominum as the new fundamental paradigm from the perspective of Nico Smith. It believes that when Smith saw the need for missio hominum, social justice was thought of as a prerequisite for the accomplishment of missio Dei’s goal. It examines how he developed the missio hominum paradigm with the aim of advocating for social justice in South Africa. It perceives a potential and a fundamental element for social justice in this new paradigm. Significantly, missio hominum represents a fundamental theological paradigm by which human action is integrated or linked with divine action in order to achieve the goal of the missio Dei. It provides an overview of the literature relating to the featured works on Christian mission and social justice. To the best of the author’s knowledge, little or no work has been published on missio hominum as a missiological paradigm on the way to social justice.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Missio hominum as the compassionate response to socio-economic and vaccine challenges during COVID-19 in South Africa
    (AOSIS, 2021) Thinane, Jonas S.
    It is likely that the storm of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South Africa will calm only when the country attains herd immunity. In South Africa, the COVID-19 vaccine roll-out plan will first prioritise key frontline forces, the elderly and those with comorbidities. Although there is some new academic insight on COVID-19 within the context of churches, not much has been written on the role that churches can play in partnership with government towards procuring vaccines for the poor people of South Africa. The contribution towards vaccine procurement by churches is juxtaposed with the proclamation of the year of the Lord’s favour in Luke 4:18–19 and the feeding of 5000 men (excluding women and children) in Matthew 14:13–21, Mark 6:30–44, John 6:1–14 and Luke 9:10–17. This is done against an environment where corruption in the procurement of personal protective equipment, unjust food parcel distribution and subverted relief packages occurred during the hard lockdown of 2020. This article makes use of both missio Dei and missio hominum as its missiological theory in conformity with calls for public health restoration during and after COVID-19. It employs a literature review to support missio Dei and missio hominum as compassion and fundraising for the poor in the face of COVID-19, as exemplified by Paul in 1 Corinthians 16:1–4 and Jesus in Mark 6:8 and Luke 8:1–3.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Missio Dei as the main project: project management model for mission of God
    (Africajournals, 2021) Thinane, Jonas Sello
    The emergence of the concept of Missio Dei (Mission of God) from the perspective of the International Missionary Council (IMC) arguably demonstrated that the role of the Triune God in his own mission was undeservedly marginalized for decades, if not centuries preceding 1952. Over the past decades there has been a sustained research activity conceptualizing Missio Dei, and at the same time renewing missiological interest in other Christian missions. However, to the author’s awareness, there has been very little or no effort to introduce or use known project models that can be utilized to show coherence or collaboration of missions towards the project of fulfilling the objective of Missio Dei. Through a desk-top literature review, this paper proposes the use of a project management model to properly conceptualize the location of Missio Dei as a main project that includes other network of missions as sub-projects within its framework. The Triune God is here identified as Project managers while human participants are seen as project stakeholders. Christian missions include Missio Christos, Missio Spiritus, Missio Hominum and Missio Ecclesiae as sub-projects. The proposed model will demonstrate the coordination and collaboration of missions in the broader context of Missio Dei and further assist with a proper understanding of roles that each mission is, or should play, in achieving the objective of Missio Dei. While efforts are being made here to propose a project management model for Missio Dei, further research is needed to determine whether this proposal will yield an in-depth understanding of Missio Dei as a missiological paradigm in conjunction with the role of other missions.