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dc.contributor.advisorCollins, Nacelle
dc.contributor.advisorJordaan, Andries
dc.contributor.authorBelle, Johanes Amate
dc.date.accessioned2017-08-07T07:02:35Z
dc.date.available2017-08-07T07:02:35Z
dc.date.issued2016-12
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/6518
dc.description.abstractEnglish: This research examined the integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation strategies into wetlands management in the eastern Free State in South Africa. The main identified problem was the continuous degradation of wetlands under changing environmental conditions characterised by increasing disaster risks, including risks associated with climate change. Well-managed wetlands mitigate disaster risks and climate change impacts. The main research question was: “Can integrating disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation principles and practices into wetlands management promote wetlands resilience for sustainable ecological benefits in the eastern Free State?” The aim of the study was to develop a holistic wetlands management framework that promotes wetland resilience under changing environmental conditions. Resilient wetlands provide sustainable ecological services that support local communities. The study used a systems thinking approach and is well-articulated in the emerging paradigm of ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation (Eco-DRR/CCA). A combination of four frameworks were necessary given the multidisciplinary nature of the research involving environmental management, disaster management and climate change science. The post-positivist and the interpretivist philosophies blended well in this study which combined social and natural sciences. A mixed research method approach was used. Stratified random sampling and convenient sampling was used to select 95 mostly valley-bottom wetlands in the study area. Valley-bottom wetlands are the dominant wetlands in the study area. Data were collected using questionnaires (176 wetland users), interviews (30 specialists), field observations (21 wetlands) and secondary data (from two weather stations). The data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and thematic analysis using simple descriptive statistics. Triangulation, experts’ inputs and pilot studies added credibility to the collected data. The main conclusions were that wetlands, especially those in communal land, were very vulnerable to degradation. This vulnerability is because of poor comprehension of wetland functions and values, ignorance and problems associated with the legal and institutional arrangement for wetlands management in South Africa. There is no national wetland policy and the implementation of related legislations is not effective. There is poor coordination of wetland-stakeholders in the area. The activities of the various Expanded Public Work Programmes (EPWPs) sometimes overlap and are not properly coordinated. Wetlands were poorly managed, especially communal wetlands where poor land-use systems, overgrazed wetlands, and lack of management plans were identified. Communal wetlands are therefore not very effective in mitigating the common risks of droughts, veld fires and floods in the area. However, wetlands in protected areas and many in private commercial farms were in a good ecological state, but they also require constant monitoring as head cut erosion and the presence of alien and invasive species are still visible. The main recommendations include that the government of South Africa, through the Department of Environmental Affairs, should formulate an effective and implementable national wetland policy that will speak directly and specifically to wetland issues. The government should also unify the control of the Extended Public Works Programmes (EPWPs) under one umbrella structure and improve the allocation of both human and financial resources to these EPWPs. There is a need for proper coordination of wetland stakeholders in the area and the provincial wetland advisory forum should be more effective. Education and creating awareness for wetland functions, values and management will be key to ensure the wise and sustainable management of wetlands. To build wetland resilience in the area, an Integrated Wetland Management Framework (IWMF) was proposed to manage wetlands from a holistic perspective, unlike the reactive approach that was dominant in the past. The IWMF integrates disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation tools and strategies. Further research was recommended for the longitudinal testing of the framework that will be aided by the development of other quantifiable indicators. Finally, a study to quantify the soil organic matter (SOM) of wetlands in the study area should be conducted to investigate opportunities for carbon trading as a way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and conserving wetlands.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Hierdie navorsing ondersoek die integrasie van ramprisikovermindering en klimaatsveranderingaanpassingstrategieë in vleilandbestuur in die Oos-Vrystaat in Suid-Afrika. Die belangrikste probleem wat geïdentifiseer is, was die voortdurende agteruitgang van vleilande te midde van veranderende omgewingstoestande wat gekenmerk word deur die verhoging van ramprisiko's, insluitende risiko's wat verband hou met klimaatsverandering. Goedbestuurde vleilande versag ramprisiko's en die impak van klimaatverandering. Die hoofnavorsingsvraag was: "Kan die integrasie van ramprisikovermindering en die beginsels en praktyke van klimaatsveranderingaanpassings in die bestuur van vleilande die veerkragtigheid van vleilande vir volhoubare ekologiese voordele in die Oos-Vrystaat bevorder?" Die doel van die studie was om 'n holistiese vleilandbestuursraamwerk te ontwikkel wat die herstel van vleilande bevorder te midde van veranderende omgewingstoestande. Herstelde vleilande bied volhoubare ekologiese moontlikhede wat plaaslike gemeenskappe kan ondersteun. Die studie volg 'n sisteemdenkebenadering en is goed verwoord in die opkomende paradigma van ekosisteme gebaseer op ramprisikovermindering en klimaatsveranderingaanpassing (Eco-DRR/CCA). 'n Kombinasie van vier raamwerke was nodig, gegewe die multidissiplinêre aard van die navorsing met betrekking tot die omgewingsbestuur-, rampbestuur- en klimaatsveranderingwetenskappe. Die post-positivistiese en die interpretivistiese filosofieë is goed vermeng in hierdie studie wat sosiale en natuurwetenskappe gekombineer. 'n Gemengde navorsingsmetodebenadering is gebruik, saam met gestratifiseerde steekproefneming en 'n gerieflikheidsteekproef, om 95 meestal vallei-bodem vleilande in die studie-area te kies. Valleibodem vleilande is die dominante vleilande in die studie-area. Data is ingesamel met behulp van vraelyste (176 vleilandgebruikers), onderhoude (30 spesialiste), veldwaarnemings (21 vleilande) en sekondêre data (uit twee weerstasies). Die data is ontleed met behulp van Microsoft Excel, die “Statistical Package for Social Sciences” (SPSS) en tematiese analise met behulp van eenvoudige beskrywende statistiek. Triangulering, insetkundiges en loodsstudies het geloofwaardigheid verleen aan die data wat ingesamel is. Die belangrikste gevolgtrekkings was dat vleilande, veral dié op kommunale grond, baie kwesbaar is vir agteruitgang as gevolg van 'n gebrek aan begrip van vleilandfunksies en -waardes. Hierdie kwesbaarheid is weens 'n gebrek aan begrip van vleilandfunksies en -waardes, asook onkunde en probleme wat verband hou met die wetlike en institusionele reëlings vir vleilande in Suid-Afrika. Daar is geen nasionale vleilandbeleid beskikbaar nie en die implementering van verwante wetgewing is nie doeltreffend nie. Die aktiwiteite van die verskillende uitgebreide openbarewerkeprogramme oorvleuel soms en word nie behoorlik gekoördineer nie. Vleilande word swak bestuur, veral kommunale vleilande waar swak grondgebruikstelsels, oorbeweide vleilande, en 'n gebrek aan bestuursplanne geïdentifiseer is. Gemeenskaplike vleilande is dus nie baie effektief in die verligting van die algemene risiko's van droogtes, veldbrande en oorstromings in die gebied nie. Alhoewel vleilande in beskermde gebiede en op privaat kommersiële plase in 'n goeie ekologiese toestand was, benodig hulle ook konstante monitering omdat ‘head cut’-erosie en die teenwoordigheid van uitheemse en indringerspesies nog sigbaar is. Swak koördinering van belanghebbendes in die vleilandgebiede is ook as 'n probleem geïdentifiseer. Die belangrikste aanbevelings sluit in dat die regering van Suid-Afrika, deur die Departement van Omgewingsake, 'n doeltreffende en implementeerbare nasionale vleilandbeleid moet formuleer wat vleilandkwessies direk en spesifiek sal aanspreek. Die regering moet ook die beheer van die openbarewerkeprogramme onder een sambreelstruktuur verenig en ook aandag gee aan die verbetering van die toekenning van beide menslike en finansiële hulpbronne aan hierdie openbarewerkeprogramme. Daar is 'n behoefte vir behoorlike koördinering van vleilandbelanghebbendes in die gebied en die provinsiale vleilandadviesforum behoort meer effektief te funksioneer. Onderrig en bewusmaking vir vleilandfunksies, -waardes en -bestuur sal die sleutel tot die wyse en volhoubare bestuur van vleilande verseker. Om vleilandherstel in die gebied op te bou, is 'n geïntegreerde vleilandbestuursraamwerk voorgestel om vleilande vanuit 'n holistiese perspektief te bestuur, in teenstelling met die reaktiewe benadering wat in die verlede oorheersend was. Die geïntegreerde vleilandbestuursraamwerk integreer hulpmiddele en strategieë vir ramprisikovermindering en klimaatsveranderingaanpassing. Verdere navorsing is aanbeveel vir die longitudinale toetsing van die raamwerk met behulp van die ontwikkeling van ander kwantifiseerbare aanwysers. Ten slotte is aanbeveel dat 'n studie onderneem word om die organiese inhoud van vleilande in die studie-area te kwantifiseer om geleenthede vir koolstofhandel te ondersoek as 'n manier om kweekhuisgasvrystellings te verminder ter wille van die bewaring van vleilande.af
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectEcosystemsen_ZA
dc.subjectEnvironmental managementen_ZA
dc.subjectEastern Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectClimate change adaptationen_ZA
dc.subjectDisaster risk reductionen_ZA
dc.subjectResilienceen_ZA
dc.subjectVulnerability and wetlandsen_ZA
dc.subjectWetland management -- South Africa -- Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectClimatic changes -- South Africa -- Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis Ph.D. (Environmental Management))--University of the Free State, 2016en_ZA
dc.titleThe integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation strategies into wetlands management in the Eastern Free State, South Africaen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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