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dc.contributor.advisorNaude, L.
dc.contributor.authorLombaard, E. C.
dc.date.accessioned2016-10-26T12:13:30Z
dc.date.available2016-10-26T12:13:30Z
dc.date.issued2015-07
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/4223
dc.description.abstractEnglish: In this study, adolescents‟ experience of stereotypes during identity development was investigated. During Apartheid South Africa, people were grouped in certain areas according to their racial features. Previous research focused solely on the experiences of white groups. Identity development theories are based on research done primarily on white samples and thus this study focused on black groups. Identity is formed internally through external experiences. Considering the adverse circumstances in which various South African adolescents live, it is essential to consider their identity development process and the factors contributing to it. Since adolescents try out new roles in different groups during their search for an identity, it is clear that it is of importance to investigate how the individuals in the groups experience the stereotypes attached to various groups. Literature regarding identity and stereotypes was utilised to conceptualise these concepts. Thus, this research study was done from a developmental and social psychology perspective. Identity as it develops in the adolescent‟s life phases was viewed within developmental psychology. Stereotypes and stereotyping were investigated from a social psychology perspective, as they are learnt and reinforced socially. A qualitative framework was chosen to give the individuals experiencing these stereotypes a voice. A case study design was used, and focus group sessions were held to discuss group members‟ experiences of identity formation and stereotyping in their lives openly. Seventy-three participants participated in this study and were identified by means of a non-probability sampling method, namely purposive sampling. Data were analysed and interpreted by means of thematic analyses, and various themes and subthemes arose from these data sets. The findings of the study correspond with findings of previous research studies in the same area of interest. Yet, doing this study also made various contributions. This includes that an identity is something internal (traits) and external (social) that should be considered in a three-dimensional time perspective, as the past, present and future are important to who the individual is. Stereotypes are viewed as genetic, learnt, and cognitive shortcuts to simplify the world based on the observable and can be experienced both negatively and positively as a motivation for uniqueness. Resisting conformation is an adaptive response to stereotyping, and the self-fulfilling prophecy can be counteracted if opposition to the expectation is present. It was found that individuals do have a need to stop stereotyping even though they resist conforming, and social acceptance is seen as both a reward striven for and a restriction that limits opportunities, roles and choices. Furthermore, the environment and neighbourhood in which stereotyping takes place and where individuals find themselves is of immense importance. All these factors contribute to stereotyping and the reaction to stereotyping, whether positive or negative, determines the identity that is formed within the individual.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: In hierdie studie is swart adolessente se ervaring van stereotipes gedurende identiteitsonwikkeling ondersoek. Gedurende Apartheid Suid-Afrika is mense in sekere gebiede volgens hulle ras-kenmerke gegroepeer. Vorige navorsing het slegs op die ervaring van blanke groepe gefokus. Identiteitsontwikkeling-teorieë is primêr gebaseer op navorsing wat in blanke steekproewe gedoen is. Identiteit word intern deur eksterne ervarings gevorm. In ag genome die ongunstige omstandighede waarin swart Suid-Afrikaanse adolessente leef, is dit belangrik om hulle identiteitsontwikkeling-proses en die faktore wat daartoe bydra, in aanmerking te neem. Omdat adolessente nuwe rolle in verskillende groepe gedurende hulle soeke na ʼn identiteit op die proef stel, is dit duidelik dat dit van belang is om te ondersoek hoe individue in die groepe die stereotipes wat aan verskillende groepe geheg word, ervaar. Literatuur oor identiteit en stereotipes is gebruik om hierdie konsepte te konseptualiseer. Hierdie studie is sodoende vanuit ʼn ontwikkeling- en sosiale sielkunde-perspektief gedoen. Identiteit soos dit in die lewensfases van die adolessent ontwikkel, is binne die ontwikkelingsielkunde beskou. Stereotipes en stereotipering is vanuit ʼn sosiale sielkunde-perspektief ondersoek, omdat hulle sosiaal aangeleer en versterk word. ʼn Kwalitatiewe raamwerk is gekies om aan die individue wat hierdie stereotipes ervaar, ʼn stem te gee. ʼn Gevallestudie-ontwerp is gebruik, en fokusgroepsessies is gehou om openlik groeplede se ervarings van identiteitsvorming en stereotipering in hulle lewens te bespreek. Drie-en-sewentig deelnemers het aan hierdie studie deelgeneem en is geïdentifiseer deur middel van nie-waarskynlikheid steekproefneming, naamlik doelgerigte steekproefneming. Data is deur middel van tematiese ontledings ontleed en vertolk, en verskeie temas en subtemas het uit hierdie datastelle na vore gekom. Die bevindings van die studie stem ooreen met bevindings van vorige navorsingstudies in dieselfde belangstellingsveld. Nietemin het die uitvoer van hierdie studie verskeie bydraes gemaak. Dit sluit in dat ʼn identiteit iets interns (eienskappe) en iets eksterns (sosiaal) is wat in ʼn driedimensionele tydperspektief in aanmerking geneem moet word, omdat die verlede, die hede en die toekoms belangrik is vir wie die individu is. Stereotipes word as geneties, aangeleer en as kognitiewe kortpaaie beskou om die wêreld te vereenvoudig, is gebaseer op die waarneembare, en kan positief as ʼn motivering vir uniekheid ervaar word. Weerstand teen konformasie is ʼn aanpassingsreaksie op stereotipering, en die selfvervullende profesie kan teengewerk word as opposisie tot die verwagting teenwoordig is. Dit is bevind dat individue die behoefte het om stereotipering te stop, al weerstaan hulle konformering, en sosiale aanvaarding word as beide ʼn beloning waarna gestreef word en ʼn beperking wat geleenthede, rolle en keuses beperk. Verder is die omgewing en buurt waarin stereotipering plaasvind en waar individue hulself bevind, van groot belang. Al hierdie faktore dra by tot stereotipering, terwyl die ervaring daarvan dan as negatief of positief lei tot 'n invloed op die identitiets ontwikkeling proses.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectIdentityen_ZA
dc.subjectIdentity developmenten_ZA
dc.subjectStereotypeen_ZA
dc.subjectAdolescentsen_ZA
dc.subjectExperiences of stereotypesen_ZA
dc.subjectTeenagersen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.A. (Psychology))--University of the Free State, 2015en_ZA
dc.titleAdolescents’ experiences of stereotypes during identity developmenten_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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