Masters Degrees (Political Studies and Governance)

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  • ItemOpen Access
    An analysis of municipality management key performance indicator (KPI) and its relation to municipal manager (MM) turnover: comparison between municipalities in Gauteng and Limpopo provinces
    (University of the Free State, 2022) Mashashane, Ndangano Banyana; Cloete, Pringle
    Effective public administration and municipal management are vital for developmental states' functioning, such as South Africa. Without efficient and effective municipal managers committed to clearly outlined and systematically implemented development plans, South Africa may struggle to live up to its developmental objectives. As such, good governance of municipal managers needs to be regularly checked through project management appraisal systems. However, it is due to the goal of good governance, which is consistently checked through regular project management appraisals, that we observe a high staff turnover in local municipalities. Staff turnover can be costly if it results in the loss of human capital investment and intellectual capital, exacerbated by costs to replacing management and a loss of productivity (Mzezewa and Raushai, 2019:5). Hattingh (2020:3) notes that the South African local government invests in the human capital and intellectual development of their senior managers through offering training and other capacity building initiatives while also providing financial assistance to further qualifications while under contract. However, a recent financial audit claims that more than half of the local municipalities are currently labelled as financially distressed, which adds to the high employee turnover rate in municipal management positions. According to the Department of Cooperative Governance, of those employees suspended, 21 were municipal managers (Hattingh, 2020:33). As a response to the current problem, the government has allocated R6.6-billion to support municipalities through building capacity and strengthening municipal administrations (Hattingh, 2020:4; Polity, 2021). Based on the implications of managerialism, this dissertation hopes to add a body of knowledge on any trends of accomplishments, or any entry requirements met, which may predict the capability of good governance of municipal managers and to increase staff retention to prevent further loss of capital. The problem, however, is that a shortage of research exists on trends of which municipal manager KPI's (competencies), skills and experiences lead to completion of their contractual term and not suspension. This study therefore aimed to identify which Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and core managerial competencies (CMCs) are present amongst municipal managers who complete their contractual terms while also performing well within the human resource management retention theory of job fit. In other words, the objective of this study is to explore and compare descriptively the municipal management turnover and any trends in the managers (MM's) KPI's and experiences that promote completion of managerial contract with the local government. The study is a cross-sectional descriptive quantitative exploration of municipality managers' performance challenges, preventing them from completing their full contractual term as a municipal manager. Information came from multiple sources, including Curriculum Vitae (CVs), KPI, CMCs, audits and exit reviews of managers. Secondary data was thematically categorised into the core competencies and KPI categories required by local government, and lastly, data was analysed and interpreted. This analysis will ultimately assist in the development of guidelines towards determining minimum requirements of managerial positions in municipalities to facilitate greater staff retention.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The compatibility of sharia law with democracy
    (University of the Free State, 2015) Seale, Geoffrey Robert; Coetzee, T.
    English: The Compatibility of Sharia Law and Democracy attempts to determine whether sharia law (practised mainly in the Middle East and North Africa) is compatible with democracy (practised mainly in Europe and the United States). The motivation behind the analysis of sharia law and democracy is the continuous violation of fundamental human rights, liberties and freedom of people who reside in countries that do not adhere to and uphold the aforementioned principles and values. The study also attempts to create awareness and a sense of appreciation for democracy and the standards pertaining to democracy. The ultimate aim of the study is to determine whether these two are able to function in accord without one counteracting the values of the other. This will accomplish the aim of raising awareness with regard to their compatibility with one another. The literature study elaborated on what sharia law and democracy embody while also comparing the Laws of Sharia with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The empirical study, which takes the form of qualitative research, involved six participants who resided under both sharia law and democracy. The final chapter of the literature study reports that sharia law is not compatible with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which forms the basis of any democracy. Each one of the thirty articles of the declaration is violated under sharia law in Muslim countries. The empirical study acknowledged this fact, and supplemented it, by concluding that sharia law and democracy are incompatible.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Intergovernmental relations as a vehicle to improve service delivery and implement Back to Basics (B2B) programme in Gauteng (case study Emfuleni local municipality)
    (University of the Free State, 2021) Kgomo, Jabulani Henry; Coetzee, T.
    The Back to Basics (B2B) Programme was launched in September 2014 by the Minister of CoGTA and it classified municipalities into three categories, namely, municipalities that are doing well, municipalities at risk of dysfunctionality and municipalities that are dysfunctional. The B2B Programme’s objective is to build a responsive, caring and accountable local government, which has the capacity to exercise its legislative imperatives effectively and efficiently. B2B operates within the framework of intergovernmental relations to achieve the objectives of service delivery. Intergovernmental relations is a platform that facilitates and coordinates the function of the B2B. The linkage between B2B takes place within the ambit of the applicable local government policy and legislation that guide implementation of programmes. The motivation of this study was underpinned by the relationship between intergovernmental relations and B2B to improve service in Emfuleni Local Municipality (ELM). The aims of the study were to investigate the role of intergovernmental relations as a platform to facilitate the implementation and improvement of service delivery. The research question is concerned with how effective intergovernmental relation structures are in achieving the objectives of the B2B Programme, which seeks to address service delivery challenges? The study combined an explanatory research and analytical research through a literature review of material on the same subject. The study discussed the profile of Emfuleni Local Municipality in terms successes and failures of service delivery within the context of B2B. The analysis and interpretation of the study were informed by the research objective and compliance with the Constitution no.108 of 1996 of the Republic of South Africa and applicable legislation. The focus was particularly concerned with service delivery to communities in a sustainable manner. The findings of the study indicated a lack of cooperation and ineffective intergovernmental relations structures. B2B could not achieve the objectives of service delivery through intergovernmental relations. The conclusion with the lessons learned, and the value of the study, recommend that all three spheres of government must collaborate in a coherent and a cohesive manner to deliver services within the context of B2B. Lack of cooperation and collaboration of intergovernmental relations structures in the implementation of B2B provide the answer to the research questions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Protest as political communication -investigating the metsimaholo demarcation protest of 2013
    (University of the Free State, 2021) Bofelo, Kiewit Mphutlane Abraham; Ponono, Mvuzo
    This mini dissertation investigates the political communication undertones of service demarcation protests in South Africa, with a focus on the Metsimaholo Municipality protests of 2013 in the Free State province, South Africa. This study is aimed at evaluating demarcation protests as a form of subaltern agency and political communication. It argues that protests, represents a medium by which marginalised communities mount their reply to social marginalization and disenfranchisement by formal administrative structures and processes of service delivery, public participation and several issues that elicit their disenchantment and dissension. The research is a contribution to the study of rampant residents' protests in Metsimaholo Municipality and around the country.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Government's Intervention on failure of small and medium enterprises in South Africa
    (University of the Free State, 2020) Theletsane, Joyce Masentle; Swanepoel, L.
    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) make a tremendous contribution to worldwide economies. In South Africa, they are considered the lifeblood of the economy as they are expected to address the high unemployment and poverty rates which the country is experiencing. However, it has come to light that SMEs do not grow in South Africa. It is thus critical to study factors which cause failure within the SME sector. This study investigates the factors that cause SME failure, which are divided into two environments, namely the micro- and the macro-environment. The study further investigates the effectiveness of the three strategies that entail the South African small business policy and effectiveness of institutions created by government to assist and support SMEs, i.e. Small Enterprise Development Agency, National Youth Development Agency and Small Enterprise Finance Agency.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Narco-Terror nexus: the cases of Afghanistan, Colombia, and West Africa
    (University of the Free State, 2021-11) Rooi, Sam-Maree; Coetzee, Eben
    As illegal activities move beyond borders, countries are confronted with challenges deriving from trafficking and organized crime, financial crimes, identity theft, cybercrime, terrorism, and environmental crime (International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy, 2017). Particularly drug trafficking and terrorism are notable challenges for domestic and international security and stability. These challenges, although not new, have become global, multidimensional, and extremely intricate (Kloer, 2009:76). At present a burgeoning relationship between trafficking in narcotics and terrorism exists. The transnational nature and diversity of these crimes enable criminal networks to work alongside terrorist groups with catastrophic consequences (Martin, 2003:9). The interconnection and association between these two antithetical groups is generally referred to as ‘narco-terrorism’. The study aims to investigate the nature and scope of narcotics trafficking and terrorism in Afghanistan, Colombia, and West Africa. The two countries and one region were chosen specifically as case studies because all three cases have been plagued for decades by terrorism, narcotics trafficking and violent conflict. These milieus were chosen specifically for their differing backgrounds which provides an element of authenticity to the study. This study reveals important insights into how governments can formulate policies to combat the dual-nature of the narco-terror nexus. As such, it will appeal to all political scientists and criminologists studying terrorism and drug trafficking, as well as to professionals at various national and international security services.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Die politisering van sportbetrekkinge tussen Suid-Afrika en Nieu-Seeland met spesiale verwysing na die 1981-Springbokrugbytoer na Nieu-Seeland
    (University of the Free State, 1986-06) Wolmarans, Barend Johannes; Wessels, D. P.
    Afrikaans: Met die politisering van dié grootste sportbyeenkoms ter wêreld, die Olimpiese Spele, was die weg beslis gebaan vir die politisering van ander kleiner sportsoorte-, byeenkomste-, organisasies en -administrasie. Hieruit is dit duidelik dat nog Suid-Afrika, nog rugbybetrekkinge tussen Suid-Afrika en Nieu-Seeland as geïsoleerde gevalle gesien kan word. Indien daar na 'n primêre oorsaak gesoek moet word vir die politisering van rugbybetrekkinge tussen Suid-Afrika en Nieu-Seeland, kan die soektog met die grootste vrymoedigheid by die begrip "apartheid" begin word. Sedert hierdie begrip die eerste keer bekend geword het, sou dit net 'n kwessie van tyd wees voordat die aanslag teen Suid-Afrikaanse sport tot die bevordering van politieke motiewe aangewend sou word. Met "Loskopdam", die politieke waarheidsmoment in Suid-Afrikaanse sport, het ons so reg in die hande gespeel van die na-oorlogse humanistiese-getinte mens wat alles, die individue en samelewing, beoordeel in terme van hul vryheidsidealisme. As slagkrete hef hulle onder andere aan "human rights" en "human dignity". Hierdie "idealiste" se standpunte is: Geen normale sport kan in 'n abnormale samelewing beoefen word nie. Alhoewel die Maori-kwessie 'n belangrike politieke-strydpunt geword het, moet die aanslag teen Suid-Afrika se binnelandse beleid en die onderwerping van die staatsbestel in Suid-Afrika deur hierdie polities, kommunisties geinspireerde agitators ("terroriste") nie teen die Maori-kwessie afgespeel word nie. Die aanslag om die 1981-toer afgelas te kry, het hoofsaaklik gesentreer rondom die aktiwiteite van die anti-apartheidsorganisasies. Met die hulp van die "bias" en monopolistiese media het hulle geweldige druk op die Nieu-Seelandse regering geplaas om die nodige, die afstelling van die toer, namens hulle te doen. Dat die Nieu-Seelandse regering vasberade was om 1981 se algemene verkiesing te wen,het geblyk uit hulle standvastigheid deur hierdie krisis-toer van 1981. Die atmosfeer waarin die 1981-toer plaasgevind het, was alles behalwe normaal, met die onttrekking van noodsaaklike dienste deur vakbonde, die verblyf in muurbalbane voor wedstryde, die steun op privaat inwoners vir huisvesting, steun op beskerming deur feitlik die totale Nieu-Seelandse polisiemag, met ander woorde die ontsê van demokratiese reg om sport te kan beoefen terwyl jy as gas in Nieu-Seeland is. Uit die studie moet daar 'n afleiding gemaak word dat Suid-Afrikaanse Rugby 'n baie moeilike tydperk betree - 'n tydperk waarin buitelandse toere feitlik onmoontlik is en 'n tydperk waarin die moontlikheid van oorsese toerspanne na Suid-Afrika ook nie te rooskleurig lyk nie. Die afstelling van die All Blacktoer van 1985 na Suid-Afrika, asook die vroeë afstelling van die beoogde Leeu-toer in 1986 na Suid-Afrika, staaf hierdie isolasie-afleiding.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Continuity and change in China's foreign policy towards Africa: the cases of the two Sudans, the DRC and Nigeria
    (University of the Free State, 2018-12) Letube, Katleho; Neethling, T.; Coetzee, E.
    The relationship between China and the African continent dates back to the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) but has grown rapidly and intensely from the early 1990s. This study provides significant insight to the relationship between China and the two Sudans, the DRC and Nigeria. Specifically, this study explores aspects of continuity and change in China’s foreign policy towards African states using these countries as case studies. The dynamics of China’s changing foreign policy are based on the problem statement that there is evident change in China’s foreign policy, despite China’s refusal to admit this. This study uses primary and secondary sources for deductive reasoning on foreign policy approaches, and the case study approach to establish the consistency of China’s foreign policy in a constantly changing world. Finally, the study concludes that despite notable changes in China’s foreign policy towards Africa, specifically in the two Sudans, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Nigeria, continuity largely prevails. At the same time, it should be noted that the findings emanate from only three case studies, China’s foreign policy behaviour in other cases could differ to some extent from the discoveries on the African context in this study.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Risk management as a tool to address the challenges of maladministration in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality
    (University of the Free State, 2017-11) Hlazo, Peter; Schimper, M. C. E.
    The aim of this study is to explore the risk management function with reference to the challenges faced by the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality in the Eastern Cape.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The relationship between African traditional religion and governance in South Africa
    (University of the Free State, 2019-01) Van Rooyen, Jurie Stephanus; Botha, G.
    Abstract not available
  • ItemOpen Access
    An analysis of populism and human rights in South Africa
    (University of the Free State, 2018) Terblanche, Wayne Richard; Coetzee, Tania
    The study focussed on the Human Rights challenges experienced in South Africa, as well as the rise of Populism, and Populist tactics used by politicians and political parties. Qualitative research methodology was used as extensive literature on both components of the study, Human Rights and Populism, was investigated. Examples of Populism and Populist governments in other parts of the world, such as in Latin America, the United States of America, and Central and Eastern Europe, were also provided. These examples were used to illustrate how Populism can be a threat to the realisation of Human Rights and how South Africa can take active steps not to make or allow the same mistakes to happen in the country. The study found a global rise in Populism and that its ethnic calls divide societies or nations; it also has the ability to instigate violence between the “original people” and the so-called “other”. Secondly, Populism is difficult to define as it can take on different forms in different countries. In some instances, the Populist call is not ethnic but rather between classes; for example, between the ordinary people and the elite. Thirdly, Populism shows little regard for democratic institutions and considers the will of the people as sovereign. Therefore, Populism poses a threat to Human Rights, which views all people as equal, and all people are entitled to enjoy these rights irrespective of culture, nationality, colour or creed. The researcher recommends that the rise of Populism in South Africa be monitored and the dangers that it poses to Human Rights be exposed to the citizens of the country. Human rights activists and institutions should be mindful of the threat of Populism to the fulfilment of Human Rights, as enshrined in the Constitution of South Africa. Moreover, the government and leading political parties should not only strive for success at the ballot box, but it is the duty of the government to ensure that all citizens as well as immigrants and asylum seekers are safe and entitled to the same Human Rights as stipulated in the Constitution of South Africa.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Exploring how the principals' leadership capacity influences governance and policy implementation in the rural schools of Sekhukhune: a case study of two poor performing secondary schools
    (University of the Free State, 2019-01) Silulwane, Ntombizandile Dudu Frances; Malatji, M. M.
    This research studied the principal’s leadership capacity and how it influenced governance and policy implementation in the two poor performing rural secondary schools in the Sekhukhune District in the Limpopo province. The study focused on the leadership actions of the principals of these poor performing rural secondary schools when facilitating collaborative processes and collective decision making within the School Governing Bodies to ensure implementation of decentralised responsibilities and mandated directives of the department of education in South Africa. Leadership capacity and its effects on school systems was studied through document analysis to address assumptions that principals of poor performing secondary schools have leadership challenges and cannot lead teams and influence groups within their organisation. These schools have been poor performing below 40% for a period of five consecutive years. This study reviewed leadership activities and leadership types of principal leaders in their attempt to lead and guide school governance through SGBs towards provisioning of relevant support for quality education. The study also looked into the leadership of the principals to determine whether it was able to facilitate effective policy implementation through involvement of relevant stakeholders within these schools. The study has deemed it necessary to also review the level of support provided by the Sekhukhune District of Education to build capacity of these principal leaders so that they could improve learner performance. Contextual challenges that impacted negatively with the leadership capacity of these leaders were identified as reviewed from data collected and analysed. The findings showed that school principals had adequate leadership qualifications and experience that could have influenced school governance and other systems in these poorly performing schools. Results also showed that these two schools were fairly supported by the District but still challenges persisted and the schools continued to poorly perform. Insufficient monitoring and support for educators by the SMTs on curriculum recommendations from the district and high levels of learner ill-discipline might have impacted negatively on the performance of roles and might have resulted to learners performing poorly in the schools. The SGBs and parental involvement in school governance seemed not to have been sufficiently rendered. rendered and knowledge and understanding of legislation on school governance and implementation of policy directives in both curriculum and governance still needed some attention. The study further offered recommendations to assist the District in the implementation of leadership programmes that would be planned to further specifically for poor performing secondary school principals. Based on the studied documents, recommendations are provided to improve the leadership capacity of the principals in poor performing secondary schools ensuring that governance and policy implementation provide a conducive atmosphere for the delivery of quality education aimed at improving learner performance.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Establishment imperatives for governance of a school for learners with intellectual impairment
    (University of the Free State, 2019-01) Nyamende, Mercy Moleboheng; Teise, K.
    Abstract not available
  • ItemOpen Access
    An assessment of corporate governance in state-owned enterprises in Zimbabwe within the period 2005-2015: the case of the Hwange Colliery mine (2010-2014)
    (University of the Free State, 2019-03) Mumba, Blessed Dzidzai; Swanepoel, M. P.
    Leadership in any sphere of life, is a given constant. All entities - either political, social, economic or corporate – require some form of leadership to direct its affairs and maintain its focus on its aims and objectives. The presence of leadership therefore, equally demands a sense of responsibility, which is what corporate governance entails. This study thus, aims to identify and evaluate the existence of corporate governance in state-owned enterprises in a sub-Saharan African socio-economic setting. It makes use of the Hwange Colliery in the North-Western part of Zimbabwe as a specific case study. The study tries to establish the presence (or otherwise) of all characteristics of proper corporate governance; how they have impacted on the operations - and running – of the colliery over the years and how the current state of the colliery has affected its most-important stakeholders such as staff and immediate (host) community. Making use of primary and secondary research methods - such as interviews and pictorial data - the study attempts to determine if the brand of leadership/governance adopted in the running of Hwange Colliery meets required standards and has made it attractive to investors, as well as other stakeholders such as employees, clients and the government of Zimbabwe, which remains its major shareholder. The findings ultimately proved that the attempts by Hwange Colliery Limited to practise corporate governance have proved very inadequate – with far-reaching and painful consequences. These findings were followed by recommendations, which aimed at improving both the financial state of the Colliery, as well as its corporate governance scorecard.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Exploring the role of political parties and party systems on democracy in Lesotho
    (University of the Free State, 2019-02) Rakhare, Mpho; Coetzee, Tania
    Abstract not available
  • ItemOpen Access
    The role of the African Union in promoting democracy and human rights: a case study of Zimbabwe
    (University of the Free State, 2018) Mlatha, Mxolisi Goodman; Gouws, Ina
    This study deals with the role of the African Union (AU) in promoting democracy and human rights in Zimbabwe. The current political crisis in Zimbabwe has persisted since the founding of the AU in 2002. The AU replaced the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) as a continental organisation of states to pursue specific common objectives. From its inception, the AU has committed itself to promoting democracy and human rights, partly due to the fragile and hybrid democracies that characterise the region. It also undertook to make a manifest shift from the Westphalian doctrine of no intervention to no indifference, which as a result positioned it correctly to promote democracy and human rights. Scholars have identified a dichotomy between the commitment of the AU to promote democracy and human rights and its manifest actions to realise such. This has come to the fore particularly in the context of the ongoing crisis in Zimbabwe. This study interprets the manifest actions of the AU compared to its stated commitments and its mandate in respect of democracy and human rights promotion. The objective of this study is to describe the actual role of the AU in terms of its stated mandate. The study uses decolonial theory and democratisation theory as the theoretical framework to interpret and describe the role of the AU in Zimbabwe, which it argues is immersed in coloniality. The study shows that the democratisation project of the AU has been countered by the continued coloniality that continues to shape the status quo. This is particularly evident in Zimbabwe where there is structural violence that depicts coloniality and a hybrid state. For the region to achieve marked progress in respect of democratisation, it has to undo the self-perpetuating and persistent coloniality in Zimbabwe.
  • ItemOpen Access
    An investigation into the state of governance in a public entity: through the application of world governance indicators: the case of ESKOM, South Africa
    (University of the Free State, 2019-01) Miles, Maureen; Marias, W.
    South Africa’s monopolistic power utility, ESKOM, generates up to 95 percent of electricity utilised in the country. The provision of electricity by ESKOM is considered as an essential service that is critical for everyday and economic activities. However, the country has experienced load shedding (sporadic electricity supply) over the last decade (since 2006 – 2008), which has become more frequent in recent years (2015 – current). Load shedding, amongst other challenges, can be directly linked to poor service delivery which is often associated with poor corporate governance. Governance transgressions in government entities or state-owned entities (SOEs) such as ESKOM are mostly communicated to the public through media platforms; therefore, the role of the media is described in literature as being the so-called “watchdogs”. In addition, the media can also be used to facilitate various aspects of governance (e.g., openness and transparency), which can ultimately reduce corruption and enhance good governance in the public domain. Good governance in SOEs is guided by principles, codes, and legislative frameworks, and the effectiveness thereof can be evaluated or verified using tools such as governance indicators. A globally applied tool is comprised in the World Governance Indicators (WGI) that are based on the following six domains: 1) voice and accountability, 2) political stability and absence of violence, 3) government effectiveness, 4) regulatory quality, 5) rule of law, and 6) control of corruption. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine the overall state of governance of ESKOM, measured against the WGI, and to subsequently evaluate what the specific governance transgressions are, as published by South African media platforms. In addition, a measurement instrument for organisational performance was also applied in measuring the following dimensions of sustainability: economy, society and environment. Both the WGI and organisational performance measuring instruments were applied simultaneously to assess and evaluate the overall state of governance in ESKOM. Online news articles reporting on issues in ESKOM were extracted for analysis (assessing and evaluation) from The Sunday Times, Eye Witness News (EWN) and the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) over a period of 12 months (31 July 2017 – 31 July 2018), allowing for a maximum of 53 articles. The methodology followed mainly a qualitative approach, using the six WGI to cluster the content of articles as either negative or positive. An organisational performance framework, based on sustainability dimensions (economy, society and environment) was also modified in collaboration with WGI as an appropriate measurement instrument. Governance performance is specifically the performance domain as it is anticipated to that good governance practices have a positive impact on the organizational decision-making and subsequently influencing other performance domains of the organization in a positive manner (Crucke and Decramer, 2016:6). The results (assessments and evaluations) indicated that governance effectiveness performed the best, while the poorest performance was recorded for control of corruption. Both these WGI outcomes were strongly supported by two dimensions of sustainability; namely: 1) economy and 2) society. Based on the total percentage outcomes for all domains, ESKOM should prioritise the following indicators from as economic and society perspective: 1) control of corruption, 2) political stability and absence of violence/terrorism, and 3) regulatory quality. Other indicators associated with good governance practices or organisational performance which included the following: 1) rule of law, 2) voice and accountability, and 3) governance effectiveness. It has become evident from this study that ESKOM is making good progress regarding decision-making, planning, and implementation within the domain of governance effectives; however, the SOE’s ability to control corruption is highlighted as a major concern in this study. The state of governance, measured through online media reports, could be used as an effective approach to alert or inform regarding potential governance transgressions that may require further investigation.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Coalition politics a new political landscape in South Africa
    (University of the Free State, 2018-12) Moshodi, Johannes Mokhobo; Swanepoel, M. P.
    Abstract not available
  • ItemOpen Access
    Designing a policy and strategy framework for black, women-owned small and medium businesses in Johannesburg and Pretoria cities, Gauteng Province
    (University of the Free State, 2019-01) Mathibe, Mercy N.; Croucamp, P. A.
    There have been numerous challenges impeding efforts of black women in establishing, growing and sustaining their small and medium businesses in South Africa. This sector is male dominated and yet, females, especially black women, are predominant in the South African economic active population. If meaningful success is to be achieved, it is imperative for both public and private sectors to formulate and implement sustainable policies and strategies to stimulate, grow and sustain black women businesses. Black women were the focus of this study because of their historic marginalisation, economically. In this study, the insights of black female entrepreneurs hopefully provided an understanding of the challenges facing black women establishing and developing SMEs in different sectors in the South African economy The aim of the study was to design a policy and strategy framework for black, women-owned small and medium businesses in Johannesburg and Pretoria cities, Gauteng Province. This would be achieved through identifying the obstacles faced by small and medium businesses owned by black women, and using recommendations provided by these women to design such a policy and strategy framework. An exploratory research design and a qualitative approach to data collection were utilised to collect and analyse primary data for the study. Purposive non-probability sampling was used to identify eight black female SME entrepreneurs. The sampled black female entrepreneurs were contacted and asked to participate in the research study. Initially the sample was supposed to be drawn directly from the DTI’s various women business development and support programmes. However due to challenges experienced to schedule the actual interviews, the snowballing sampling method introduced other black female entrepreneurs outside of the DTI programmes. Interviews with semi-structured questions were conducted with each of the entrepreneurs to collect the primary data. The focus of the interviews was to review the challenges faced by black women-owned SMEs, determine the current government policies and strategies addressing the SMEs’ challenges, and suggest ways of revising or improving the policies and strategies to promote black women-owned SMEs. It was found that the micro challenges include: lack of finance, insufficient education and experience, lack of customer satisfaction, female gender roles, lack of marketing, lack of compliance with legislation, and lack of focus, while the macro challenges include: gender prejudices, limited access to finance, bureaucratic processes, execution failure, corruption and nepotism, delays in payments, difficult registration process, lack of infrastructure, lack of networking, and high competition. The existing government policies and strategies to address the challenges that black women-owned SMEs contend with were as follows: BBBEE, SEDA, SEFA, B'avumile Skills Development Initiative, GWE Unit, and Gauteng Economic Propeller. However, the findings revealed that most participants were not aware of the nature of the support provided by the policies and strategies of the identified programmes.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The impact of civil society on governance in Lesotho
    (University of the Free State, 2019-02) Rakhare, Mphonyane; Coetzee, Tania
    Abstract not available