Item Open AccessRespek vir die lewe en die doodstraf volgens die perspektief van Genesis 9:5-6(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2004) Verster, P.English: There are different views on the application of Genesis 9:5-6 in the debate on the value of life and the death penalty. In postmodern society it is considered inhumane to execute persons who committed murder. In this article different views are discussed and it is suggested that, according to Genesis 9:5, respect for life is absolute and that, although the death penalty is not explicitly mentioned, it provides an argument for upholding respect for life. Item Open AccessRemarks on the church in the consumer society: similarities and dissimilarities(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2004) Lategan, L. O. K.English: The church cannot escape the influence of the consumer society. The influence of the consumer society is often viewed as negative although it can have many positive influences on the building and growth of the church. The consumer society reminds the church that, although the message of the church cannot change, the style of church services can. Pastors should make it clear that the gospel message is not a product for sale; however the gospel message should be directed at the needs of people. This article outlines the influence of the consumer society on the church. The article also outlines the similarities and dissimilarities between the church and the consumer society. It concludes with guidelines on how the church can bring its gospel message regardless the dominant influences of the consumer society. Item Open AccessAttempting a dialectical reconciliation of the concept truth in the objectivism of evangelical Christianity and the relativism of postmodernism(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2004) Foshaugen, E. K.English: The Church faces a number of challenges concerning the sociological impact postmodernism is having on society. One significant area that has been profoundly disputed is the epistemological content of the concept of truth. Evangelical Christians believe in Objectivism: the conviction that there exists some ahistorical source, foundation or framework to which we can appeal to in determining the substance and nature of truth, knowledge, reality, right or wrong — and it is independent and external to personal experience or thinking. However, many no longer believe in absolute truth but in relativism. Relativism is the denial that there exists such an ahistorical source or foundation that we can appeal to. Truth, knowledge, reality, right and wrong are all concepts that are relative to a specific conceptual scheme, framework, or paradigm founded in a society, religion and culture. This article represents an endeavour to dialogically reunite the two perspectives by arguing for the seeking of the “truths” in both perspectives. God is Objective Truth and has become involved in history: in the existential; in the material setting of our relative and infallible thoughts and the slanted interpretative experiences of the Triune God and life. The synthesis will be an affirmation that for Christians Truth is discovered and revealed in fellowship within community. And members of the Body of Christ are first and finally called to reveal and demonstrate truth to the world — in their unity. Item Open AccessDie prediker as preek basisteoretiese perspektiewe uit handelinge(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2004) Venter, C. J. H.; Kim, H. K.English: This article explores the topic from a pneumatological perspective, and pays attention to the preacher’s calling, appointment and being filled with the Holy Spirit. The key question is that of congruence between what a preacher preaches and how he lives his life (i.e. as a sermon). The following issues from the book of Acts are dealt with: the passion of the preacher for congruence between preacher and sermon; the integrity to proclaim God’s total plan of salvation; humility, the courage and boldness in preaching the Word of God; the will to suffer hardship in absolute obedience to God, and the holy indignation when God is not honoured. Issues relating to attitude in prayer and in Scripture reading, meditation and application of the Word are investigated as these contribute to the congruence between preacher and sermon. Item Open AccessJesus' affection towards children and Matthew's tale of two kings(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2004) Van Aarde, A. G.English: On account of multiple and independent attestations in early Christian literature Jesus’ affection towards children can be taken as historical authentic. From a perspective of the social stratification of first-century Herodian Palestine, this article argues that it is possible to consider these children as part of the expendable class. Neither Mark nor its parallel texts in the other Gospels refer to parents bringing these children to Jesus. They seem to be “street urchins”. In this article the episode where Jesus defends the cause of fatherless children in the Synoptic Gospels is interpreted from the perspective of Matthew’s version of Jesus’ affection towards children. The aim is to demonstrate that Matthew situates the beginning and end of Jesus’ public ministry within the context of Jesus’ relationship to children. Jesus’ baptism by John (Mt 3:15) and Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem (Mt 21:1-17) form the two poles of his ministry in Matthew. Both episodes are described as a kind of “cleansing of the temple”. Both incidents were (in a midrash fashion) understood by Matthew as fulfilment of Scripture. The baptism scene is a Matthean allusion to Isaiah 1:13-17 and the record of the entry into Jerusalem is an explicit interpretation of Jeremiah 7:1-8. Item Open AccessPartikuliere en algemene sinodes: 'n gereformeerde benadering(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2004) Strauss, P. J.English: In this article the author investigates the character, composition and task of particular or regional synods and of general synods in reformed churches. Although the character and composition of these assemblies in the church can be defined fairly easily, the same can not be said of the distinction between the task of the former and the latter. The fact that both of them were called upon in the past to look after matters common to all congregations within its borders, created a vagueness in this regard. Which are those matters common to all congregations which should be attended to by particular synods and which by general synods? His solution is the application of two well-known principles of a reformed church polity: firstly, that major assemblies should not attend to matters which could be dealt with at minor assemblies, and, secondly, that a general synod should concentrate on those issues which are really common to all congregations in the specific denomination. Item Open AccessA rhetorical analysis of Philippians 1:1-11(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2004) Snyman, A. H.English: The aim of this article is to analyse Philippians 1:1-11 from a rhetorical perspective that differs from the typical approach of researchers, who tend to force ancient rhetorical categories on a letter. The analysis is done in terms of what is called a “grounded theoretical approach”. This approach is briefly summarised, followed by a systematic analysis of Paul’s basic rhetorical strategy, as well as of all the supportive rhetorical techniques, in these eleven verses. It will be argued that these verses are not to be regarded as the exordium of the letter, preparing the audience for the “real” arguments later on in the probatio (2:1-3:21). They are part of Paul’s rhetorical strategy in the letter, constructed from the text itself and aimed at persuading his fellow-Christians to persevere in proclaiming and living the gospel that they received at the founding of the church in Philippi. The conclusion is that such a text-centred approach (where the focus shifts from the formal to the functional) provides a better understanding of Paul’s rhetorical strategy in Philippians 1:1-11 than a typical rhetorical analysis, according to which this section forms part of the exordium of the letter. Item Open AccessWat is 'n gereformeerde liturgie?(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2004) Janse van Rensburg, J.English: The current debate on a reformed liturgy is driven by opposition. On the one hand, some protagonists for renewal embrace anything new that works, while on the other hand traditionalists reject attempts to renew the liturgy, arguing that such efforts go against the reformed liturgy. The question, however, is raised: “What is a reformed liturgy?” The article endeavours to indicate principles for renewal, based on reformed theology and not on the reformed tradition. Item Open AccessDebating Toynbee's theory of challenge and response: Christian civilisation or Western imperialism?(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2004) Hale, F.English: In his 1952 Reith Lectures on the British Broadcasting Corporation, “The World and the West”, the eminent London historian Professor Arnold Toynbee sought to explain inter alia why western European hegemony over much of the world was widely resented. His interpretation incorporated the “challenge and response” theory of successive civilisations which underlay his multi-volume A Study of History. Toynbee’s lectures drew sharp criticism from many quarters, not least because he gave the impression that the era of Western hegemony was waning and that much of the momentum of world history was moving to the East. This in itself was a controversial perception in the Cold War. In some Christian circles, his overarching interpretation was rejected as historiographically flawed. In the ensuing debate, the prominent English Roman Catholic historian and publisher Douglas Jerrold argued in his The Lie about the West: A Response to Professor Toynbee’s Challenge that he had unjustly underestimated the endurance of Christian civilisation and failed to recognise its inherent value as the source of many fundamental values which should not be surrendered to supposedly inexorable historical processes. Item Open AccessSkrif en kerkorde(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2004) Celliers, A.; Strauss, P. J.English: The church is continuously called upon to listen to the Word of God so that, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, it can remain church in and for its time, as God intended it to be. The Word presents a unique, complex, and multifaceted image of the church. This reflects the dynamic way in which the Lord enables His church to be church in its specific circumstances. This multifaceted image of the church elicits certain constants that form the outlines of the nature and order of the church. As far as the organisational aspects are concerned, it is important to realise that Jesus Christ is the structure of the church, and that He sees to it that it is being served in an orderly fashion. Every member has a God-given responsibility within the church, and existing ministries have the responsibility to instruct the congregation in the teaching of the gospel in particular. This enables the congregation to adhere to its calling for obedience, love, and witness, so that the church can continue to exist. The outlines of the nature and order of the church should be addressed in all church orders to avoid pragmatism and arbitrariness on the one hand, and to create space for the various demands of local circumstances on the other.