Masters Degrees (Business Management)

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 29
  • ItemOpen Access
    Entrepreneurial orientation and networking: implication for SME performance
    (University of the Free State, 2023) Van Noordwyk, Annemarie; Brownhilder, B. N.
    In today‘s dynamic and fast-changing global marketplaces, businesses are faced with a rapidly changing competitive environment. Therefore the role of entrepreneurs in job creation, poverty alleviation, and economic growth has been recognised internationally. The primary objective of the study was to examine the moderating effect of networking on the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and SME performance. The following objectives guided this study: To review theoretical studies on entrepreneurial orientation; to assess theories and concepts on networking; to review studies on SME performance; to find out which EO dimensions SMEs engage in; to find out which type of networks SMEs engage in; to examine the performance of SMEs; to find out the impact of EO on SME performance; to determine which type of networks are essential for SME performance; to determine the impact of networks on the relationship between EO and performance; and to provide recommendations to different stakeholders on how networking and EO can enhance SME performance. A quantitative research approach was used for this study and 579 completed and useable questionnaires were received from SME owners in the Free State from the Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality (Bloemfontein, Botshabelo and Thaba Nchu). Findings in the study provide insight on the impact of the five entrepreneurial orientation dimensions on the performance of SMEs and the role networking has on this association. The EO dimensions of pro-activeness and competitive aggressiveness had a positive relationship with SME performance. The study found that business networks and financial networks moderate the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and SME performance. SME owners and managers should receive more support and training on business survival and growth as well as exposing them to critical business aspects through basic business short programmes to enhance the performance of their businesses. Business simulation programmes could create a safe environment for SME owners to improve their EO. Lastly, the attendance of webinars, symposiums and master classes should be encouraged to increase exposure to the correct type of network partner and support depending on the needs of the business.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Adapting music teaching methods for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders
    (University of the Free State, 2019) Nell, Nadia; De Villiers, A. M. F.; Griessel, D.
    Teaching piano to an autistic learner requires a piano teacher who understands autism and can adapt teaching material according to the individual’s learning strengths. Literature revealed little information about practical and structural piano teaching methods that can be applied in a private lesson for autistic learners. This dissertation explored the practical adaptation of piano teaching methods to tutor autistic learners in a one-on-one music environment. A qualitative research method was applied and a practical action research strategy was used to teach 12 autistic learners to play the piano. Participants were selected using purposeful, stratified sampling. Journal writings and observations were kept, evaluating each participant’s progress at the piano over a period of six months, while secondary information was gathered through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were completed by parents and schoolteachers. The data were analysed thematically and themes as well as subthemes emerged that were synthesised with existing literature. The findings indicate that piano lessons should be taught by using visual adaptation as well as considering the learners’ physical development and comorbidities. Piano lessons also had a positive effect on autistic learners’ daily activities and progress was noticed in physical improvement, communication and social interaction, and academic improvement as well as emotional development. The results showed that 10 of the 12 participants could play easy piano pieces with confidence after six months of weekly lessons. The conclusion of this study could be valuable for teachers interested in teaching autistic learners piano, providing practical guidance how teachers could adapt the teaching methods and the environment as well as the inclusion of physical activities in the lessons. The lessons also fit into the theoretical scheme of the Naturalistic Developmental Behavioural Interventions (NDBI), allowing parents to practise and apply concepts learned in class at home and in daily activities, strengthening the child’s motivation.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Work–family conflict and the performance of women-owned businesses: The role of work–family centrality
    (University of the Free State, 2022) Dapula, Chumasande; Neneh, B. N.
    Women entrepreneurs have been internationally recognised as being major contributors to job creation, poverty alleviation, and economic growth in their respective environments across the world. The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of work–family conflict on the performance of women-owned businesses in Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality (Bloemfontein, Botshabelo, and ThabaNchu) and the impact work–family centrality has on these relationships. The study explored whether work–family centrality can explain the differences in performance amongst women entrepreneurs based on the type of work–family conflict and family–work conflict they experienced. The study made use of quantitative research through the distribution of 350 questionnaires to women entrepreneurs in the Free State from the Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality (Bloemfontein, Botshabelo, and Thaba ‘Nchu). Findings in the study provided insight on the impact of work–family conflict and family–work conflict on the performance of women entrepreneurs and the role work–family centrality has on this association. The study found that work–family centrality had no moderating effect on the work–family conflict-performance relationship. Further, it was established that high work–family conflict has a positive impact on the performance of women-owned business. The developing context has not received much attention from research; therefore, this study aids in improving the understanding of the context within which women entrepreneurs operate in South Africa and assists in bringing forth new insights on women entrepreneurs and thus provides alternative explanations to women entrepreneurs’ differences in performance. Further, the study contributes to understanding the employer’s perspective better to contribute to the existing research on work–family centrality and enhance the performance of businesses owned by women.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The intention and continued usage of mobile banking applications in Zimbabwe
    (University of the Free State, 2022) Bepe, Tapiwa; Maziriri, E. T.; Rukuni, T. F.
    The increase in competition has led to the growth of the Zimbabwean banking sector through the introduction of mobile banking applications by Zimbabwean banks. Despite the growth, the rate of continued usage of mobile banking applications has been slow. The study sought to predict the intention and continued usage of mobile banking applications in Zimbabwe especially with the increase in usage of the internet as customers seek convenience and paperless banking. Such a study is critical in determining the drivers of continued usage of m-banking applications within the banking industry. Practical implications from the study assist banks to tailor make the m-banking applications to suit the different needs of their customers. The study was grounded on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model, the technology acceptance model, the theory of planned behaviour model and the user experience model. Part of the empirical objectives of the study was to determine the impact of effort expectancy, social Influence, perceived enjoyment, user experience and perceived interaction on the intention to use mobile banking applications in Zimbabwe and to assess the impact of perceived risk and perceived trust on the intention to use and continued usage of mobile banking applications in Zimbabwe. Data were collected from 377 users that had used any mobile banking applications from any Zimbabwean bank in the past year. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyse the results and SmartPLS was used to test and assess the validity of the hypothesised relationships in the model. The study sought to test twelve hypotheses, and of the twelve hypotheses tested, nine were significant. Of the constructs tested, effort expectancy and perceived interaction had the most influence on the intention to use m-banking applications, whilst loyalty as an outcome variable was the most significant compared to electronic word-of-mouth. The results indicated that effort expectancy, perceived enjoyment and perceived interaction were empirically supported, whilst social Influence and user experience were not statistically supported. Furthermore, the results showed that customers' continued usage of mobile banking applications on electronic word-of-mouth and loyalty were statistically significant. Perceived risk on the intention and continued usage of mobile baking applications was empirically supported. Whilst, perceived trust on the continued usage of mobile banking applications was empirically supported. However, perceived trust on the intention to use mobile banking applications was not empirically supported.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Factors influencing the satisfaction and behavioural intentions of restaurant consumers
    (University of the Free State, 2022) Mafojane, Mathapelo; Maziriri, E. T.; Rukuni, T. F.
    The increasingly competitive rivalry within the restaurant industry creates immense pressure among those within the industry. Many restaurants fail to survive or thrive in this industry, even though it is such a lucrative industry. There are many restaurants, differentiation becomes difficult, and competition is intense. The study sought to predict factors influencing the satisfaction and behavioural intentions of restaurant consumers through a blended approach by identifying factors that can help stimulate customer satisfaction, such as service quality factors (tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, empathy, assurance) and hygiene factors(personal hygiene, cleanliness of equipment and surfaces, cleanliness of restrooms), and the study further predicts that the successful application of these factors by restaurants can lead to post-behavioural intentions, such as restaurant attachment, willingness to pay price premia, return patronage intention and positive word of mouth. Data was collected from 300 restaurant customers in Bloemfontein, South Africa. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyse the results, and Smart-PLS to test and assess the validity of the hypothesised relationships in the model. It was precisely found that assurance positively and significantly impacted customer satisfaction. However, tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, and empathy were insignificant and did not influence customer satisfaction. In addition, only cleanliness of restroom under hygiene was found to have a positive and significant influence on customer satisfaction. However, personal hygiene and cleanliness of equipment and surfaces did not have a statistically significant influence on customer satisfaction. It was also found that customer satisfaction positively and significantly impacts restaurant attachment. Moreover, it was found that restaurant attachment has an impact on willingness to pay price premia, return patronage intention and positive word of mouth. This study recommends that a restaurant should use a blended approach of high service quality and proper hygienic conditions to secure and enhance customer satisfaction which ultimately leads to positive behavioural intentions. This study broadens the knowledge base currently in marketing and customer satisfaction in the restaurant industry. Lastly, the study concludes with identifying the limitations of the study and presents future research opportunities.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effectiveness of nursing employee retention strategies and performance of organisations in the private healthcare sector
    (University of the Free State, 2022) Mpanza, Sandile Brian; Koloba, H. A.
    The healthcare sector is nurse-based, as nursing employees are entrusted with a core function in healthcare organisations. However, there is a prevailing phenomenon of high turnover for nursing employees in the healthcare sector. The lack of effective retention of nursing employees poses profound complications for organisations in the healthcare sector. The phenomenon of high turnover for nursing employees does not only tarnish service delivery, but it also dwindles the finances of healthcare organisations. Accordingly, private healthcare organisations ought to maintain adequate levels of nursing employees' retention in order to enhance organisational performance. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of nursing employee retention strategies and how employee retention affects organisational performance in the private healthcare sector in South Africa. The study was conducted through the quantitative research method. The target population was nursing employees who work in the private healthcare organisations in South Africa. Questionnaires were used for data collection. Through a non-probability sampling method, 226 nursing employees were contacted to participate in the study. The participants were employed by private healthcare organisations located in the Free State province and KwaZulu Natal province. The findings of the study revealed that the retention strategies in the form of compensation, training and development, leadership and supervision, working conditions and work-life balance, have positive correlations with employee retention. The results further revealed that employee retention enhances the performance of organisations. The study concluded that nursing employees in the private healthcare sector do not intend to stay longer in their current jobs. Consequently, the study deduced that the performance of organisations in the private healthcare sector is not at an optimal level. Private healthcare organisations should consider enhancing fringe benefits for nursing employees as a remedial action to increase retention. Leadership and supervision styles within the private healthcare sector should be improved to increase nurses' intention to stay longer in their jobs. Furthermore, the private healthcare sector should sustain existing working condition elements as well as training and development initiatives, as the study's findings revealed that nursing employees are satisfied with these measures.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Lojaliteitsbemarking van handelsbanke onder professionele gegradueerdes
    (University of the Free State, 2003) Immelman, Reaan; Du Plessis, I. P.
    During the last five years, the financial services sector has undergone drastic changes, resulting in a market place which is characterised by intense competition and increased deregulation. In the new market place, the occurrence of committed and often inherited relationships between a customer and the bank is becoming increasingly scarce. Current research in loyalty marketing focus primarily on product loyalty marketing and very little on loyalty marketing in the service sector. Very little research has been done in a specific market segment and the purpose of this study is to do research under professional graduates. Professional graduates is defined as graduates who graduated at the University of the Free State the past five years (1997 - 2001) in the following study fields: i) Physiotherapy ii) Medical iii) Law iv) Accounting The main objective of the study is to establish if commercial banks apply loyalty marketing under professional graduates and if professional graduates remains loyal to a commercial bank. The study can contribute in the following ways which commercial banks can use: a) Commercial banks can for the first time establish if funds spend in the professional market is justified. b) Commercial banks can also establish where to focus in terms of communication to the client. c) The infrastructure of professional graduates can be determined and the research can be used to determine marketing strategies in the professional market. d) Commercial banks established strategic business units and with this research can be determine if there is a need for a niche segment under professional graduates who apply loyalty marketing. e) For the first time it will be possible for commercial banks to measure loyalty under professional graduates. The main objective of the study was achieved through an inn depth discussion of loyalty marketing, commercial bank's marketing strategy under professional graduates and 237 questionnaires for the purpose of this research were distributed under a population of 1158 professional graduates. Telephonic research as research methodology were used and the response rate of the questionnaires answered was 20.47 %. In general an analysis of different loyalty models were done and the loyalty model of Bloemer, de Ruyter and Peeters were exclusively develop for commercial banks.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Debt and the management of personal finances
    (University of the Free State, 2006) Kotze, Liezel; Smit, A. v. A.
    Afrikaans: Hoë persoonlike skuldvlakke en lae spaarverhoudings blyk die norm te wees en nie die uitsondering nie in die meeste ontwikkelde lande en Suid-Afrika is beslis nie uitgesluit van hierdie groeiende verskynsel nie. Na die deregulering van finansiële instansies gedurende die 1980’s, het persoonlike skuldvlakke wesenlik gegroei en spaarvlakke het aansienlik gedaal tot ‘n breukdeel van wat nodig is vir gesonde persoonlike finansies, aangesien hierdie twee veranderlikes in ‘n omgekeerde verhouding tot mekaar staan. Uitermatige skuld en lae besparings beïnvloed nie net die individu nie, maar ook die werkgewer en die ekonomie. As gevolg van oormatige skuld kan individue die gevolge van afbrekende finansiële mislukkings ervaar, soos gebroke huise of egskeiding, stres, gebrek aan prestasie by die werk, agteruitgang van finansiële gesondheid en bankrotskap. Al hierdie uitkomste van uitermatige skuld en lae spaarvlakke, kan ‘n individu se lewenskwaliteit benadeel. Die persoonlike aspekte van ‘n individu se lewe sal ook sy werk negatief beïnvloed en daarom ook sy werkgewer. Lae produktiwiteit, afwesigheid, organisatoriese verbintenis en werktyd wat in beslag geneem word, het ‘n negatiewe invloed op die werkgewer en ook die ekonomie. Eerstens beïnvloed dit die ekonomie indirek deur die verlaagde produktiwiteit van werknemers. Tweedens beïnvloed dit die ekonomie direk deur veranderlikes soos belegging, inflasie, rentekoerse, die waarde van die rand en die oorkoepelende ekonomie te beïnvloed. ‘n Tekort aan basiese finansiële bestuurskennis is een van die belangrikste redes waarom individue verkeerde finansiële keuses maak. Geslag, ouderdom, inkomste en die vlak van opvoeding kan alles ‘n uitwerking hê op finansiële geletterdheid en dit het ook ‘n invloed op die persoonlike finansies van die spesifieke individu. Hierdie studie se doel was om inligting in te samel aangaande die bestuur van skuldgebruike van alle geregistreerde studente aan die Universiteit van die Vrystaat Skool van Bestuur wat geregistreer was vir bestuursprogamme gedurende 2005. Die sekondêre doelwitte sluit ook in om die belangrikheid van finansiële geletterdheid en die effektiewe bestuur van persoonlike finansies te bepaal, verskillende bronne van skuld te identifiseer, asook om die persentasie van besteebare inkomste wat aan elke bron van skuld bestee word vas te stel, die omvang van skuld bymekaargemaak deur die respondente, die omvang van besparings deur die respondente, asook om die impak van uitermatige skuld op produktiwiteit in die werkplek te bepaal. Die teikenpopulasie was 425 geregistreerde studente gedurende 2005. Daar is besluit om van die hele populasie gebruik te maak en hierdie besluit het die gebruik van ‘n verteenwoordigende proef uitgeskakel. Die vraelyste is deur 286 studente voltooi. Die resultate het aan die lig gebring dat die totale gemiddelde persentasie wat elke maand aan skuld bestee word, gelykstaande is aan 62,1%. Dit beteken in algemene terme dat 62,1% van alle beskikbare besteebare inkomste vir die betaling van skuld gebruik word, wat slegs 37,9% van besteebare inkomste vir algemene maandelikse uitgawes en besparing laat oorbly. Volgens 2006- statistieke is die huidige Suid-Afrikaanse huishoudelike skuld 73% van die besteebare inkomste, met slegs 28% van die salaris wat nie aan skuld bestee word nie. Hoë vlakke van ontevredenheid is by die respondente waargeneem aangaande hulle kennis en waarneembare beheer van hul persoonlike finansies; die mate van selfversekerheid om hul finansies te bestuur en beleggingsbesluite te neem; hulle was bekommerd oor skuld, besparings en of hulle oor genoegsame aftredingsfondse beskik; hulle was ook pessimisties oor hul finansiële toekoms en het hoë vlakke van finansiële stres ervaar wat inbreuk maak op daaglikse verantwoordelikhede. Daar was ook hoë vlakke van slegte finansiële bestuur deur nie fondse opsy te sit vir besparings of aftrede nie, nie ‘n begroting te volg nie en nie kredietkaarte ten volle te betaal om finansiële kostes te vermy nie. Die respondente sal ‘n gemiddeld van 5-6 maande kan oorleef deur net van hul spaargeld gebruik te maak indien hulle nie kan werk nie. Die mees algemene rede wat die respondente aangevoer het waarom hul nie spaar nie, is dat hulle nie genoeg geld het om te spaar nie (74,3%), terwyl 13,2% aangedui het dat hulle nog nie aan spaar gedink het nie. Individue wat nie in beheer van hul persoonlike finansies voel nie, dink dat hulle nie genoeg geld sal hê om te oorleef tydens hul aftrede nie; hulle voel negatief oor hul toekoms, ervaar ongelooflike finansiële stres en volg nie ‘n weeklikse of maandelikse begroting nie.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The personal financial management practices of young married couples
    (University of the Free State, 2011) Grobbelaar, Chrizaan; Alsemgeest, L.; Vermeulen, W.
    Afrikaans: ʼn Ekonomiese krisis het geweldige nagevolge vir ʼn land gemeet aan werksverlies, laer inkomste en ʼn afname in beleggings. Verbruikersvraag is ʼn belangrike faktor wat die ekonomie sterk hou, maar wanneer verbruikers oorverskuldig is, hul werk verloor of ʼn verlangsaming in inkomste ervaar, sal dit ʼn afwaartse neiging in die ekonomie tot gevolg hê. Die skuld-tot-inkomste verhouding van Suid-Afrikaanse huishoudings het oor die afgelope dekade skerp toegeneem. Dit was verbasend maklik om krediet te bekom en daar was nie enige maatreëls getref om te bepaal of individue daartoe in staat sal wees om skuld terug te betaal nie. ʼn Rentekoersverhoging op persoonlike en huislenings het daartoe gelei dat individue te diep in die skuld geraak het. Verbruikers het tans nie net met hoë rentekoerse te kampe nie, maar moet ook uiters hoë lewenskoste in die vorm van elektrisiteitstariewe en petrol- en kospryse trotseer. Verbruikers is tans in ʼn weefsel van skuld en hoë koste vasgevang wat dit vir hulle onmoontlik maak om dit eers te oorweeg om geld te spaar of vir aftrede opsy te sit. Hierbenewens ervaar Suid-Afrika tans ʼn trae spaarkoers wat ekonomiese groei verder kniehalter. Verskeie finansiële probleme spruit uit ʼn gebrek aan persoonlike finansiële kennis. Finansiële geletterdheid is ʼn belangrike hulpmiddel wat ʼn individu daagliks kan help om wyse finansiële besluite te neem, skuld baas te raak of te vermy en meer te spaar. Sommige volwassenes beskik egter nie eens oor basiese opvoedkundige opleiding nie. Ander faktore wat tot finansiële probleme bydra sluit finansiële fobie, koopdrang en skuld in. Finansiële probleme kan egskeiding, stres en depressie, insolvensie en ʼn afname in werknemerprestasie en -produktiwiteit tot gevolg hê. Jong, getroude paartjies is geneig om mekaar se uiteenlopende idees oor geld en hulle onderskeie geldbestuurspersoonlikhede te ignoreer. Dit is ʼn heelwat groter uitdaging om finansies gesamentlik as ʼn egpaar te bestuur as wat dit is om dit individueel te doen. Elke eggenoot het sy/haar eie persepsie oor geld en toon verskillende gedrag en houdings ten opsigte van sy/haar finansies. ‟n Gebrek aan kommunikasie oor hul verskille kan argumente by egpare veroorsaak. ʼn Egpaar se huweliksgeluk hang gedeeltelik van hulle persoonlike finansiële bestuurspraktyke af. Huweliksongeluk kan egskeiding tot gevolg hê. Die oogmerk van hierdie studie was om inligting in te samel oor die finansiële bestuurspraktyke van jong egpare in die Bloemfontein gebied tydens 2010 en 2011. Die sekondêre doelwitte was daarop gerig om die belangrikheid van gesonde finansiële bestuur vir ʼn individu en binne ʼn huwelik te evalueer. Verder, om te bepaal hoe jong egpare hul finansies bestuur; kommunikeer en verskil; en wat hul gedrag, houdings en persepsies jeens finansies is. Die teikenbevolking was 75 egpare; dit wil sê, 150 respondente het die vraelys voltooi. Die resultate toon dat ongeveer 30% van die respondente nooit geld spaar of vir aftrede opsysit nie. Vergeleke met die literatuur het 9 uit elke 10 individue nie genoeg geld om van te leef as hulle hul aftreeouderdom bereik nie. Dit verplig hulle om aan te hou werk. Een uit elke twee respondente het ʼn kredietkaart en klererekenings, met voertuigfinansiering kort op die hakke. Egpare verkies om besluitneming ten opsigte van hul geldsake te deel. Egpare wat voortdurend oor geldsake verskil beloop 11.5%. ʼn Eggenoot se skuldsituasie is die vernaamste bydraende faktor tot stres in ʼn huwelik. Altesaam 20% van die respondente was uiters negatief oor hulle persoonlike finansies en 59% weier om ʼn finansiële adviseur oor geldsake te nader, terwyl 36,7% van die respondente ontevrede was met hulle heersende finansiële omstandighede. Elke eggenoot het ʼn hoër agting van sy/haar eie, persoonlike finansiële bestuurspraktyke getoon vergeleke met hulle maats se beskouing daarvan. Oor die algemeen het mans en vroue die meeste vertroue in die man se persoonlike finansiële bestuurspraktyke.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Credit financing for SMMES in the Free State: development financing institutions versus commercial banks
    (University of the Free State, 2010) Ntiso, Lisebo Agnes; Van Zyl, Johan
    Access to credit finance is a challenge that faces SMMEs in developing economies such as South Africa. This challenge has been a burning issue to a number of researchers and policy makers alike. The development of SMMEs is important because the sector is an alternative solution to unemployment reduction and poverty eradication. Without enough financial resources, achieving this developmental goal becomes very difficult for SMMEs. The study helps to illustrate the roles played by both private sector (banks) and public sector (OFIs) in affording SMMEs access to credit finance. The results show that there are some challenges facing Fis that prohibit them to achieving the goal. The study, however suggests the possible solutions in addressing the problem.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The impact of product placement on consumer involvement in the South African automotive industry
    (University of the Free State, 2016) Ntsike, 'Mapaseka Susan; Van Zyl, J.
    This study contributes to the effectiveness of product placement as a marketing communications strategy responsible for consumer involvement with the product. In today’s communication environment, marketers are experiencing difficulty in getting audiences to notice and respond to their products because of media clutter in the market. Other than that, the greatest challenge facing marketers is that television viewing of programs happens in the midst of other activities such as chatting on the phone, listening to music or reading a novel. Thus, it appears that communication certainty is at risk with traditional advertising options such as television. Television audiences multi-task by doing these other competitive activities while viewing programs in an attempt to avoid exposure to advertisements. However, where product placement media settings are concerned, active involvement on the part of the audience is expected. This is because product placement as the currently available option in marketing communication is executed in humorous settings that not only make the audiences enjoy the medium but also view products that appear within it with focused attention and in a positive light, leading to responses to the stimuli. The study therefore proposes that positive emotions and attention towards the programme/media will influence engagement with the programme, thereby also positively affecting placed product involvement. On the other hand, limited research has been done investigating the impact of product placement on consumer involvement with the product. At the same time, there are many studies covering the concept of product placement in different media contexts, but to date, very few have explored the concept in the context of magazines, auto shows, Internet and shopping malls with regard to cars. These media settings require different levels of emotions, attention, and involvement depending on technique and style. Therefore, the media that has the highest impact on consumer involvement was demonstrated in the quantitative analysis section of this study while the qualitative section gave an overview of which media is highly engaging from the managers of the car companies. The questionnaire was designed in such a way that respondents confirmed their responses towards the programme and the placed product with a specific number. The model in this study was analysed using path analysis from the AMOS software program and programme involvement was found to have a substantial influence on placed product involvement. The data collected in this study is from the Bloemfontein area of the Free State province and it represents South Africa in general. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire and an interview guide. The study further went on to highlight the benefits of product placement and the types of involvement which it brings about.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Business practices as an implication for SMEs growth
    (University of the Free State, 2016) Motlhaudi, Galaletsang Gail; Booysen, Karen
    English: With the current bleak state of the economy, both in South Africa and globally, resulting in high unemployment and poverty levels, citizens of countries have had to resort to entrepreneurship as a means to generate an income and in turn create jobs. As a result of the quest of financial freedom stemming from entrepreneurship, many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are established. However, SMEs are faced with high failure rates. This is witnessed in the number of SMEs that rarely make it past the second year of trading, with failure rates as high as 63 percent. As a means to cope with these challenges, scholars have often looked to business practices as an initiative to enhance SME growth. It is as a result that this study purposed to determine which business practices can enhance SME growth. The population used to examine this primary objective consisted of SMEs in the Kimberley, Northern Cape area. There is an increasing consensus that SME owners and managers should play a pivotal role in nurturing entrepreneurial activity in SMEs so as to compete successfully. Subsequently, corporate entrepreneurship (CE) - a concept that describes the entrepreneurial behaviour inside an established organisation- has received much attention in literature as a means to curb the challenge of SME failure and enhance SME growth. As such, the secondary objectives aimed to evaluate prior studies on business practices, assess theoretical studies on SME growth in South Africa, review theoretical studies on CE, determine which business practices SMEs engage in, empirically identify the determinants of SME growth, determine which dimensions of CE SMEs engage in, determine which key business practices can enhance CE and establish a conceptual framework identifying the relationship between business practices and CE as initiatives to enhance SME growth. The population of the study consisted of SMEs in the Kimberley, Northern Cape area and a statistical methodology was implemented to address the primary objective and the secondary objectives. The findings revealed that a positive and significant relationship exists between all of the selected business practices selected for the purpose of this study (Human Resource Management practices, Performance Management practices, Change Management practices, Risk Management practices, Marketing practices and Networking practices) and SME growth. Furthermore, the findings reiterated scholars’ argument that the implementation of business practices in SMEs can help increase the level of innovation, creativity and entrepreneurial behaviour, which in essence refers to CE. A number of recommendations were made at the end of this study that could serve as a guide to formulating and implementing strategies to address the challenges in the study. The emphasis is placed primarily on educational institutions to incorporate the collective implementation of business practices and CE as a means to enhance SME growth in their curriculum; and SME owners and managers to invest in acquiring the right skills set necessary to operate their businesses successfully.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Factors and characteristics impacting underpricing of Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) on the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE)
    (University of the Free State, 2015) Rust, Isak Cornelis; Smit, A. van A.
    Afrikaans: Die navorsing is onderneem om te bepaal watter faktore en eienskappe die onderprysing van Aanvanklike Openbare Aanbiedinge (AOA's) op die Johannesburgse Sekuriteitebeurs (JSB) beïnvloed het. Die data is bekom van die JSB, AOA-prospektus en die McGregor-BFA-databasis. Die steekproef het uit 390 AOA’s van ʼn moontlike 484 tussen 1996 en 2011 bestaan, wat 80.6% van die AOA’s op die JSB vir die spesifieke tydperk verteenwoordig. Die literatuur toon dat sekere faktore en eienskappe die vlak van onderprysing van AOA’s affekteer. Vir hierdie studie is markverwante faktore, maatskappy-eienskappe en finansiële faktore ingesluit. Die data was baie skeef vanweë uitskieters in die datastel, wat veroorsaak het dat die data onbetroubaar was en dit baie moeilik was om dit te vertolk. Om die probleem reg te stel, het die studie natuurlike logaritmes gebruik om die skeefheid te verminder, die akkuraatheid te verbeter en te verseker dat die data so na as moontlik aan 'n normale verspreiding was. Beide die aanbodprys en die markkapitalisering is aangepas deur die verbruikersprysindeks (VPI) vir inflasie te gebruik. Die JSB indeks van alle aandele (IAA) is gebruik as ʼn maatstaf vir die korttermynprestasie (markaangepaste abnormale opbrengs – MAAO) en die relatiewe mediumtermyn-prestasie (koop en hou abnormale opbrengste – KHAO). Die navorsingbevindings het die volgende getoon: - Die vlakke van onderprysing op die eerste dag en in die eerste week en eerste maand was 23.0%, 22.1% en 17.3% respektiewelik. - AOA’s wat in warmmarktydperke gelys is, het beduidend hoër opbrengste ontvang. Die JSB het ʼn afname ondervind in die aantal AOA’s wat gedurende beide die latere warm en koue marktydperke gelys is. - AltX-AOA’s het beduidend hoër opbrengste gelewer. - Die elektriese en tegnologiesektor het die hoogste opbrengste gelewer, gevolg deur die finansiële en verbruikersektore. - Jonger AOA’s met 'n kleiner markkapitalisering en aanbodprys was beduidend meer onderprys as wat die groter AOA’s was. - Kleiner maatskappye, soos gemeet deur die omset, netto wins ná belasting (NWNB), totale bates en aandeelhouers se ekwiteite, was beduidend meer onderprys in vergelyking met groter maatskappye. - Die finansiële verhoudings het getoon dat AOA’s met ʼn skuldverhouding van tussen 40% en 60% die minste onderprys was. Die huidige verhouding en die opbrengs op bates (OOB) het geen statistiese beduidendheid in die voorspelling van onderprysing opgelewer nie, terwyl AOA’s met ʼn kleiner opbrengs op verdienste (OOV) beduidend meer onderprys was. - AOA’s met ʼn uiters hoë P/E-verhouding was ook beduidend onderprys. Dit was verrassend dat die markwaarde tot boekwaarde (MW/BW) nie enige beduidendheid in die voorspelling van onderprysing op die JSB getoon het nie. - Die absolute opbrengste (koop en hou opbrengste – KHO) het gevind dat die AOA’s wat aanvanklik onderprys was, positief (41.2%) oor ʼn tydperk van ʼn jaar sou presteer; hulle sou egter oor drie jaar onderpresteer (-12.0%). - Die relatiewe opbrengste (koop en hou abnormale opbrengste – KHAO) het ook gevind dat AOA’s wat aanvanklik onderprys was, positiewe opbrengste relatief tot die mark in die eerste jaar ná lysting opgelewer het (30,3%); hulle het egter ook onderpresteer (-39.8%) in die mark oor drie jaar. - Hoewel beide die warm en koue marktydperke oor ʼn driejaar-tydperk in die mark onderpresteer het, het die koue mark-AOA’s beduidend beter mediumtermynopbrengste opgelewer. - AOA’s wat op beide die hoofafdeling en die AltX gelys was, het oor ʼn driejaar-tydperk in die mark onderpresteer; die hoofafdeling-AOA’s het egter beduidend beter in die mediumtermyn presteer. Die empiriese bevindings van hierdie studie beveel aan dat beleggers AOA’s teen die aanbodprys behoort te koop en hulle aan die einde van die eerste dag van verhandeling te verkoop, omdat die vlak van onderprysing getoon het dat die opbrengste na die einde van die eerste maand afneem. Beleggers wat hulle korttermynopbrengste wil verbeter, behoort die bogenoemde faktore en eienskappe te oorweeg wanneer hulle ʼn beleggingsbesluit neem, omdat hierdie faktore as ʼn gids vir beter opbrengste kan dien
  • ItemOpen Access
    The long-term performance of failed Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE)
    (University of the Free State, 2016) Harvey, F. N.; Smit, A. van A.
    Afrikaans: Een van die oudste en gewildste frases in die besigheidswêreld is: "Die enigste manier om te oorleef is om te groei" (Audretsch en Lehmann, 2005: 6). Maar dikwels is die behoefte om te groei groter as die finansiële hulpbronne wat beskikbaar is om die verlangde groei te akkommodeer. Een van die populêrste maniere om nuwe kapitaal in te samel om 'n Initial Public Offering (IPO) uit te reik. Draho (2004: 1) definieer n IPO as die proses waar die aandele van 'n private maatskappy beskikbaar gestel word vir openbare beleggers vir verhandeling op die aandelemark. Gao, Ritter en Zhu (2012), beskryf die toenemende mislukking van IPOs as 'n probleem in die IPO "ekosisteem" en ag die IPO mark as "gebroke". Fama en French (2004) beweer dat daar 'n verandering in IPO karaktereienskappe oor die jare was. Alle aanduidings is dat die internationale IPO mark verswak rakende kwessies soos underpricing, negatiewe langtermyn opbrengste, mislukking en die aantal nuwe IPOs wat op die beurs lys. Die primêre doel van hierdie studie is om die prestasie van 347 IPO maatskappye wat op die Johannesburgse Effektebeurs (JSE) gelys het van 1996 tot 2007 te bestudeer. Die hoofdoel van hierdie studie is om langtermyn-beleggers te help in hul IPO keuringsproses deur die melding van faktore en eienskappe wat hulle kan help om te onderskei tussen potensieel mislukte en suksesvolle IPO maatskappye. 'N Beduidende negatiewe verhouding was gevind tussen mislukking en posetiewe langtermein opbrengstes. Daar is gevind dat mislukte IPOs 'n gemiddelde BHAR van -60,69% gehad het. Ander maatskappye, wat oorleef, gedenoteer (vir ander redes as mislukking) of saamgesmelt het, het 'n gemiddelde BHAR van -19,52% gehad. Suksesvolle maatskappye het 'n gemiddelde BHAR van -3,26% gehad. 'N Kwantitatiewe navorsingsbenadering is aangeneem. As gevolg van skewe data was natuurlike logaritmiese transformasies op die data uitgevoer met 'n Z-waarde van meer as +/- 2.58. Ook, alle relevante waardes was aangepas vir inflasie wat die vergelyking van opbrengstes van die data oor verskillende tydperke meer betroubaar maak. Al die maatskappye op die JSE was verdeel in ses sektore. Met betrekking tot die bevindings in die data-analise sal die volgende aanbeveel aan beleggers gemaak word om in staat wees om hoë risiko IPOs en potensiële swak langtermyn presterend IPOs te identifiseer. Met betrekking tot sikliese markte, beleggers moet veral versigtig wees wanneer 'n IPO wat lys tydens 'n warm mark periode. Met betrekking tot die bord (Main board of Altx) waar die IPO lys, was dit gevind dat meeste maatskappy wat lys op die AltX misluk en ook die slegste langtermyn prestasie getoon het. Met betrekking tot die sektor waarin die maatskappy lys, beleggers word aanbeveel om sektore wat hoë volumes van nuwe maatskappye wat lys ervaar te vermy, veral gedurende warm mark te vermy. Dit was ook gevind dat maatskappye met n kleiner ouderdom swakker presteer oor die langtermyn en meer waarskynlik was om te misluk. 'N aanvanklike aanbod prys van 175,97 Suid-Afrikanse sent en kleiner en ‘n lysings grootte kleiner as R232.43 miljoen verhoog die kaanse van swak langtermyn opbrengste en mislukking. Die moontlikheid van swak langtermyn opbrengste sowel as IPO mislukking word verhoog wanneer die dag een MAAR 136,47% of meer is. Beleggers word dus aanbeveel om al die mark faktore, die maatskappy eienskappe en aanvanklike aandeelprys bewegings in ag te neem wanneer 'n belegging besluit geneem moet word, aangesien dit hulle sal help om potensiële mislukte IPO maatskappye te identifiseer met swak langtermyn opbrengstes.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Social media marketing versus traditional marketing in the South African motor industry
    (University of the Free State, 2014) Grobler, Elizna; Van Zyl, Johan
    Abstract not available
  • ItemOpen Access
    Faktore wat winsgewende groei in klein en mediumgrootte sakeondernemings beïnvloed
    (University of the Free State, 1997) Verhoeven, Charlotte Emelda; Crous, M. J.; Smit, A. V. A.
    Afrikaans: Die bestaan van kleinsakesektore bied verskeie voordele aan ekonomiese huishoudings. Die voortbestaan van hierdie sektore kan egter slegs verseker word indien kleinsakeondernernings winsgewend groei en bly voortbestaan. Dit blyk egter dat groei in kleinsakeondernemings 'n proses is wat dikwels onbeheersd plaasvind, met gevolglike negatiewe resultate. Ondernemings wat winsgewend groei, is die uitsondering. Die vraag is dus: Waarom groei sommige ondernemings winsgewend en ander nie? Volgens hierdie studie is winsgewende groei die gevolg van 'n kombinasie van faktore. Die doel van hierdie studie was om te bepaal in watter mate die entrepreneur, geleentheid en hulpbronne winsgewende groei beinvloed. 'n Tweeledige ondersoek, bestaande uit 'n literatuurstudie en 'n empiriese ondersoek, is uitgevoer. Afdeling A omvat hoofstukke 2 tot 5 wat handel oar die teoretiese bespreking van winsgewende groei en die drie bemvloedende faktore daarvan, naamlik die entrepreneur, hulpbronne en geleentheid. Afdeling B bevat die empiriese resultate en gevolgtrekkings van die studie. Winsgewende groei word beskou as die reele toename in winsgewendheid en omset in verhouding tot mekaar oar die lang termyn. Winsgewende groei gee aanleiding tot welvaartverhoging wat die bestaansrede van ondememings is. Winsgewende groei kan egter slegs plaasvind indien goeie geleenthede geidentifiseer word en bestuurs- en hulpbronprobleme voortspruitend uit groei oorbrug word. Goeie geleenthede word deur die volgende gekenrnerk: die geleentheid val binne die vermoe van die ondernerning om dit te benut; die tydsbestek wat die geleentheid bestaan, is lank genoeg om investering te verhaal; 'n werklike behoefte aan die produk bestaan; produkte verskil van mededingers se produkte; min mededinging en substituutprodukte kom voor; bedingingsmag van verskaffers en verbruikers is in die minderheid en toetreehindernisse is oorbrugbaar. 'n Mededingende voordeel verseker winsgewende groei en 'n geskikte mededingende voordeel vir kleinsakeondememings is differensiasiestrategiee. Groeistrategiee wat gebruik kan word om by veranderende omstandighede aan te pas, is intensiewe groei met spesifieke verwysing na produk- en markinnovasie. Bestuursverwante probleme waarmee entrepreneurs gekonfronteer word, is 'n Ieierskapsdilemma; langtermynfokus wat vervaag; kommunikasie wat verswak; toename in onsekerheid onder werknemers; vorming van subgroepe; gebrekkige menslike hulpbronbestuur; toenemende spanning vir die entrepreneur; toenemende rigiditeit; en verandering van die organisasiekultuur. Daarmee saam word entrepreneurs genoodsaak om verskeie aanpassings aan hul eie rol in ondememings te maak. Entrepreneurs speel ook 'n bepalende rol in die ontwikkeling van organisasiestrukture, entrepreneurspanne en ondernemingskulture. Kleinsakeondememings ervaar oor die algemeen kapitaaltekorte. Kontantvloeiprobleme wat een van die vemaamste gevolge van groei is, vererger die kapitaaltekorte. Om finansiele probleme te voorkom, kan entrepreneurs kontantvloei beheer/kontroleer deur middel van kontantvloeistate en kontantverhoudingsgetalle. Verder kan 'n bekostigbare groeikoers vir die ondememing bereken word deur middel van die persentasie-van-verkopemodel en die Boston-model. Entrepreneurs word genoop om van eksterne finansieringsbronne gebruik te maak om groei te finansier, hoewel generering van eie fondse vir groei die mees gewenste altematief is. Finansiering van groei vind egter dikwels deur die gebruikmaking van skuld plaas. Die Iiteratuurstudie is gevolg deur 'n empiriese ondersoek wat uit vier fases bestaan het, naamlik die bepaling van die universum, opstel van die skedule, uitvoer van die ondersoek en verwerking van die data. Gestruktureerde data-insameling, naamlik die persoonlike onderhoude aan die hand van 'n skedule, is gebruik om inligting van die universum (winsgewende groeiende klein en mediumgrootte sakeondernemings in Bloemfontein) te verkry. Beskikbare data is deur middel van variansie-analises en kruistabellering ontleed. Uit die empiriese ondersoek blyk dit dat winsgewende groei 'n bereikbare doelwit vir kleinsakeondememings is. Die identifisering en benutting van 'n goeie geleentheid en die oorkoming van bestuurs- en hulpbronprobleme voortspruitend uit die groeiproses het winsgewende groei vir klein en mediumgrootte sakeondememings in verskillende markte, bedrywe en omstandighede, tot gevolg.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Die verhoudingsvoorneme van motorkopers in die Vrystaat
    (University of the Free State, 2007) Mentz, Margaretha Henriëtha; Van Zyl, J. H.; Steyn, T. F. J.
    Die hoofdoel van die studie is om vas te stel of die verhoudingsvoorneme van motorkopers in die Vrystaat as basis vir marksegmentering gebruik kan word ten einde te bepaal of klante ’n positiewe verhoudingsvoorneme toon en derhalwe in ’n verhouding met die onderneming wil verbind (sien afdeling 1.7). Die sekondêre doelwitte om hierin te slaag was om: Die bedryfsinisiatiewe binne die verhoudingsbemarkingkonteks van die Suid- Afrikaanse motorbedryf te ondersoek. ’n Literatuurstudie is onderneem en die resultate word in hoofstuk 1 bespreek. Die bevindinge uit hoofstuk 1 is toegepas op die aanbevelings van verhoudingsvoorneme van kopers van nuwe motors in die Vrystaat; Verhoudingsbemarking te definieer en die ontstaan, ontwikkeling en rasionaal daarvan te ondersoek. ’n Literatuurstudie is onderneem en die resultate is in hoofstuk 2 bespreek. Die bevindinge uit Hoofstuk 2 is toegepas op die aanbevelings van verhoudingsvoorneme van kopers van nuwe motors in die Vrystaat; Die dimensies van verhoudingsvoorneme te ondersoek. ’n Literatuurstudie is onderneem en elke dimensie van verhoudingsvoorneme (betrokkenheid, verwagtinge, vergewensgesindheid, terugvoer en risiko vir verhoudingsverlies) is bespreek. Die resultate wat uit die literatuurstudie verkry is, is in hoofstuk 3 bespreek en is gebruik in die ontwikkeling van die vraelys wat klante se verhoudingsvoorneme meet; Marksegmentering en teikenbemarking te ondersoek en verhoudingsvoorneme as ʼn nuwe basis vir marksegmentering voor te stel. ’n Literatuurstudie is onderneem en al die beginsels van marksegmentering is ondersoek. Die resultate is in Hoofstuk 4 bespreek. Die verskillende segmenteringsbasisse, wat ook verhoudingsvoorneme en winsgewendheid insluit, is bespreek. Die bevindinge uit hierdie hoofstuk is gebruik in die ontwikkeling van die vraelys wat ten doel gehad het om ’n profiel van klante met ’n verhoudingsvoorneme te bepaal; Om die verhoudingsvoorneme van kopers van nuwe motors in die Vrystaat te ondersoek en aanbevelings aan die Suid-Afrikaanse motorbedryf te maak ter verbetering van aksies. ’n Aangepaste vraelys is ontwikkel om die verhoudingsvoorneme van kopers van nuwe motors in die Vrystaat te bepaal. Hierdie vraelys is gebruik tydens ’n opname onder kopers van nuwe motors in die Vrystaat. Die navorsingsmetodologie en empiriese resultate is in Hoofstuk 5 bespreek. In Hoofstuk 6 is gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings afgelei vanuit die resultate in Hoofstuk 5. Hierdie navorsing het dus suksesvol verloop en bogenoemde doelwitte is bereik.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Performance measurement practices in selected Eritrean manufacturing enterprises
    (University of the Free State, 2004) Weldeghiorgis, Kidusan Yohannes; Smit, A. van A.
    Performance measures in the past primarily focused on production and were aimed at attaining increased short-term operational efficiency in terms of financial indicators. This type of measurement is too narrowly focused as it ignores critical measurement indicators that makes or breaks the company such as human capital, processes, customer interface, etc. In this regard most African countries are finding it extremely difficult to compete in the dynamic and changing global business environment. This study aims to assess to what extent Eritrean manufacturing enterprises use integrated performance measures, extent of its utilization and perceived relevance related to their actual financial results. In this regard an integrated model such as the balanced scorecard approach (financial, customer satisfaction, internal process/operational and employee satisfaction measures) was selected as reference for the study. A survey was done to gather data. Qualitative and quantitative techniques were employed for analyzing the data. The specific methods of data analysis include descriptive statistics such as tabulation, cross tabulation, computations of frequencies, and computations of percentages as well as correlation and regression analysis. The relative importance of financial as well as non-financial measures in relation to the performance evaluation process in the context of manufacturing enterprises was investigated. The result of the analysis indicated that the majority of respondent enterprises primarily focus on financial measures, using historical data, accounting profits and financial ratios which are compared with industrial trends. The financial measures are considered as having great importance in the respondent enterprises. Despite the fact that the non-financial measures are as important as the financial measures - little or no attention is being paid to non-financial dimensions. The result of the analysis revealed that there is a clear and strong relation between the financial performance and the non-financial performance measures (customer satisfaction, internal process/operational and employee satisfaction). In addition, empirical findings suggested that the non-financial measures are significant explanatory factors of financial performance. More importantly, findings show that manufacturing plants that consistently employed both financial and non-financial measures performed better than those that do not. Based on the results of the study important policy recommendations are outlined. Manufacturing enterprises have to invest in re-training employees to get motivated and competent people to produce customer perceived product quality as well as continuous improvement of operational processes, which may help the enterprises to compete in today’s dynamic business environment. Generally the study has collected essential numerical evidence for the future development of manufacturing enterprises. Knowledge and understanding of the critical factors underpinning enterprises’ performance can lead to further improvements. In turn this will help the overall development of the national economy.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Contact efficiency of Web sites: a marketing perspective
    (University of the Free State, 2003) Nel, Jacques; Human, G. J. P.
    English: The Internet has received a great deal of attention in the media and many companies have set up an Internet presence. According to NUA the commercial domain is the largest domain on the Internet (44 520 209 hosts). Not only have the number of businesses increased on the Internet, but also the number of Internet users. This growth in commercial activity on the Internet creates opportunities for businesses to provide products and services to new and existing markets. Although a lot of hype was created regarding the commercial possibilities of the Internet, the expectations of many companies have sadly not been met. The Internet landscape is also littered with failures. Some researchers argue that the problems companies experience may have little to do with a lack of technology or imagination, but arise instead from a lack of understanding. To assist marketers and advertisers in gaining a better understanding of marketing on the WWW and developing more effective advertising Web sites, the model of the conversion process on the Web was developed. One of the stages in this model deals with the conversion of “hits” into “visits”. This stage is important to consider since it is the starting point for interaction between the Web site of the business and the Internet user. As this study will point out, a number of factors could influence the conversion of “hits” into “visits”. For example, the study identified product related information as one of the factors that could provide an incentive to Internet users not only to “hit” the site, but also to interact with the Web site. The study also pointed out that marketing managers could use purchase facilitation as a strategy to improve the conversion rate of this stage. Other issues that were considered in the study included; the influence of addressing specific customer values on contact efficiency, twenty-four different interactive functions that could be included in a Web site and their influence on converting “hits” into “visits”, and the influence of navigation and Web site design considerations on the conversion of “hits” into “visits”. The study concludes with recommendations based on the findings of an empirical survey administered to establish what the factors are to enhance the contact efficiency of a Web site. These recommendations could enhance the ability of marketing managers and practitioners to design Web site strategies to improve the contact efficiency of advertising Web sites.
  • ItemOpen Access
    An evaluation of business support services to SMMEs in the Free State
    (University of the Free State, 2010) Mathibe, Motshedisi S.; Van Zyl, J. H.; Marais, J. G. L.
    Afrikaans: Gedurende die afgelope twintig jaar was daar belangrike veranderinge in die manier waarop sakeondersteuningsdienste in die internasionale ekonomie gelewer is. Hierdie verskuiwings het nuwe insigte in die proses van sakeondersteuningsdienste gebring. Ses hoofveranderinge in die benadering tot sakeondersteuning is geïdentifiseer. Eerstens, is permanente regerings- of skenkersbefondsing vervang deur „n bloot beginbenadering tot befondsing om volhoubare sakeondersteuningsdienste te lewer. Tweedens, het ʼn wye reeks markgedrewe en markgeprysde dienste, wat gelewer is teen ʼn gehalte/prysmengsel wat deur eindgebruikers gelewer en bepaal is, die hoë koste van ʼn beperkte reeks dienste wat gewoonlik gesubsidieer is, vervang. Derdens, toon geskiedkundige literatuur dat die owerheid en skenkers nie alle klein ondernemings nie, maar slegs ʼn beperkte aantal kon bereik. ʼn Geteikende kliëntbenadering is dus gevolg ten einde die owerheid en skenkers in staat te stel om die ondernemings doeltreffend te bereik. Hierdie paradigmaskuif was om ʼn klem te plaas op diensverskaffers in die privaatsektor. In die vierde plek het die klem van armoede se impak vanaf korttermynvoordele na langtermynvoordele vir verskaffers en kliënte verander, wat weens werkverskaffing indirek tot voordeel van die armes is. Verder is die hoofsaaklik manlike kliënte vervang deur kleinondernemingseienaars, insluitend vrouens. In die laaste plek was daar ʼn betekenisvolle skuif na vraaggedrewenheid ten opsigte van ondernemings se behoeftes. Die gevolg was dat die reeks dienste uitgebrei en meestal op ʼn kostevervangingsbasis gelewer is. Teen hierdie agtergrond poog die Suid-Afrikaanse klein medium en makro-ondernemingsbeleid (KMMO) om die kwessies van KMMO-ondersteuning en -ontwikkeling in die land aan te spreek. KMMO‟s het gedurende die apartheidsbewind in Suid-Afrika funksioneer, maar dit het nie voldoende ondersteuning en prioriteit geniet nie. Voor die demokratiese veranderinge het die Suid-Afrikaanse regering hoofsaaklik aandag aan groot ondernemings en staatsondernemings geskenk. Die Suid-Afrikaanse regering het eers in die laat 1970's en vroeë 1980‟s die belangrikheid van die kleinsakesektor en sy bydraes tot die land se ekonomie besef. Die demokratiese bewind van die vroeë 1990‟s het aan KMMO‟s geleenthede gegee om aan die Suid-Afrikaanse ekonomie deel te neem. In 1995 het ʼn witskrif verskyn met die strategie om KMMO‟s in Suid-Afrika te bevorder en te ontwikkel, en om ʼn KMMO-beleid in Suid-Afrika te ontwerp om die fokus en aandag op die ondersteuning en ontwikkeling van KMMO's te vestig. Die doel was om KMMO's te ontwikkel as ʼn manier om groei en balans in die ekonomie te skep (weg van ondernemings wat aan die owerheid behoort en groot ondernemings). Die gevolg was dat verskillende ondersteuningsmeganismes geïmplementeer is om KMMO‟s in die land te ondersteun en te ontwikkel, sedert die demokratiese regering in 1994 in werking getree het. Die studie het hoofsaaklik op die Vrystaatprovinsie gefokus, met die doel om te identifiseer hoe die KMMO-beleid beoog om die kwessies van ondersteuning en ontwikkeling van die KMMO‟s aan te spreek en hoe die sakeondersteuningsprogramme die KMMO‟s in die provinsie kan ontwikkel en ondersteun. Sommige van die empiriese bevindings het daarop gedui dat die wêreldwye verskuiwing in sakeondersteuningsprogramme nie altyd na Suid-Afrika deurgevloei het nie. Beleide is derhalwe grootliks ontwerp om die gelykberegtigingskwessies aan te spreek wat met KMMO‟s verband hou. Die inherente benadering van beleid en praktyk was dus aan die aanbodkant en nie aan die vraagkant nie. As gevolg hiervan is nie al die lesse uit die internasionale ervaring ingesluit nie. Verder het die KMMO-beleid en -praktyk beperkte sukses gehad en in baie gevalle was dit nie meetbaar nie, weens die afwesigheid van toepaslike M&E stelsels. Om op te som, beveel die studie aan dat daar ʼn behoefte bestaan aan sakeondersteuningsprogramme om direk meer uit die internasionale paradigmas en praktyke te leer en om die toepaslike sakeondersteuningspraktyke toe te pas ten einde KMMO's in die Vrystaat te ontwikkel en in die proses die KMMO-beleid in oënskou te neem en dit hoofsaaklik te laat fokus op die vraaggedrewe benadering. Die studie beveel verder aan dat daar M&E stelsels beskikbaar sal wees om die gehalte van dienslewering aan KMMO‟s te dokumenteer en te verseker dat in ooreenstemming met internasionale standaarde is.