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dc.contributor.advisorNgwena, Charles
dc.contributor.advisorCook, Rebecca
dc.contributor.authorDurojaye, Ebenezer Tope
dc.date.accessioned2017-11-01T09:32:53Z
dc.date.available2017-11-01T09:32:53Z
dc.date.issued2010-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/7378
dc.description.abstractEnglish: This study is an analysis of whether laws and policies made by the Nigerian government relating to access to contraception for adolescents are consistent with Nigeria's obligations under international human rights law. Adolescents, especially female adolescents, encounter challenges regarding their sexual health needs. For instance, more than half of those living with HIV in the country are female adolescents. Teenage pregnancy and the incidence of unwanted pregnancy are rife, leading to high cases of unsafe abortion. Nigeria is said to have one of the worst cases of unsafe abortion in the region. Moreover, the maternal mortality rate in Nigeria, estimated at about 1,000 deaths per 100, 000 live births, is one of the highest in the region. Most of the deaths occurring from pregnancy-related complications are among young women. Yet contraceptive use among this group is very low. Some of the factors restricting access to contraceptive information and services for adolescents include socio-cultural factors such as emphasis on chastity for female adolescents, negative attitudes on the part of health care providers and inconsistencies in laws and policies. Nigeria has ratified international and regional human rights instruments, including consensus statements, which obligate the government to take necessary steps and measures in realising access to contraceptive services for adolescents, especially female adolescents in the country. Although Nigeria is not wanting in laws and policies relating to access to contraception for adolescents, gaps exist in these laws and policies as most of them do not specifically address the issue of adolescents' autonomy to seek contraceptive services, nor have they specifically addressed the needs of female adolescents. Therefore, the study is premised on the fact that, since female adolescents, compared with their male counterparts are more susceptible to sexual and reproductive ill health in Nigeria, it is necessary to pay more attention to their health needs than that of other groups in the country. Drawing from the experiences of feminist scholars, the study proposes that in analysing Nigeria's laws and policies relating to access to contraception for adolescents, the female adolescent question should be asked to ascertain how the interest of this group has been adequately catered for. The study concludes by arguing that the Nigerian government has not demonstrated adequate political will in implementing existing laws and policies to ensure access to contraception for female adolescents. The government will need to embark on law reforms and awareness campaigns to remove barriers that restrict access to contraception for female adolescents. In addition, Nigerian courts will need to be more proactive in their decisions and adopt a purposive approach to interpreting the laws of the country to advance access to contraception to female adolescents. In doing this, Nigerian courts may need to ask the female adolescent question, which implies that decisions by Nigerian courts on cases bordering on the sexual health of adolescents must always reflect the lived experiences of female adolescents.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Hierdie studie is 'n analise van die Nigeriese regering se wette en beleide rakende toegang tot voorbehoedmiddels vir adolessente om te bepaal of dit met die land se verpligting onder internasionale menseregte-wette ooreenstem. Adolessente, veral vroulike adolessente, kom voor uitdagings rakende hulle seksuele gesondheidsbehoeftes te staan. Byvoorbeeld, meer as die helfte van diegene in die land wat met MIV leef, is vroulike adolessente. Tienerswangerskappe en die voorkoms van ongewenste swangerskappe vier hoogty en lei tot hoë voorkoms van onveilige aborsie. Daar word beweer dat Nigerië van die ergste voorkoms van onveilige aborsie in die streek toon. Daarbenewens is die moedersterftesyfer in Nigerië, geraam op ongeveer I 000 sterftes per 100 000 lewende geboortes, een van die hoogste in die streek. Die meeste van die sterftes wat weens swangerskapverwante komplikasies plaasvind, is onder jong vroue. Tog is die gebruik van voorbehoedmiddels in hierdie groep baie laag. Sommige van die faktore wat toegang tot voorbehoedingsinligting en -dienste vir adolessente verhinder, is sosio-kulturele faktore soos klem op kuisheid van vroulike adolessente, negatiewe houdings van gesondheidsorgverskaffers en onkonsekwenthede in wette en beleide. Nigerië het internasionale en streeks- menseregteinstnimente bekragtig, insluitend konsensusverklarings, wat die regering verplig om die nodige stappe te doen en maatreëls in te stelom toegang tot voorbehoedingsdienste vir adolessente, veral vroulike adolessente, te bewerkstellig. Alhoewel Nigerië geen gebrek het aan wette en beleide wat met toegang tot voorbehoedmiddels vir adolessente verband hou nie, bestaan daar gapings in hierdie wette en beleide aangesien die meeste daarvan nie die kwessie aanspreek van adolessente se outonomie om voorbehoedingsdienste uit te soek nie. Die behoeftes van vroulike adolessente word ook nie spesifiek aangespreek nie. Hierdie studie gaan van die veronderstelling uit dat, aangesien vroulike adolessente in Nigerië in vergelyking met hulle manlike eweknieë meer vatbaar vir seksuele en voorplantingsverwante swak gesondheid is, dit nodig is om meer aandag aan hulle gesondheidsbehoeftes te skenk as enige ander groep in die land. Hierdie studie put uit die ervaring van feministiese vakkundiges en beweer gevolglik dat die analise van Nigerië se wette en beleide rakende toegang tot voorbehoedmiddels vir adolessente noodwendig die vroulike adolessent-vraag moet opper om sodoende te bepaal hoe daar vir die belange van hierdie groep voldoende voorsiening gemaak word. Die studie sluit af deur te beweer dat die Nigeriese regering nie voldoende politieke wil demonstreer in die implementering van bestaande wette en beleide om toegang tot voorbehoedmiddels vir vroulike adolessente te verseker nie. Verder moet die regering wetshervorming en bewustheidsveldtogte onderneem om die struikelblokke tot toegang tot voorbehoedmiddels te verwyder, veral vir vroulike adolessente. Die Nigeriese howe moet ook meer proaktief wees in hulle besluitneming en 'n doelgerigte benadering aanneem om die landswette te interpreteer om toegang tot voorbehoedmiddels vir vroulike adolessente te bevorder. Om hierin te slaag, moet Nigeriese howe die vroulike adolessent-vraag vra, dit wil sê, besluite deur hierdie howe oor gevalle wat met seksuele gesondheid van adolessente verband hou, moet altyd die geleefde ervarings van vroulike adolessente weerspieël.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectAdolescentsen_ZA
dc.subjectContraceptionen_ZA
dc.subjectHuman rightsen_ZA
dc.subjectFemale adolescent questionen_ZA
dc.subjectNigeriaen_ZA
dc.subjectContraception -- Law and legislation -- Nigeriaen_ZA
dc.subjectBirth control -- Law and legislation -- Nigeriaen_ZA
dc.subjectTeenagers -- Sexual behavior -- Nigeriaen_ZA
dc.subjectWomen -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Nigeriaen_ZA
dc.subjectWomen's rights -- Nigeriaen_ZA
dc.subjectHuman rights -- Nigeriaen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (LL.D (Constitutional Law and Philosophy of Law))--University of the Free State, 2010en_ZA
dc.titleRealising access to contraception for adolescents in Nigeria: a human rights analysisen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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