Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisorLouw, D. A.
dc.contributor.advisorLoots, Sonja
dc.contributor.authorBotha, Ryan
dc.date.accessioned2017-08-07T07:12:52Z
dc.date.available2017-08-07T07:12:52Z
dc.date.issued2014-07
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/6519
dc.description.abstractEnglish: South Africa has one of the highest numbers of offenders among all African countries. Although the vast majority of crimes are perpetrated by males, recent statistics have shown that the number of crimes committed by females has increased in recent years. Among the crimes committed by sentenced female offenders in South Africa, aggressive and violent crimes are the most prevalent, followed by economic crimes. Internationally, psychopathy has been associated strongly with criminality, particularly violent crime. While extensive research has investigated the socio-economic and environmental variables contributing to violent crime in South Africa, there is very little research elucidating the potentially unique intrapsychic variables, such as psychopathy, that may underpin criminal behaviour in this country. Further, existing forensic psychological data are mainly available on male offenders in the Western world. To address this lacuna in the empirical forensic psychology corpus, a research project was launched, and its outcomes are discussed by means of five related yet independent research articles. More specifically, the overarching aim of this research was to explore the clinical entity of female psychopathy in a South African forensic context. The research sample consisted of 108 medium- and maximum-security female offenders from the East London, Kroonstad and Johannesburg centres of the Department of Correctional Services. This sample was divided into three groups representing non-psychopathic, medium psychopathic, and advanced psychopathic offenders. The first study presents a narrative review of the literature on psychopathy with the aim of delineating important gender and cultural considerations. The primary focus of this review is on gender, as this represents the key variable in the empirical studies that follow. First, an overview of psychopathy is presented with a view to contextualizing the foremost measure of the disorder, namely the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Second, the concept of psychopathy is defined and discussed in terms of its similarities and differences across gender. Of importance here are the gender-based disparities in psychopathy in terms of its prevalence, severity, factor structure, behavioural expression, comorbidity, and treatment. Third, a review of cross-cultural research on the disorder is presented in the light of the diverse cultural composition of the sample used in the empirical studies that follow. In this regard, the ‘individualistic-collectivist’ framework and the concept of “secondary psychopathy” are elucidated in terms of their interpretive utility in assessing psychopathy in culturally diverse samples. An understanding of these gender and cultural variables forms an important theoretical background for interpreting the empirical data presented in the broader research corpus. In the second study, several theoretical factorial structures of the Hare PCL-R were tested and compared. The exploratory factor analysis reveals that a three-factor model consistent with Cooke and Michie’s (2001) factorial composition of psychopathy shows the best fit with the female offender data. This finding is consistent with other studies examining the factor structure of psychopathy across gender and diverse cultural groups. The results of this study suggest provisional support for the unified theory of psychopathy, as the affective dimension of the disorder was consistently stable across the different factorial models. The findings carry preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the three-factor model of PCL-R psychopathy in a South African female forensic context. The third study explored psychopathy and its association with demographic variables in a South African female forensic context. This was conducted with a view to isolating demographic variables that discriminated between non-psychopathic, medium psychopathic and advanced psychopathic female offenders. Classification of the respective offender groups was conducted by using the PCL-R, the most validated instrument in psychopathy measurement. The chi-square test for independence revealed significant associations between the three groups with regard to the demographic variables under study. Specifically, age of first offense, marital status, number of children, child/adult abuse, suicide attempts and employment history all shared important empirical associations with the psychopathic offender group. Analyses of the demographic data provided associational support for the presence of secondary psychopathy in the current sample of offenders. The results underline the importance of specific demographic variables in identifying high-risk groups of offenders. The fourth study examined the relationship between psychopathy as measured by the PCL-R, and Axis I mental disorders as measured by the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). The Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test revealed a number of significant differences between levels of Axis I mental disorders and levels of psychopathy. In line with international literature, psychopaths evidenced significantly higher rates of substance abuse compared to non-psychopaths. Additionally, the high rate of psychiatric comorbidity across the sample provides tentative support for the phenotypic expression of secondary psychopathy in the present study. This finding also underlines the need for the adequate implementation of mental health interventions in South African forensic settings. Specifically, clinical intervention in treatable comorbid Axis I mental disorders may enhance the management and rehabilitation of psychopathic offenders. Finally, the issue of malingering warrants specific reflection, as it represents an important corollary of elevated psychopathy scores. The fifth study examined the relationship between psychopathy, as measured by the PCL-R, and Axis II personality disorders, as measured by the MCMI-III. The Kruskal- Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test revealed a number of significant differences between levels of Axis II personality disorders and levels of psychopathy. Specifically, the results support international findings that significantly higher rates of Cluster B personality disorders are found among psychopathic offenders compared to non-psychopathic offenders. The findings underline the need for a clinical focus on Cluster B personality pathology in interventions with psychopathic offenders.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Suid-Afrika is die land in Afrika met een van die hoogste misdaadsyfers. Alhoewel die grootste aantal misdade deur mans gepleeg word, dui onlangse navorsing daarop dat die getal misdade wat deur vrouens gepleeg word, gedurende die afgelope aantal jare toegeneem het. Aggressiewe en gewelddadige misdade is die algemeenste misdade waarvoor vroulike misdadigers verhoor word, gevolg deur ekonomiese misdade. Psigopatie word internasionaal sterk met misdaad geassosieer, veral met gewelddadige misdaad. Alhoewel ekstensiewe navorsing met betrekking tot die bydraende sosio-ekonomiese en omgewingsveranderlikes tot geweld in Suid-Afrika bestaan, ondersoek min navorsing potensieel unieke intrapsigiese veranderlikes soos psigopatie wat kriminele gedrag in hierdie land mag ondersteun. Om hierdie leemte in die corpus van forensiese sielkunde aan te spreek, is 'n navorsings projek geloods, wat vervolgens in vyf verwante dog onafhanklike navorsings artikels bespreek word. Meer spesifiek, was die oorkoepelende doel van hierdie navorsing om die kliniese entiteit van vroulike psigopatie in 'n Suid Afrikaanse konteks te bespreek. Die navorsingsteekproef het bestaan uit 108 vroulike medium- en maksimumsekuriteitoortreders van die sentra van die Departement van Korrektiewe Dienste in Oos-Londen. Kroonstad en Johannesburg. Die steekproef is opgedeel in drie groepe wat nie-psigopatiese, medium psigopatiese en gevorderde psigopatiese oortreders verteenwoordig het. Die eerste studie bied 'n narratiewe oorsig van die literatuur aangaande psigopatie met die doel om belangrike geslag- en kulturele oorwegings te skets. Die primêre fokus van hierdie oorsig is op geslag, aangesien dit die hoofsaaklike veranderlike in die opvolgende studies is. 'n Oorsig van psigopatie word eerstens aangebied met die oogmerk om die hoofmaatstaf van die versteuring, naamlik die Psigopatie Oorsiglys-Hersien (PCL-R), te kontekstualiseer. Tweedens word die konsep psigopatie gedefinieer en beskryf in terme van die ooreenkomste en verskille tussen mans en vrouens. Wat veral hier van belang is, is die verskille ten opsigte van geslag in terme van voorkoms, erns, faktorstruktuur, gedragsuitdrukking, komorbiditeit en behandeling. Derdens word 'n oorsig van kruiskulturele navorsing oor die versteuring gebied in die lig van die diverse kulturele samestelling van die steekproef wat in die empiriese studie gebruik is. Ten opsigte hiervan word die “individualistiese-kollektivistiese” raamwerk en die konsep van “sekondêre psigopatie” verklaar in terme van die interpreterende bruikbaarheid daarvan om psigopatie in kulturele diverse groepe te ondersoek. Die verstaan van hierdie geslag- en kulturele veranderlikes bied 'n belangrike teoretiese agtergrond om die empiriese data wat binne die breër corpus aangebied word, te ondersoek. In die tweede studie word verskeie teoretiese faktorstrukture van die “Hare PCL-R getoets en vergelyk. Die ondersoekende faktoranalise het aangedui dat 'n driefaktormodel, wat strydig is met Cooke en Mickie (2001) se faktor samestelling van psigopatie, die beste ooreenkomste toon met die data van vroulike oortreders. Hierdie bevindinge stem ooreen met ander studies wat die faktorstruktuur van psigopatie in geslagsgroepe en diverse kultuurgroepe ondersoek het. Die resultate van hierdie studie bied voorwaardelike ondersteuning vir die gelykvormige teorie van psigopatie, aangesien die affektiewe dimensie van die versteuring konstant aangedui is as stabiel in terme van die verskillende faktormodelle. Die bevindinge ondersteuning voorlopig die betroubaarheid en geldigheid van die driefaktormodel van die PCL-R psigopatie in 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vroulike forensiese konteks. Die derde studie het psigopatie en die assosiasie daarvan met demografiese veranderlikes in 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vroulike forensiese konteks ondersoek. Dit is uitgevoer met die doel om demografiese veranderlikes te isoleer wat tussen nie-psigopatiese, medium-psigopatiese en gevorderde-psigopatiese vroulike oortreders onderskei. Die klassifisering van onderskeie groepe oortreders is uitgevoer deur die toepassing van die PCL-R. Hierdie instrument is die geldigste instrument vir die bepaling van psigopatie. Die chi-square-toets vir onafhanklikheid het betekenisvolle verhoudinge tussen die drie groepe met betrekking tot die demografiese veranderlikes wat ondersoek is, getoon. Ontleding van die demografiese veranderlikes bied geassosieerde ondersteuning vir die teenwoordigheid van sekondêre psigopatie in die huidige steekproef van oortreders. Die resultate beklemtoon die belangrikheid van spesifieke demografiese veranderlikes in die identifisering van groepe hoërisiko-oortreders. Die vierde studie het die verhouding tussen psigopatie, soos deur die PCL-R bepaal, en As 1 geestesversteurings, soos deur die Millon Clinical Multiiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) bepaal, ondersoek. Die Kruskal-Wallis H-toets en die Mann-Whitney U-toets het 'n aantal betekenisvolle verskille tussen vlakke van As 1 geestesversteurings en vlakke van psigopatie aangedui. Psigopate het ook betekenisvolle hoër vlakke van middelmisbruik getoon in vergelyking met nie-psigopate. Hierdie bevinding stem ooreen met internasionale literatuur. Addisioneel bied die hoë voorkoms van psigiatriese komorbiditeit in die steekproef tentatiewe ondersteuning vir die fenotipiese uitdrukking van sekondêre psigopatie in die huidige studie. Die bevindinge beklemtoon ook die behoefte aan gepaste toepassing van intervensies in geestesgesondheid in Suid-Afrikaanse forensiese omstandighede. Kliniese intervensie in behandelbare komorbiede As 1 geestesversteurings mag spesifiek die hantering en rehabilitasie van psigopatiese oortreders verhoog. Ten slotte behoort oor die kwessie van skynsiekte besin te word, aangesien dit 'n belangrike uitvloeisel van verhoogde psigopatietellings verteenwoordig. Die vyfde studie het die verhouding tussen psigopatie, soos gemeet deur die PCL-R, en As II-persoonlikheidsversteuring, soos bepaal deur die MCMI-III, ondersoek. Die Kruskal-Wallis H-toets en Mann-Whitney U-toets dui 'n aantal betekenisvolle verskille aan tussen vlakke van As II-persoonlikheidversteurings en vlakke van psigopatie. Die resultate ondersteun spesifiek internasionale bevindinge dat betekenisvolle hoër vlakke van Groep B-persoonlikheidversteurings onder psigopatiese oortreders gevind word vergeleke met nie-psigopatiese oortreders. Die bevindinge bevestig die behoefte aan 'n kliniese fokus op groep B-persoonlikheidspatologie in intervensies met psigopatiese oortreders.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectPCL-Ren_ZA
dc.subjectPsychopathyen_ZA
dc.subjectSouth Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectGenderen_ZA
dc.subjectCultureen_ZA
dc.subjectFactor structureen_ZA
dc.subjectDemographic variablesen_ZA
dc.subjectSecondary psychopathyen_ZA
dc.subjectAxis I mental disordersen_ZA
dc.subjectAxis II personality disordersen_ZA
dc.subjectTreatmenten_ZA
dc.subjectFemale offenders -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectComorbidityen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Psychology))--University of the Free State, 2014en_ZA
dc.titlePsychopathy and comorbid mental disorders among South African female offendersen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record