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dc.contributor.advisorSpies, J. J.
dc.contributor.authorRoodt, Rouvay
dc.date.accessioned2017-03-28T07:25:08Z
dc.date.available2017-03-28T07:25:08Z
dc.date.issued1999-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/6017
dc.description.abstractEnglish: This study dealt with the phylogenetic history of some representatives of the South African Arundineae. Arundineae Durnort. is one of the tribes in the grass (Poaceae) subfamily Arundinoideae Tateoka. This is known to be a heterogeneous assemblage and a taxonomically difficult group. Three techniques were used to investigate the relationships within the tribe Arundineae, namely cytogenetics, DNA amplification fingerprinting and DNA sequencing of the ITS region of the nuclear DNA. The genera Pentameris P.Beauv., Pentaschistis (Nees) Spach. and Prionanthium Desv. are the only three genera in the tribe with seven as a basic chromosome number (excluding the genus Dregeochloa Conert, which was not investigated in this study). A close affinity between these genera is, thus, recognised. This relationship is corroborated by the DNA fmgerprinting and DNA sequencing data. One Prionanthium dentatum (L.f.) Hem. specimen was, however problematic. This specimen grouped with Tribolium Desv. Clayton and Renvoize (1986) proposed this relationship, but in the light of various studies, as in this study, Prionanthium is removed from this closely related genus. Therefore, the recognition of subtribes in Arundineae, is proposed. The genera Arundo L. and Phragmites Adans. were grouped together. This is unexpected, because according to Clayton and Renvoize (1986), these genera are not as closely related, as their similarity in habit would suggest. In this study these two genera, known as arundinoid genera, are a monophyletic grouping nested within the rest of the genera, known as danthonoid genera. The genera Karroochloa Conert & Turpe, Merxrnuellera Conert and Prionanthium were shown to be polyphyletic with the sequencing data. DNA amplification fingerprinting was helpful in resolving species relationships, but failed to elucidate most of the generic relationships in the study. DNA sequencing was the more informative of the two techniques. The combined analysis was helpful in that some resolution was gained, while other was lost. Due to large amounts of missing data and the inability of DNA fingerprinting to resolve generic relationships, the combined analysis could not be used to its fullest capacity. PAUP and HENNIG86 were both used and both software programs gave the same results. In general, the trees created with PAUP were usually shorter. Both software programs can be used, but the ease of PAUP makes it the preferred analysis package. Successive weighting usually resulted in a tree with better Cl and RI values, compared to a search conducted on the equally weighted data set. The topologies of the trees, however, remained the same. Adams consensus trees were the only consensus trees, which were usually the best (or most) resolved when compared to Strict and Semistrict consensus trees. The present tribal classification for the Arundineae seems justified. However, a subdivision of the tribe Arundineae, to accommodate the clustering of the genera Pentameris, Pentaschistis and Prionanthium into a subtribe, may be justified. The position of Arundo and Phragmites is monophyletic if only the South African representatives are investigated. Some confusion still exists within the tribe and DNA sequencing studies of more specimens per species and more species per genus is advised.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: In hierdie studie is 'die filogenetiese ontwikkeling van sekere verteenwoordigers van die Suid Afikaanse Arundineae ondersoek. Arundineae Durnort. is een van die tribusse in die grassubfamilie, Arundinoideae Tateoka. Hierdie subfamilie is bekend as a heterogeniese groepering en is 'n taksonomiese moeilike groep. Drie tegnieke is gebruik om die verwantskappe in die tribus te ondersoek, naamlik sitogenetika, DNA amplifiserings vingerafdrukke en DNA-nukleotiedvolgordebepaling van die ITS gebied van die kern-DNA. Die genera Pentameris P.Beauv., Pentaschistis (Nees) Spach. en Prionanthium Desv. is die enigste drie genera in die tribus met 'n basiese chromosoomgetal van sewe (uitsluitend die genus Dregeochloa Conert, wat nie in hierdie studie ondersoek is nie). Die genera is naverwant. Hierdie verwantskap word ondersteun deur die DNA-vingerafdrukke en die DNA-nukleotiedvolgordebepaling. 'Een Prionanthium dentatum (L.f.) eksemplaar het egter afgewyk van die verwagte resultate. Die eksemplaar toon affiniteite met Tribolium Desv. In 1986 is hierdie verwantskap deur Clayton en Renvoize voorgestel, maar in die lig van verskeie studies, soos in hierdie betrokke studie, word Prionanthium verwyder van hierdie naverwante genus. Die erkenning van 'n subtribus vir hierdie genera word dus voorgestel. Die genera Arundo L. en Phragmites Adans. word in hierdie studie saamgegroepeer. Hierdie verwantskap is onverwags, aangesien Clayton en Renvoize (1986) hierdie genera nie as naverwant beskou het nie, ten spyte van hulle eenderse habitatte. In hierdie studie vorm die twee genera, bekend as arundinoid genera, 'n monofiletiese groepering wat tussen die res van die genera, bekend as danthonoid genera, gegroepeer is. Die genera Karroochloa Conert & Tiirpe, Merxmuellera Conert en Prionanthium is deur middel van DNA-nukleotiedvolgordebepaling, as polifiletiese genera uitgewys. DNA amplifiserings vingerafdrukke kon gebruik word in die bepaling van die verwanskappe tussen spesies, maar kon nie daarin slaag, om verwantskappe op genusvlak op te los nie. DNA-nukleotiedvolgordebepaling was die tegniek wat die verwantskappe die beste kon aantoon op spesie-, sowel as genusvlak. Die gekombineerde analise kon sommige van die verwantskappe beter verklaar, maar het verminderde resolusie op ander gebiede getoon. As gevolg van die groot hoeveelhede onbekende data en ook die onvermoë van die DNA-vingerafdrukke om verwantskappe op genusvlak uit te klaar, kon die gekombineerde analise nie tot die maksimum beproef word nie. PAUP en HENNIG86 is albei gebruik en albei programme het min of meer dieselfde resultate gelewer. In die algemeen is die kladogramme wat met PAUP bereken is korter. Albei programme kan gebruik word, maar die gemak van PAUP maak dit verkieslik. Opeenvolgende gewigtoekenning het gewoonlik die kladogram met die beste Cl en RI waardes tot gevolg gehad, in vergelyking met die kladogramme verkry vanaf 'n datamatriks waarin dieselfde gewig aan die data toegeken is. Die topologie van die bome het egter feitlik altyd eenders gebly. Die Adams konsensuskladogram was gewoonlik die enigste kladogram wat die beste resolusie getoon het, in vergelyking met die "Strict" en "Semistrict" konsensuskladograrnme. Die huidige tribus klassifikasie vir die Arundineae blyk korrek te wees. 'n Onderverdeling van die tribus Arundineae, om die genera Pentamerts. Pentosehistis en Prionanthium in 'n subtribus saam te voeg, mag gewens wees. Die posisie van Arundo en Phragmites is monofileties, indien slegs die Suid Afrikaanse verteenwoordigers ondersoek word. Verwarring is egter nogsteeds teenwoordig in die tribus en DNAnukleotiedvolgordebepaling van meer eksemplare per spesie, en meer spesies per genus, is nodig.af
dc.description.sponsorshipFoundation of Research and Developmenten_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectArundineaeen_ZA
dc.subjectArundinoideaeen_ZA
dc.subjectCladisticsen_ZA
dc.subjectCytogeneticsen_ZA
dc.subjectDAFsen_ZA
dc.subjectDNA sequencingen_ZA
dc.subjectITS regionen_ZA
dc.subjectPhylogenyen_ZA
dc.subjectPoaceaeen_ZA
dc.subjectTribal classification.en_ZA
dc.subjectGrasses -- Phylogengen_ZA
dc.subjectDNA fingerprinting of plantsen_ZA
dc.subjectCladistic analysisen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Sc. (Botany and Genetics))--University of the Free State, 1999en_ZA
dc.titleA phylogenetic study of some South African representatives of the tribe Arundineaeen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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