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dc.contributor.advisorDe Wet, J. C.
dc.contributor.authorMarais, Willemien
dc.date.accessioned2016-11-16T12:13:28Z
dc.date.available2016-11-16T12:13:28Z
dc.date.issued2016-02
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/4554
dc.description.abstractEnglish: South African journalist Nat Nakasa’s short career in journalism started at Drum magazine in Johannesburg in 1958 and ended in New York City when he died of suicide in 1965. Arguably, Nakasa was not the most prolific or well-known journalist of South Africa’s Drum generation of journalists, which also include, amongst others, Lewis Nkosi, Es’kia Mphahlele and Richard Rive. Nakasa’s body of work consists of about 100 pieces, mostly journalism, and one short story. In terms of professional milestones he was an assistant editor at Drum, the first black columnist for Rand Daily Mail, the founder and editor of The Classic, a literary magazine, and a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University. However, Patel (2005: vii) writes that Nakasa’s “reportage of events and personality profile of a time gone by opens a window for us to look into the past and thereby enrich our understanding of intensely human episodes he witnessed”. Nadine Gordimer (in Roberts 2005) describes Nakasa as a “racial visionary”, while referring to his work as “journalism, yes, but journalism of a highly personal kind” (in Patel 2005). Emeritus Archbishop Desmond Tutu (in Mahala 2014) describes Nakasa as “a rainbow man when the rainbow was not allowed”. Nakasa’s approach to journalism places him in the realm of Merrill’s existential journalism (1977). It also relates directly to what Muhlmann (2008; 2010) describes as decentring journalism, where the journalist takes on the role of the outsider in an effort to disrupt the status quo, or “decentre” it. These orientations to journalism form part of what can be described as unconventional forms of journalism, characterised, amongst others, by the constructivist idea that there is no absolute truth and that journalists inescapably create their own realities (Hanitzsch 2007) that they then share with their audiences. The practice of unconventional forms of journalism represents an ontic act of existentialism, which ascribes to an individualistic, interpretive world-view. From the Western existential perspective, life can only be experienced, described and made sense of from an individual perspective; it is inherently subjective and there is no universal truth “out there”. This study set out to consider how Nakasa’s writing, irrespective of his intention in this regard, serves as an example of applied existentialism, i.e. explaining Western existentialist thought, themes and structure through descriptions of real-life situations (ontic acts) as it manifests in his journalism. The study revolves around the axis of existentialism as conceptual framework, an interpretive research paradigm and a qualitative research methodology. An adapted deductive/inductive hybrid theme analysis was employed as method in order to analyse Nakasa’s writing. The results of the analysis were used to construct an existential storyline based on a combination of general existential themes as well as themes unique to Nakasa’s writing. From the combined results of the deductive and inductive analyses, seven main themes were constructed, based on Sartre’s “restless existence” cycle of facticity, nihilation, projects and transcendence. The themes identified include “mental corrosion”, “living outside of the normal human experience”, “the fringe”, “social experiment”, “tiny subversive acts”, “towards a common experience” and “the duty of the writer”. All seven themes are supported by relevant existential themes and concepts and thus provided the evidence to support this study’s claim that Nat Nakasa can be read as an existential journalist. In terms of contemporary relevance, Nakasa’s approach to journalism suggests how existentialism could provide the journalist with a practical approach to writing, especially for journalists working in developing societies. The relevance of this approach lies in the fact that there will always be an interregnum (Gordimer 1982), or circumstances of being “between two identities, one known and discarded, the other unknown and undetermined”, which might require the journalist to operate outside the boundaries of conventional journalism – thus an existential journalist practicing decentring journalism.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Die Suid-Afrikaanse joernalis Nat Nakasa se kort loopbaan in die joernalistiek het begin by Drum-tydskrif in Johannesburg in 1958 en geëindig in New York City met sy selfdood in 1965. Nakasa was waarskynlik nie die mees produktiewe of bekendste joernalis van Suid-Afrika se Drum-generasie van joernaliste nie. Dié groep sluit ook onder andere Lewis Nkosi, Es’kia Mphahlele en Richard Rive in. Nakasa se werk bestaan uit ongeveer 100 artikels, meestal joernalistiek, en een kortverhaal. In terme van professionele mylpale was hy ’n assistentredakteur van Drum, die eerste swart rubriekskrywer vir Rand Daily Mail, die stigter en redakteur van die letterkundige tydskrif The Classic en ’n Nieman-genoot by Harvard Universiteit. Patel (2005: vii) skryf egter dat Nakasa se “verslag oor gebeure en persoonlikheidsprofiele van ’n vorige era ’n venster oopmaak waardeur ons na die verlede kan kyk en sodoende ons begrip van die intens menslike episodes waarvan hy getuie was, kan verryk”. Nadine Gordimer (in Roberts 2005) beskryf Nakasa se siening van ras as “visioenêr” en verwys na sy werk as “joernalistiek, ja, maar joernalistiek van ’n hoogs persoonlike aard” (in Patel 2005). Emeritus-aartsbiskop Desmond Tutu (in Mahala 2014) beskryf Nakasa as “’n reënbogman in ’n tydperk toe die reënboog nie geduld is nie”. Nakasa se benadering tot joernalistiek plaas hom op die terrein van Merrill se eksistensiële joernalistiek (1977). Dit is ook direk verwant aan wat Muhlmann (2008; 2010) beskryf as desentrerende joernalistiek, waar die joernalis die rol van die buitestaander vertolk in ’n poging om die status quo te ontwrig, of te “desentreer”. Hierdie joernalistieke oriëntasies vorm deel van wat beskryf kan word as onkonvensionele vorme van joernalistiek. Dit word gekenmerk deur, onder meer, die konstruktivistiese idee dat daar geen absolute waarheid is nie en dat joernaliste noodgedwonge hul eie realiteite skep (Hanitzsch 2007), wat hulle dan met hul gehoor deel. Die praktyk van onkonvensionele vorme van joernalistiek verteenwoordig ’n ontiese aksie van eksistensialisme, wat ’n individualistiese, interpretatiewe wêreldbeskouing voorstaan. Vanuit die Westerse eksistensiële perspektief kan lewe slegs ervaar en beskryf word en sinvol wees vanuit ’n individuele perspektiref; dit is inherent subjektief en daar is geen universele waarheid “daar buite” nie. Hierdie studie het ondersoek ingestel na hoe Nakasa se skryfwerk, ongeag van sy bedoeling in dié verband, kan dien as ’n voorbeeld van toegepaste eksistensialisme, naamlik om Westerse eksistensiële idees, temas en strukture deur beskrywings van werklike situasies (ontiese aksies) te verduidelik deur middel van joernalistiek. Die studie wentel rondom die as van eksistensialisme as konseptuele raamwerk, ’n interpretatiewe navorsingsparadigma en ’n kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetodologie. ’n Aangepaste deduktiewe/induktiewe hibriede tematiese analise is as metode aangewend om Nakasa se werk te analiseer. Die resultate van die analise is gebruik om ’n eksistensiële storielyn te skep, gebaseer op ’n kombinasie van algemene eksistensiële temas, asook temas uniek tot Nakasa se skryfwerk. Uit die gekombineerde resultate van die deduktiewe en induktiewe analises is sewe hooftemas geïdentifiseer, gebaseer op Sartre se “rustelose bestaan”-siklus van feitelikheid, nietigmaking, projekte en transendensie. Die temas sluit in “verstandelike korrosie”, “lewe buite die normale menslike ervaring”, “die buiterand”, “sosiale eksperiment”, “klein ondermynende aksies”, “’n gedeelde ervaring” en “die plig van die skrywer”. Al sewe temas berus op relevante eksistensiële temas en konsepte en dien dus as bewys ter ondersteuning van hierdie studie se aanspraak, naamlik dat Nat Nakasa as eksistensiële joernalis gelees kan word. In terme van kontemporêre toepassing dien Nakasa se benadering tot joernalistiek as ’n voorstel van hoe eksistensialisme die joernalis kan voorsien van ’n praktiese benadering tot skryf, veral joernaliste wat in ontwikkelende samelewings werk. Die waarde van hierdie benadering lê in die feit dat daar altyd ’n interregnum (Gordimer 1982) iewers sal wees, naamlik omstandighede waar die bestaanswerklikheid “tussen twee identiteite is, een bekend, maar verwerp, die ander onbekend en onbepaald”. In hierdie omstandighede kan daar van die joernalis verwag word op om te tree buite die grense van konvensionele joernalistiek – dus ’n eksistensiële joernalis wat desentrerende joernalistiek praktiseer.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectNat Nakasaen_ZA
dc.subjectExistentialismen_ZA
dc.subjectExistenial journalismen_ZA
dc.subjectDecentring journalismen_ZA
dc.subjectAlternative journalismen_ZA
dc.subjectDrum magazineen_ZA
dc.subjectChange agenten_ZA
dc.subjectQualitative researchen_ZA
dc.subjectDeductive/inductive hybrid theme analysisen_ZA
dc.subjectJournalism -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectJournalists -- South Africa -- Biographyen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Coummincation Science))--University of the Free State, 2016en_ZA
dc.titleNat Nakasa as existential journalisten_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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