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dc.contributor.advisorJita, L. C.
dc.contributor.authorMandiudza (néé Mavhondo), Leona
dc.date.accessioned2016-11-14T07:33:29Z
dc.date.available2016-11-14T07:33:29Z
dc.date.issued2015-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/4390
dc.description.abstractEnglish: At a time when many countries are searching for school curricula that adequately prepare learners for the world of work, there is a need to ensure that the implementers at the classroom level (viz. the teachers) are also supported in doing a good job with curriculum and instruction. The aim of this study was to investigate the instructional guidance practices (and policies) that are provided to support the teaching and learning of the vocational and technical subjects in Zimbabwe. Using a qualitative approach and particularly a case study design, the study sought to uncover the primary behaviours and practices of a group of instructional leaders with the aim of understanding the nature of the guidance and support that is provided to teachers of vocational and technical subjects in selected Zimbabwean schools. The thesis consists of five chapters which are structured as follows. Chapter One introduces the reader to the study by articulating its importance. Chapter Two explores a range of literature that placed the study within the existing debates on instructional leadership in general and subject leadership in particular. The literature review also helped to explain the conceptual lenses used in this study, viz. the theory of distributed leadership and that of vocational pedagogy which provided the frameworks through which the investigation was pursued. Chapter Three presented the methodology of the study and the measures taken to ensure validity and reliability. The data collected were presented, analysed and discussed in Chapter Four. Chapter Five summarised the findings, gave the recommendations for policy and practice and also suggested areas for further research. In its major findings, the study established that the vocational and technical education curriculum currently being implemented in Zimbabwe has its roots and genesis in the recommendations of the various commissions that were set up to investigate the relevance of the pre-independence Zimbabwean curricula to the challenges of modern day Zimbabwe. The result is a hybrid curriculum wherein vocational education is optional and is offered in parallel to the academic curriculum. Consequently, the vocational and technical curriculum continues to be marginalised in schools, both in terms of provisioning and implementation. Furthermore, the study established that there is indeed a leadership structure that is designed to provide for the required instructional guidance at every level of the school hierarchy, as provided for in the organisational chart at head office. However, the data suggests that there was discord between structure and function in terms of instructional guidance provided for vocational and technical education. That is, while the instructional leaders had been appointed to populate the leadership structure, only the Education Officers, the District Education Officers and the Heads of Department seemed to have the requisite vocational background and knowledge to lead and provide guidance to the teachers of these subjects, with the rest of the instructional leaders being unable to provide specific leadership in specifically the Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) subjects. The study also identified a variety of useful artefacts that are used by school leaders to provide guidance and support to teachers. Some of the key artefacts of leadership include the programmes of activities, which some heads called the ‘diaries of activities’, lesson observation sheets and the exercise book inspection guidelines. Interestingly, the data suggest that instructional guidance in the Masvingo district is mainly provided through a series of regularly scheduled practices and a number of predictable behaviours are almost expected from all the instructional leaders within the schools. The practices include the provision of material resources and scheduled supervision of instruction through lesson observations and inspection of students’ exercise books, after which feedback is provided as a way of addressing the teachers’ shortcomings. The identified shortcomings are then used as the basis of further staff development programmes that are organised by the provincial and/or district offices for groups of teachers. The routinized nature of instructional guidance practices and behaviours create a consistent pattern of instructional guidance across schools (and subjects). The unintended consequence of the routines, however, is that they also seem to hide the inefficiencies and incompetence with respect to subject-based instructional leadership, especially in the specialised vocational and technical subjects. Instructional leaders who do not have the necessary subject competence are still able to go through the routines and complete the required forms, under the pretence of providing instructional guidance, irrespective of the quality and subject specificity. The study thus concludes with a call for a distributed instructional guidance approach to compensate and take advantage of differing skill sets among the instructional leaders who are responsible for the various vocational and technical subjects in the school curriculum. The key argument in the thesis is for a reconceptualised instructional guidance regime and practice that accords the same equitable treatment to all school subjects, academic and/or vocational, and where each technical and vocational subject is treated differently in its own terms with the required subject matter competence and appropriate leadership tools and practices.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: In ’n tydperk waarin talle lande op soek is na skoolkurrikula wat leerders voldoende vir die werkplek voorberei, is daar ’n behoefte om te verseker dat die implementeerders op die klaskamervlak (d.w.s. die onderwysers) ook daarin ondersteun word om goeie werk te lewer wat kurrikulum en onderrig betref. Die doel van hierdie tesis was om ondersoek in te stel na die onderrigbegeleidingspraktyke (en -beleide) wat verskaf word om die onderrig en leer van die beroeps- en tegniese vakke in Zimbabwe te ondersteun. Deur die gebruik van ’n kwalitatiewe benadering, in besonder ’n gevallestudieontwerp, het die studie onderneem om die primêre gedrag en praktyke van ’n groep onderrigleiers te ontbloot, met die doel om die aard van die begeleiding en ondersteuning wat aan onderwysers van beroeps- en tegniese vakke in geselekteerde Zimbabwiese skole verskaf word, te begryp. Die tesis bestaan uit vyf hoofstukke wat as volg gestruktureer word. Hoofstuk Een bied ’n inleiding tot die studie aan die leser deur die belangrikheid daarvan te verwoord. Hoofstuk Twee verken ’n reeks literatuur wat die studie binne die huidige debat oor onderrigleierskap in die algemeen en vakleierskap in besonder plaas. Die literatuuroorsig het ook gehelp om die konseptuele lense wat in hierdie studie gebruik is, te verduidelik, d.w.s. die teorie van verspreide leierskap en dié van beroepspedagogie, wat die raamwerke waardeur die ondersoek uitgevoer is, verskaf het. Hoofstuk Drie het die metodologie van die studie en die stappe wat geneem is om geldigheid en betroubaarheid te verseker, aangebied. Die data wat versamel is, was vir Hoofstuk Vier aangebied, geanaliseer en bespreek. Hoofstuk Vyf het die bevindings opgesom, aanbevelings vir beleid en praktyk gegee en ook areas vir verdere navorsing voorgestel. In sy hoofbevindings het die studie vasgestel dat die beroeps- en tegniese opvoedingskurrikulum wat tans in Zimbabwe in werking gestel word, se wortels en oorsprong lê in die aanbevelings deur die verskeie kommissies wat op die been gebring is om die relevansie van Zimbabwe se kurrikula voor onafhanklikwording op die uitdagings van hedendaagse Zimbabwe te ondersoek. Die resultaat is ’n hibriede kurrikulum waarin beroepsopvoeding opsioneel is en aangebied word parallel met die akademiese kurrikulum. Gevolglik word die beroeps- en tegniese kurrikulum voortdurend in skole gemarginaliseer, in terme van beide bevoorrading en implementasie. Die studie het verder vasgestel dat daar inderdaad ’n leierskapstruktuur is wat ontwerp is om voorsiening te maak vir die nodige onderrigbegeleiding op elke vlak van die skoolhiërargie, soos vervat in die organisatoriese diagram by hoofkantoor. Data suggereer egter dat daar onmin was tussen struktuur en funksie in terme van die onderrigbegeleiding wat vir beroeps- en tegniese onderrig verskaf is. Dit wil sê, terwyl die onderrigleiers aangestel is om die leierskapstruktuur vol te maak, slegs die onderwysbeamptes, die distriksonderwysbeamptes en die departementshoofde skynbaar oor die nodige beroepsagtergrond en -kennis beskik het om te begelei en leiding aan die onderwysers van hierdie vakke te bied, terwyl die res van die onderrigleiers nie in staat was om spesifieke leierskap te verskaf nie, in besonder in die BTO-vakke. Die studie het ook ’n verskeidenheid nuttige artefakte wat deur skoolleiers gebruik word om leiding en ondersteuning aan onderwysers te bied, geïdentifiseer. Sommige van die sleutelartefakte vir leierskap sluit in die beplanning van aktiwiteite, wat sommige hoofde as “aktiwiteitdagboeke” beskryf het, leswaarnemingsvorms en die riglyne vir werkboekinspeksie. Dit is interessant dat die data suggereer dat onderrigleierskap in die Masvingo-distrik grootliks verskaf word deur ’n reeks gereelde geskeduleerde praktyke en ’n hoeveelheid voorspelbare gedrag word feitlik verwag van al die onderrigleiers binne die skool. Dié praktyke sluit in die verskaffing van materiële hulpbronne en geskeduleerde toesig van onderrig deur leswaarneming en inspeksie van studente se werkboeke, waarna terugvoer verskaf word as ’n manier om onderwysers se tekortkominge aan te spreek. Die geïdentifiseerde tekortkominge word dan gebruik as die basis vir verdere personeelontwikkeling wat vir groepe onderwysers georganiseer word deur die provinsiale en/of distrikskantore. Die gereelde aard van onderrigleierskapspraktyke en -gebruike skep ’n konsekwente patroon van onderrigleierskap regoor skole (en vakke). Die onbedoelde gevolg van hierdie roetine is egter dat hulle skynbaar ondoeltreffendheid en onbevoegdheid ten opsigte van vakgebaseerde onderrigleierskap verbloem, veral in die gespesialiseerde beroeps- en tegniese vakke. Onderrigleiers wat nie oor die nodige bekwaamheid beskik nie, is steeds in staat om die roetine te volg en die nodige vorms te voltooi, onder die dekmantel van onderrigbegeleiding, ongeag gehalte en vakspesifisiteit. Die studie sluit dus af met ’n beroep op ’n benadering van verspreide onderrigleierskap om te kompenseer en om voordeel te trek uit verskillende vaardighede onder die onderrigleiers wat verantwoordelik is vir die verskillende beroeps- en tegniese vakke in die skoolkurrikulum. Die sleutelargument in die tesis is vir ’n geherkonsepsualiseerde begeleidingsregime en -praktyk wat dieselfde billike behandeling op alle skoolvakke toewys, vir akademie en/of beroep, en waar elke tegniese en beroepsvak verskillend op sy eie terme hanteer word, met die nodige vakinhoudbevoegdheid en toepaslike leierskapsinstrumente en -praktyke.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (School of Education Studies))--University of the Free State, 2015en_ZA
dc.subjectTechnical education -- Study and teaching (Secondary) -- Zimbabween_ZA
dc.subjectVocational education -- Study and teaching (Secondary) -- Zimbabween_ZA
dc.subjectEducational leadershipen_ZA
dc.subjectCurriculum planning -- Zimbabween_ZA
dc.subjectCurriculum-based assessementen_ZA
dc.titleInstructional guidance for marginalised subjects in Zimbabwe: a case study of the vocational and technical subjects in the Masvingo districten_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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