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dc.contributor.advisorSmit, D. M.
dc.contributor.authorViviers, Damian John
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-07T09:23:00Z
dc.date.available2016-01-07T09:23:00Z
dc.date.issued2014-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/2036
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Appearance discrimination entails discrimination against persons because of an aspect of their appearance, such as their physical attractiveness, height, weight, manner of dress and grooming styles. It also extends to individuals who elect to alter their appearance by undergoing gender reassignment. Appearance-based discrimination is a prevalent concern in workplaces across the globe, with jurisdictions such as the United States of America, Australia, the United Kingdom, Europe, Malaysia, Japan, China and South Africa showing signs of this problem. Employers‘ subconscious appearance preferences seem to filter into their employment decisions, policies and practices, causing employees who do not meet certain appearance standards to suffer discrimination in employment. Employees may also be subjected to bullying, harassment and hostile work environments because of their appearance characteristics. Research indicates that individuals who are physically more attractive as well as taller enjoy preference in the employment realm, while less attractive and shorter individuals are discriminated against and often suffer employment detriment, even when these characteristics are unrelated to the inherent requirements of the job. Employers‘ discretion to impose dress codes and grooming standards (when such criteria are unrelated to the inherent nature of the employment position) in effect curb employees‘ right to freedom of expression via their appearance, as well as their individuality and personal autonomy. Particular considerations in the context of appearance-based discrimination include weight-based discrimination, discrimination against so-called ―trans-employees‖, as well as appearance-related bullying and harassment of employees. Individuals whose body weight deviates from the norm experience significant discrimination in the workplace. Overweight and obese individuals suffer particularly severe employment detriment, as they are assumed to be in ill health, to be lazy and lacking work ethic. Employees who choose to alter their appearance through the process of gender reassignment are equally severely discriminated against in the employment setting. As is the position with the other categories of appearance discrimination, these individuals have little legal recourse that explicitly addresses the nature of the unfair discrimination to which they are subjected. Bullying and harassment of employees because of an aspect of their appearance is another significant concern in employment, with the same limited legal protection currently available to victims. As bullying is not governed or prohibited by law, and the appearance categories fall outside the ambit of the listed grounds of prohibited discrimination, such conduct does not officially amount to harassment either. The global attitude towards appearance discrimination is however beginning to change, and the International Labour Organisation has recognised this problem. Various states in the United States of America and in Australia have started enacting legislation to govern this issue and outlaw appearance discrimination in the employment arena. The judiciaries of these jurisdictions, as well as those in the European Union and South Africa, are also hearing more and more cases in this regard. South Africa still lags behind the rest of the world in dealing with this concern, even though many employees in the country do suffer unfair discrimination, bullying and harassment on the basis of their appearance. Discriminating against employees based on their appearance, without such discrimination being legally justifiable, amounts to unfair discrimination, and violates victims‘ rights to equality and dignity. It also acts as a barrier to equity in the workplace. Harassment and bullying of individuals because of an aspect of their appearance is equally unacceptable, amounting to a dignity violation. Afrikaans: Voorkomsdiskriminasie behels diskriminasie teen persone as gevolg van ‘n aspek van hul voorkoms, onder meer fisiese aantreklikheid, lengte, gewig, klerestyl of persoonlike versorging. Dit geld ook vir individue wat kies om hul voorkoms deur geslagswysiging te verander. Voorkomsdiskriminasie is ‘n algemene probleem in werkplekke oor die hele wêreld, met jurisdiksies soos die Verenigde State van Amerika, Australië, die Verenigde Koninkryk, Europa, Maleisië, Japan, China en Suid-Afrika wat tekens daarvan toon. Werkgewers se voorkomsvoorkeure sypel deur na hul indiensnemingsbesluite, beleide en praktyke, en stel werknemers wat nie aan sekere voorkomsstandaarde voldoen nie, aan diskriminasie bloot. Werknemers word ook dikwels blootgestel aan bullebakkery en teistering op grond van hul voorkoms. Navorsing dui daarop dat individue wat fisies aantrekliker en langer is, voorkeur in die werkplek geniet, terwyl minder aantreklike en korter individue diskriminasie en benadeling in die werksomgewing ervaar, selfs wanneer hierdie eienskappe nie met die kernvereistes van hul werk verband hou nie. Werkgewers se diskresie om dragkodes en versorgingstandaarde neer te lê (waar sulke kriteria nie met die kernvereistes van die werk verband hou nie), beperk inderwaarheid werknemers se reg op vryheid van uitdrukking via hul voorkoms, en lê hul individualiteit en persoonlike outonomie aan bande. Bepaalde oorwegings in verband met voorkomsgegronde diskriminasie sluit in gewigsdiskriminasie, diskriminasie teen sogenaamde ―transwerknemers‖, sowel as voorkomsverwante bullebakkery en teistering van werknemers. Individue wie se liggaamsgewig van die norm afwyk, ervaar beduidende diskriminasie in die werkplek. Oorgewig en vetsugtige individue ondervind veral erge benadeling in die werkplek omdat daar aangeneem word dat hulle siek is, lui is en oor swak werksetiek beskik. Werknemers wat kies om hul voorkoms deur die proses van geslagswysiging te verander, ervaar ewe erge diskriminasie in die werksomgewing. Soos met die ander kategorieë van voorkomsdiskriminasie, het hierdie individue weinig remedies tot hul beskikking wat die onbillike diskriminasie spesifiek hanteer. Afknouery en teistering van werknemers as gevolg van ‘n aspek van hul voorkoms is nóg ‘n beduidende bron van kommer in die werksomgewing, met ewe min wetlike beskerming tot slagoffers se beskikking. Aangesien bullebakkery en teistering nie volgens wet gereguleer of verbied word nie, en die voorkomskategorieë buite die bestek van die gelyste gronde van verbode diskriminasie val, is sulke optrede ook nie (wetlik beskou) teistering nie. Die wêreldwye houding teenoor voorkomsdiskriminasie is egter besig om te verander, en die Internasionale Arbeidsorganisasie het reeds die probleem erken. Verskeie state in die Verenigde State van Amerika en in Australië het begin om wetgewing uit te vaardig om hierdie probleem in die werksomgewing te reguleer en te verbied. Die howe van dié jurisdiksies, sowel as dié in die Europese Unie en Suid- Afrika, hoor ook al hoe meer geskille op hierdie gebied aan. Suid-Afrika is egter steeds agter die res van die wêreld in die hantering van hierdie kwessie, al gaan heelwat werknemers in die land gebuk onder onbillike diskriminasie, teistering en bullebakkery op grond van hul voorkoms. Diskriminasie teen werknemers op grond van hul voorkoms, sonder dat dit wetlik geregverdig kan word, kom neer op onbillike diskriminasie, en skend die slagoffers se reg op gelykheid en waardigheid. Sulke diskriminasie dien ook as ‘n hindernis vir gelykheid in die werkplek. Teistering en afknouery van individue as gevolg van ‘n aspek van hul voorkoms is ewe onaanvaarbaar, en kom op ‘n skending van menswaardigheid neer.en_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectAppearance discriminationen_ZA
dc.subjectWeight discriminationen_ZA
dc.subjectHeight discriminationen_ZA
dc.subjectDressen_ZA
dc.subjectGroomingen_ZA
dc.subjectTransgender appearanceen_ZA
dc.subjectTranssexual appearanceen_ZA
dc.subjectWorkplace harassmenten_ZA
dc.subjectWorkplace bullyingen_ZA
dc.subjectLookismen_ZA
dc.subjectHeightismen_ZA
dc.subjectWeightismen_ZA
dc.subjectUnfair discriminationen_ZA
dc.subjectDignityen_ZA
dc.subjectEqualityen_ZA
dc.subjectDisabilityen_ZA
dc.subjectLabour relationsen_ZA
dc.subjectPrejudicesen_ZA
dc.subjectDiscrimination in employment -- Law and legislationen_ZA
dc.subjectPhysical-appearance-based-biasen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (LL.M. (Mercantile Law))--University of the Free State, 2014en_ZA
dc.titleA comparative labour law perspective on categories of appearance-based prejudice in employmenten_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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