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dc.contributor.advisorSteyn, H. J. H.
dc.contributor.authorSeiphetlheng, Kgalalelo
dc.date.accessioned2015-11-10T08:25:16Z
dc.date.available2015-11-10T08:25:16Z
dc.date.copyright2011-11
dc.date.issued2011-11
dc.date.submitted2011-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/1537
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Water and energy are used in the domestic laundering processes for optimum soil and stain removal. Water and energy conservation are important issues in the quest for more environment friendly household practices. Washing machines have been invented as household gadgets making laundry easier and faster. Common types of washing machine include top loaders, front loaders and twin tubs. Literature indicate that top loaders use less electricity but more water and front loaders use less water but more electricity. However efficient soil removal is the main concern of the consumer. The purpose of the study was to determine water, energy and soil removal efficiency of a top loader and a front loader washing machine. A quantitative research strategy was used and controlled experiments were conducted in order to attain accurate data. An 8.0 kg capacity top loader and an 8.5 kg capacity front loader of the same manufacturer were purchased. The “daily wash program” and the “quick wash program” of both machines were selected as wash programs for the project. Cold wash (water at room temperature) was used for the top loader and cold wash, 30 °C, 40 °C and 60 °C for the front loader. A 5kg load of 3 samples of C-09 cotton (soiled with pigment oil, purchased from CFT) and cotton filler cloths were used for each wash cycle and each cycle repeated three times. The efficiency of the machines and programs to remove stains were tested on the following stains: CS-103 red wine, CS-12 blackcurrant, CS-BC-03 tea, C-BC-02 coffee, CS-28 rice starch, CS-26 corn starch, CS-6 dressing, CS-73 locust bean gum, CS-54 oatmeal/chocolate, CS-38 egg yolk/pigment, CS-01 blood, C-05 blood/milk/ink, CS-08 grass, CS-02 cocoa, C-10 pigment/oil/milk, C-02 olive oil/soot, CS-32 sebum bey, CS-17 make-up and CS-216 lipstick. 60g Non phosphate ECE reference detergent without optical brightener was used. Redeposition of soil was determined on CN-11 white cotton. The drained water was collected and measured in litres. The energy consumption was measured in watt-hour in every program. Soil removal was measured with a colorimeter in CIE L*a*b* colour scale (AATCC test method 61-2010) and an analysis of variance was used to aid in the interpretation of the data. The results of the study indicate that, the top loader used more water than the front loader. The daily wash used more water than the quick wash in both the top loader and front loader. The front loader used more energy than the top loader at cold wash. More energy was used in the daily wash than quick wash of the front loader. It was also evident that the daily wash program in both machines was more efficient in soil and stain removal than the quick wash. At cold wash the daily wash was more efficient in soil and stain removal than the quick wash program but at 60 °C there was no difference in the rate of stain removal in both the quick and daily wash programs. The best soil and stain removal was observed at 60 °C in both the quick and daily programs. The top loader machine used more water, less energy and removed less soil and stain. It was also evident that, the front loader washing machine is more efficient in soil and stain removal and it uses less water but it uses more energy than the top loader machine.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Water en energie word in die huishoudelikewasprosesgebruikomvuil en vlekketeverwyder. Water en energiebesparing is belangrikekwessies in die strewenameeromgewingsvriendelikehuishoudelikepraktyke. Was masjiene is ontwikkel as toerustingomwasgoed was makliker en vinnigertemaak. Die algemenetipeswasmasjienevandag is: bo-laaiers, voor-laaiers en dubbelbaliewasmasjiene.Dieliteratuur dui aandatbo-laaiers minder energiegebruik, maar meer water en datvoor-laaiers minder water gebruik, maar meerenergie. Vir die verbruiker is vuiverwydering die belangriksteaspek. Die doel van die studie was om die water -, energie - en vuilverwyderingdoeltreffendheid van die bolaaier en die voor-laaierwasmasjientebepaal. ‘nKwantitatiewenavorsingstrategie is gebruik en gekontroleerdeeksperimente is uitgevoeromakkurate data teverkry. ‘n Bo-laaier met 8 kg kapasiteit en ‘n 8.5 kg kapasiteitvoorlaaierwasmasjien van dieselfdehandelsmerk is aangekoopvir die eksprimente. Die “daagliksewasprogram” en die “vinnigewasprogram” is gekiesvir die projek.Koue was (kamertemperatuur) is gebruikvir die bo-laaier en 20°C, 30°C, 40°C en 60°C vir die voorlaaier. ‘n Wasbondel van 5 kg gevormdeur 3x C-09 katoenmonsters (aangevuil met pigment olieaangekoop van CFT) en katoen-vullerstukke is gebruikvirelkesiklus, en elkesiklus is driemaalherhaal. Die doeltreffendheid van die masjiene en die programme omvuil en vlekketeverwyder is op die volgendevlekkegetoets: CS-103 rooiwyn, CS-28 rysstysel, CS-12 swartbessie, CS-BC-03 tee, C-BC-02 koffie, CS-26 mieliestysel, CS-6 sous, CS-73 kassia boon gom, CS-54 hawermout/sjokolade, CS-38 eiergeel/pigment, CS-01 bloed, CS-05 bloed/melk/ink, CS-08 gras, CS-02 kakao, C-10 pigment/olie/melk, C-02 olyfolie/roet, CS-32 sebum, CS-17 grimering, CS-216 lipstiffie. 60g Niefospfaat (ECE) standaard detergent sonderoptieseverhelderaar is gebruik. Herneerlegging van vuil is op CN-11 witkatoenwaargeneem. Die afvoerwater is opgevang en in litergemeet. Die energieverbruik is virelke program in Wattuurgemeet. Die vuilverwydering is met ‘n Colorimeter in die CIE L*a*b* kleurskaalgemeetvolgens die AATCC 61-2010toetsmetode en ‘n variansieanalise is gedoenom die interpretasie van die resultatetevergemaklik. Die resultate van die studie het aangetoondat die bo-laaiermeer water gebruik as die voorlaaier. Die “daagliksewasprogram” het meer water gebruik as die “vinnige program” in beide die voor-laaier en bo-laaier. Die voor-laaier het meerenergiegebruik as die bo-laaier met koue water (20°C). Dit was ookduidelikdat die “daaglikse program” meerenergiegebruik het as die “vinnige program” in die voor-laaier. Die “daagliksewasprogram” was in beide die bo-laaier en die voorlaaiermeerdoeltreffend in vuilverwydering. By 20°C was die “daaglikse program” meerdoeltreffend in vuil- en vlekverwydering as die “vinnigewasprogram” , maar by 60°C was daarnie n’ verskil in vuilverwydering en vlekverwyderingtussen die “daaglikse -“ en “vinnigewasprogram” nie. Die bestevuilverwydering is in die “vinnige -“ en die “daaglikse program” by 60°C in die voorlaaierwaargeneem. Die bo-laaiergebruikmeer water, minder energie en verwyder minder vuil en vlekke. Dit was duidelikdat die voor-laaierwasmasjienmeerdoeltreffend was in vuil- en vlekverwydering en minder water gebruik, maar ditgebruikmeerenergie as die bo-laaier.af
dc.description.sponsorshipBotswana Governmenten_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectHousehold washing machine and home launderingen_ZA
dc.subjectStain removalen_ZA
dc.subjectSoil removalen_ZA
dc.subjectWater consumptionen_ZA
dc.subjectEnergy consumptionen_ZA
dc.subjectWashing machinesen_ZA
dc.subjectWashing machines -- Energy consumptionen_ZA
dc.subjectWater consumptionen_ZA
dc.subjectSpotting (Cleaning)en_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Sc.Home Ec. (Consumer Science))--University of the Free State, 2011en_ZA
dc.titleThe water, energy and soil removal efficiency of a top and a front loader washing machineen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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