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dc.contributor.advisorViljoen, C. D.
dc.contributor.authorMarx, Gertruida M.
dc.date.accessioned2015-10-29T07:42:49Z
dc.date.available2015-10-29T07:42:49Z
dc.date.copyright2010-12
dc.date.issued2010-12
dc.date.submitted2010-12
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/1485
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Globally, South Africa is the eighth largest producer of GM crops and also imports GM food. In addition to the promise of increased agricultural production, the introduction of GM crops is also having an impact on society in terms of consumer acceptance and trade. As a result, most countries manage GMOs in terms of development, use and application as well as require mandatory GM labelling for consumer preference. With an increase in GM developments, monitoring the food chain in terms of GM labelling and unapproved GM events will continue to pose a regulatory challenge. The aims of this thesis were the following: 1. To determine the uptake of GM food into the food chain; 2. To study the application of voluntary GM labelling; 3. To investigate the impact of mandatory GM labelling; and 4. To establish a monitoring system to detect illegal GMOs in South Africa. Until 2005 it was assumed that there were only low levels of GM crop in the food chain, based on production volumes. However, results from this thesis have shown that 76% of food products tested positive for the presence of GM in 2005. There was also no consideration of mandatory GM labelling as it was thought that voluntary GM labelling was successfully being applied in South Africa. Despite this, 31% of products labelled to indicate an absence of GM, such as “GMO free”, “non-GM” and “organic”, contained genetic modification above 1%, and 20% of these contained more than 5% genetic modification. These results demonstrated the extent of GM in the food chain in South Africa and highlighted the fact that voluntary GM labelling does not protect consumers against misleading claims. In 2008, the Consumer Protection Act mandated the labelling of GM in food products and ingredients. However, there was a lot of uncertainty as to how this would impact the food industry. The subsequent research on the impact of mandatory GM labelling in South Africa determined that 67% of maize and 54% of soybean products will have to be labelled for GM content. In addition to this, GM was also detected in 50% of products labelled to indicate an absence of GM. Furthermore, results indicated that the use of either a 1% or 5% threshold does not make a considerable difference in terms of the number of products implicated. The use of the term “may contain genetic modification” as suggested by draft regulations to the Consumer Protection Act may provide a cost effective manner in which GM labelling can be applied in a developing country similar to South Africa, as it would reduce costs in terms of GM detection. The draft regulations for the Consumer Protection Act also make provision to indicate the absence of GM below a threshold that does not included terminology such as ”GMO free” or “non-GM”. Furthermore, the draft regulations do not require third party verification and compliance will mainly be self-regulating. The implication of this is that consumers or consumer groups will become responsible for policing the application of GM labelling in South Africa. Finally, this thesis presents a GM monitoring scheme for unapproved GMOs, that have not been proven safe for human health and/or the environment. The scheme has the advantage of being cost effective and can be applied to the regulatory situation in any country, taking approved GM events into consideration. The scheme was applied to off-the-shelf food products in South Africa to determine the presence of illegal GMOs. Even though no unapproved GM events were detected, a potential illegal import of GM soybean event A2704-12 was found. It was also found that an approved GM soybean event was comingled with rice and wheat products, although not indicated in the ingredients. The research emanating from this thesis has contributed to inform discussions that have resulted in the inclusion of mandatory GM labelling in the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008. It is hoped that the research on the application of mandatory GM labelling and the monitoring for unapproved GM events in the food chain will have a similar impact on the regulatory system in South Africa.en-ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Wêreldwyd is Suid-Afrika die agtste grootste produsent van geneties gemodifiseerde (GM) gewasse en voer ook GM-voedsel in. Tesame met die belofte van verhoogde landbouproduksie het die bekendstelling van GM-gewasse ook ’n impak op die samelewing in terme van verbruikeraanvaarding en handel. Die gevolg is dat die meeste lande geneties gemodifiseerde organismes (GMO’s) in terme van ontwikkeling, gebruik en toepassing bestuur, asook die verpligte GM-etikettering vir verbruikersvoorkeur. Met ’n toename in GM-ontwikkelings sal die monitering van die voedselketting in terme van GM-etikettering en onwettige GM-gewasse ʼn toenemend regulatoriese uitdaging bied. Die doelwitte van hierdie proefskrif was die volgende: 1. Om ʼn opname van GM-voedsel in die voedselketting te bepaal; 2. Om die toepassing van vrywillige GM-etikettering te bepaal; 3. Om die impak van verpligte GM-etikettering te ondersoek; en 4. Om ’n moniteringsisteem daar te stel om onwettige GMO’s in Suid-Afrika te bespeur. Tot en met 2005 was dit aanvaar dat daar slegs lae vlakke van GM-gewasse in die voedselketting teenwoordig is, gebaseer op produksievolumes. Die resultate van hierdie tesis het egter getoon dat 76% van voedselprodukte in 2005 positief vir die teenwoordigheid van GM getoets het. Daar was ook geen oorweging van verpligte GM-etikettering nie, aangesien daar aanvaar is dat vrywillige GM-etikettering suksesvol in Suid-Afrika toegepas is. Ten spyte hiervan het 31% van produkte geëtiketteer om die afwesigheid van GM aan te dui, soos “GMO-vry”, “nie-GMO” en “organies”, genetiese modifikasie van meer as 1%, en 20% van produkte het meer as 5% genetiese modifikasie bevat. Hierdie resultate het die omvang van GM in die voedselketting in Suid-Afrika gedemonstreer, en die feit uitgelig dat vrywillige GMetikettering in Suid-Afrika nie verbruikers teen misleidende aannames beskerm nie. In 2008 het die Wet op die Beskerming van Verbruikers die etikettering van GM in voedselprodukte en bestanddele verpligtend gemaak. Daar was egter baie onsekerheid oor hoe dit die voedselindustrie sou beïnvloed. Die resulterende navorsing oor die impak van verpligte GM-etikettering in Suid-Afrika het bepaal dat 67% van mielies en 53% van sojabone vir GM-inhoud geëtiketteer sal moet word. Tesame hiermee was GM ook in 50% van produkte gevind wat geëtiketteer is om die afwesigheid van GM aan te dui. Voorts het resultate aangedui dat die gebruik van hetsy ’n 1%- of ’n 5%-drempel nie ’n beduidende verskil maak in terme van die hoeveelheid produkte geïmpliseer nie. Die gebruik van die term “kan genetiese modifisering bevat” soos voorgestel deur die konsepregulasies tot die Wet op die Beskerming van Verbruikers kan ’n koste-effektiewe manier voorsien waarby GMetikettering in ’n ontwikkelende land soos Suid-Afrika toegepas kan word, aangesien dit die koste van GM-bespeuring kan verminder. Die konsepregulasies vir die Wet op die Beskerming van Verbruikers maak ook voorsiening vir die aanduiding van die afwesigheid van GM onder ’n drumpel maar terminologie soos “GMO-vry” of “nie- GMO” word nie insluit nie. Voorts vereis die konsepregulasies nie derdepartyverifiëring nie en gehoorgewing sal grootliks selfregulerend wees. Die implikasie hiervan is dat verbruikers of verbruikersgroepe verantwoordelik sal word vir die polisiëring van die toepassing van GM-etikettering. Laastens bied hierdie tesis ’n GM-moniteringskema vir onwettige GMO’s, wat nie as veilig vir menslike gesondheid en/of die omgewing bewys is nie. Die skema het die voordeel dat dit koste-effektief is en toegepas kan word op die reguleringsituasie in enige land, met inagneming van GM-gewasse. Die skema is op van-die-rak-afprodukte in Suid-Afrika toegepas om die teenwoordigheid van onwettige GMO’s te bepaal. Alhoewel geen ongoedgekeurde GM-gewasse gevind is nie, is ’n potensieel onwettige invoer van GM-sojaboongewas A2704-12 gevind. Dit is ook gevind dat ’n goedgekeurde GM-sojaboongewas met rys- en koringprodukte vermeng is, alhoewel dit nie in die bestanddele aangedui is nie. Die navorsing voortspruitend uit hierdie tesis het bygedra om besprekings in te lig wat gelei het tot die insluiting van verpligte GM-etikettering in die Wet op die Beskerming van Verbruikers 68 van 2008. Daar word gehoop dat die navorsing oor die toepassing van verpligte GM-etikettering en die monitering van ongoedgekeurde GM-gewasse in die voedselketting ’n soortgelyke impak om die reguleringsisteem van Suid-Afrika sal hê.af
dc.language.isoenen-ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen-ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Haematology))--University of the Free State, 2010en-ZA
dc.subjectGenetically modified foods -- South Africaen-ZA
dc.subjectGenetically modified foods -- Labeling standards -- South Africaen-ZA
dc.titleMonitoring of genetically modified food products in South Africaen-ZA
dc.typeThesisen-ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen-ZA


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