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dc.contributor.advisorUsher, B.
dc.contributor.authorHohne, Surina
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-27T10:22:12Z
dc.date.available2015-08-27T10:22:12Z
dc.date.issued2004-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/1068
dc.description.abstractEnglish: South Africa has only recently realized that organic groundwater contamination occurs in this country and that it can have a serious effect on the groundwater quality. The Water Research Commission (WRC) recently launched studies to investigate Non Aqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) pollution, and Dense NAPL in specific. The understanding of NAPL pollution problems, is however, still very limited. Hence groundwater practitioners confronted with NAPL pollution problems have burning questions regarding amongst others the characterization of the pollution, which is much more sophisticated than in the case of inorganic pollution. While in this phase, groundwater practitioners can not even begin to consider remedial efforts for contaminated sites, which continue to pollute the groundwater. It is therefore of paramount importance to get up to speed with technologies and practices accepted worldwide for characterization. Much improvement is still needed on these characterization methods, but South Africa can learn from past mistakes made by other countries in addressing NAPL pollution. In order to begin contemplating addressing NAPL characterization, it is important to understand the nature of the problem, which is why Chapter 2 describes the current situation of organic groundwater pollution and the associated vulnerability of aquifers in South Africa. The general understanding of groundwater pollution by NAPL is distorted, not only in the eyes of the public, but also in the eyes of experts in the groundwater field. A general misconception is that NAPL pollution only occurs at heavy industries such as ISCOR and SASOL, but Chapter 2 clearly shows that organic pollution is much more widespread and sinister in nature than would have been thought before. Smaller urban activities and small industries have been identified to be just as large a contributor towards organic pollution as the heavy industries. Shortcomings in the current understanding of NAPL pollution have been highlighted in Chapter 2 and further studies can be focused on determining the current impact of various industries on groundwater in South Africa, as well as delineating towns in which leaking underground storage tanks may be a problem. In order to address the NAPL pollution problem, legislative tools have to be in place. Gaps in legislation have therefore also been highlighted, of which several are listed in Chapter 3. These concerns need to be addressed by making the applicable policies and regulations, and implementing these regulations. In order to shed light on how site assessment and characterization can be performed in South Africa, Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7 address issues associated with site assessment and characterization. Risk assessment has also been addressed (Chapter 8) and several shortcomings, to be addressed by toxicologists and groundwater practitioners, have been highlighted. It was clear from the investigations performed throughout this thesis, that several shortcomings exist in association with site assessment, site characterization and risk assessment, which will need to be addressed in the near future.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Suid Afrika het eers onlangs besef dat organiese grondwater besoedeling in die land voorkom en dat dit ‘n groot effek op die grondwater kwaliteit kan hê. Die waternavorsings kommissie (WNK) het onlangs ondersoeke geloods na organiese besoedeling, en spesifiek swaar olie besoedeling. Die vlak van kennis van organiese besoedeling is egter nogsteeds baie laag. Grondwater kundiges het dus brandende vrae aangaande byvoorbeeld die karakterisering van organiese grondwater besoedeling, wat soms meer gespesialiseerd is as in die geval van anorganiese besoedeling. Dit is dus van kardinale belang dat Suid- Afrika homself verwitting van internasionale standaard en praktyk in terme van die aanspreek van organiese grondwater besoedeling. Die internasionale gemeenskap kan nog baie verbetering aanbring op die terrein van karakterisering, maar Suid-Afrika kan baie uit die foute van ander lande in hulle pogings om organiese grondwater besoedeling aan te spreek, leer. In ‘n poging om die karakterisering van organiese grondwater besoedeling te verstaan, is dit nodig om die omvang van organiese besoedeling in Suid-Afrika te verstaan. Dit word in Hoofstuk 2 beskryf. Die hoofstuk spreek ook die kwesbaarheid van grondwater vir organiese besoedeling aan. Die publiek en grondwater kundiges het oor die algemeen ‘n wanopvatting van organiese grondwater besoedeling in Suid-Afrika, waarvan een die opvatting is dat organiese grondwater besoedeling net by swaar industrieë soos byvoorbeeld ISCOR en SASOL voorkom, maar Hoofstuk 2 lig dit duidelik uit dat organiese grondwater besoedeling baie meer algemeen en en van groter omvang is as wat voorheen gemeen is. Die afleiding is gemaak dat kleiner industrieë en klein stedelike aktiwiteite net so ‘n groot bydrae kan lewer tot organiese grondwater besoedeling as swaar industrieë. Tekortkominge in die huidige vlak van kennis van organiese grondwater besoedeling is in Hoofstuk 2 uitgelig en verdere studies kan daarop fokus om die impak van verskillende industrieë op organiese besoedeling van grondwater te identifiseer. Dorpe wat brandstoftenks het wat lek, moet geïdentifiseer word. Wette moet in plek gestel word om die besoedelingsprobleem aan te spreek. Dit word aangespreek in Hoofstuk 3, waar daar aanbeveel word om regulasies af te kondig wat organiese grondwater effektief aanspreek. Hoofstukke 4, 5, 6 en 7 spreek die vraagstuk van die assessering van organiese besoedeling en die karakterisering van besoedelingsterreine aan. Risikobepaling word in Hoofstuk 8 aangespreek en tekortkominge wat deur toksikoloë en grondwater kundiges aangespreek moet word, is geïdentifiseer. Dit was duidelik vanuit die ondersoeke wat in die tesis aangepak is, dat daar heelwat tekortkominge in die velde van asessering en karakterisering van organiese grondwater besoedeling bestaan, wat in die nabye toekoms ernstig aangespreek sal moet word.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectIndustriesen_ZA
dc.subjectNAPLen_ZA
dc.subjectRisk assessmenten_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Sc. (Institute for Groundwater Studies))--University of the Free State, 2004en_ZA
dc.subjectOrganic pollutionen_ZA
dc.subjectSite assessmenten_ZA
dc.subjectSite characterizationen_ZA
dc.subjectImpact assessmenten_ZA
dc.subjectNonaqueous phase liquids -- Environmental aspectsen_ZA
dc.subjectOrganic water pollutions -- Transportationen_ZA
dc.titleSite characterization and risk assessment of organic groundwater contaminants in South Africaen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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