Masters Degrees (Linguistics and Language Practice)

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  • ItemOpen Access
    The role of intersemiotic translation in multimodal communication in educational textbooks
    (University of the Free State, 2021-11) Els, Danilda; Marais, J.
    Our social world is a multitude of semiotic resources which we use in combination with language to make and convey meaning. The ever-increasing integration of language with other semiotic resources is turning our social world into a multimodal-communicative environment. Multimodality is using and combining various semiotic resources, for example, images and linguistic expression, for communication. It looks at all meaning-making resources available and how different resources are used in multiple contexts. Moreover, it includes the study of how these resources are organised in these contexts to form coherent meaning. These organised sets of resources are called modes. Through the selection and arrangement of modes, people create meaning, which they can then communicate. The modes in multimodality are the various semiotic resources used in combination with language, which creates a message. Since these resources can be translated into a written text and vice versa, an argument can be made that a multimodal text resembles an intersemiotic translation. Intersemiotic translation is the interpretation of language and/or linguistics signs through other non-verbal semiotic resources. It can be further hypothesised as resemiotisation, which focuses on how meaning conceptualisation occurs when there is a shift between different semiotic resources. Resemiotisation is thus concerned with "tracking" how meaning translates from one semiotic sign to another through intersemiotic translation when meaning-making takes place through a multimodal text. One field in which multimodal communication plays an ever-increasing role is education. Education as an academic field has transformed tremendously over the years. Changes are not just pedagogical but also, even more importantly, seen in the composition of learning material. Learning and teaching from predominantly text-based textbooks are gradually falling out of favour, and a greater emphasis is placed on adapting educational material to become more multimodal. One of the theories emphasising the importance of multimodal texts is the theory of multiliteracies. The pedagogical approach behind this theory is that a wide range of communicative, cultural and linguistic tools should be incorporated into teaching methodology. This framework thus creates the space for studying the relationship between the different modes in a multimodal text, as well as the composition. This research aimed to conduct a descriptive content analysis of an academic literacy textbook that communicates predominantly via multimodal texts. The primary research question this study wanted to answer was what relationship, if any, exists between the written text and the other semiotic resources used for communication? Thus, the communication process that was looked at here was specifically multimodal communication. This was done through descriptive analysis. The text that was analysed was from a multimodal literacy textbook used in the field of Natural Sciences at the University of the Free State, South Africa. Additionally, the research also looked at how semiotic resources compare across different subject fields. For the comparison, another multimodal academic literacy textbook was used; this one was from the field of Humanities, also used in classes at the University of the Free State. The aim of the comparison was to see whether similar semiotic resources were used in the meaning-making process or if perhaps certain semiotic resources were used in particular subject fields only. The study investigated the role intersemiotic translation played in creating multimodal communication by studying one chapter of a textbook to answer the research question. The analysis and subsequent comparison focused on finding answers for the following questions: What semiotic resources are used when creating multimodal texts, and lastly, whether there is a relation between text type and resource? In other words, does a particular text type favour a particular semiotic resource. The research design was qualitative. Explorative and descriptive content analysis was done to illustrate the relationship of semiotic resources used in the analysed text. This showed how these resources were compared across different fields and how they created the message together with written text. The data that was analysed in this study was one chapter from a first-year literacy course textbook used at the University of the Free State. The analysis and subsequent comparison established whether specific semiotic resources were consistently used across subject fields, whether one is preferred over another, and how intersemiotic translation transformed communication. This research proved helpful in understanding the interaction between semiotic resources and language and how multimodal texts communicate meaning.
  • ItemOpen Access
    John Chrysostom’s interpretation of the rhetoric of the letter to the Colossians
    (University of the Free State, 2021-11) Rautenbach, Carli; Machin, Anneli; Tolmie, Francois
    This study aims to investigate how John Chrysostom interpreted the rhetoric of Colossians in his homilies on this letter and to compare his interpretation with the current understanding of the rhetoric of Colossians. This study is conducted in three phases. During the first phase of this study, all twelve of Chrysostom’s homilies on Colossians are studied both in translation (Schaff) and in the Greek text (Field 1855). The aim of this exploration is to identify: i) any comments that Chrysostom made on why Paul used specific phrases and words to persuade his audience; and, ii) any rhetorical aspects that Chrysostom identified in Colossians and referred to in his homilies. A second set of data are gathered during Phase 2 of the study. In this phase, three existing rhetorical analyses of Colossians are examined to determine how scholars are currently interpreting the rhetoric of Colossians. The analyses of Witherington (2007:155–207), Copenhaver (2018:90–143) and Collins (1995:60–102) are examined. It is clear from the data that all three scholars follow a traditional approach during their analysis of Colossians. The data gathered during Phases 1 and 2 are carefully analysed and thoroughly examined to present a comparison between Chrysostom’s interpretations of the rhetoric of Colossians and the three existing rhetorical analyses of the letter. The aim of the last phase is to determine how John Chrysostom’s insight into the rhetoric of the letter corresponds to or differs from the existing analyses. The study of Chrysostom’s understanding of the rhetoric of Colossians enabled the researcher to construct a new (alternative) rhetorical structure of Colossians.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Teaching translation at Further Education and Training Colleges: Maluti FET as a case study
    (University of the Free State, 2013-10) Hlohlolo, Sephiri David; Van Rooyen, M.; Marais, J.
    A recent study (Erasmus 2010: 109) found there is a need for the training of both community interpreters and translators in South Africa and that this training was likely to elevate those community interpreters and translators from povertj and unemployment. It was further stated that the proposed curriculum could help in closing or fulfilling a gap in the labour market for translators, thus making it possible for graduates in this programme to make a living out of either translation or interpretation. Therefore, it has become necessary to explore the possibility of introducing such programmes and qualifications at FET Colleges to assist in job creation and poverty alleviation. For the purposes of this study I chose MaJuti FET College, Phuthaditjhaba in Qwaqwa in the Eastern Free State. The methodology followed in this study was qualitative in nature, focusing on one specific case study. The data collection process included questionnaires and interviews. Questionnaires were given to 50 students, while face-to-face interviews were conducted with the Campus Manager, Head of Department for Languages, and three lecturers. According to the responses there was interest, but that alone cannot guarantee an introduction of such a qualification in translation at Maluti FET College. The responses only provided a guideline and could be used as supporting statements for a possible introduction of a qualification. They could also be used to determine the possibility of students interested in enrolling for a course, if introduced. Some responses from both the interviews and questionnaires indicated that such a qualification could create some job opportunities for students on completion. Recommendations include that the Maluti FET College management should engage with College Council about the possible introduction of translation as qualification; that a partnership be developed between Maluti FET College and the University of the Free State with possible assistance in introducing translation; that the suggested curriculum as per SAQA prescriptions be implemented as is, in order to yield accreditation and certification to students who complete the qualification; and furthermore that various government departments such as the Department of Sports, Arts and Culture, and Department of Justice be approached for funding such programmes through bursaries.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Language and tourism in South Africa: Insights from the Xhariep
    (University of the Free State, 2016-12) Hass, Atrimecia Bernadate; Mwaniki, Munene; Haarhoff, Rene
    The success of any tourism business depends on the ability to communicate effectively with customers. Competence in English is no longer adequate to find a job in the tourism industry. The aim of the study is to address the gap in research by investigating the interplay of language and tourist experiences by examining the link between pleasant tourist experiences and foreign language knowledge. The study draws on Halliday’s (1994) Genre theory and Bhatia’s (2004) Interdiscursivity theory in understanding the importance of language for tourism purposes. Furthermore, the Interdiscursivity theory enables one to analyse the discursive realities of the social world─ showing us that language forms part of the identity of a person and learning a new language cannot be isolated from the social context. For this purpose, the study employed both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The efforts of tourism businesses and their willingness to solve language barriers in the tourism industry were examined through semi-structured interviews with 15 tourism businesses inclusive of owners and managers. The interviews also determined the commitment of the tourism establishments at the Gariep Dam to accommodate the language needs of both local and international tourists. In addition to the qualitative data collected, quantitative data was obtained through 400 questionnaires from both domestic and international tourists at the Gariep Dam. The results identified a gap between tourism training institutions to match the skills needed by the tourism industry. There is a demand for foreign language skills to respond to the needs of the growing tourism industry. Despite the significant growth in foreign visitors, most tourism businesses are reluctant to appoint staff based on foreign language skills. In conclusion, the study argues that tourism businesses need to start paying attention to the language issue and that language barriers could have been solved if tourism businesses had clear written language policies in place. Lastly, foreign language skills should be considered as an employment criterion for employees in the tourism industry and businesses should provide foreign language training to existing staff.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Gebaretaaltolkopleiding in Suid-Afrika - 'n inleidende studie
    (University of the Free State, 1997-12) Ceronio, Ronelle; Lotriet, A.; Erasmus, M.
    Afrikaans: As gevolg van verskeie faktore, bestaan daar tans 'n dringende behoefte aan Gebaretaaltolke in Suid-Afrika. Indien sodanige tolkdienste wel bestaan, is die tolke grootliks onopgelei en word kwaliteittolkwerk nie gelewer nie. Die LANGTAG-verslag dui hierdie behoefte aan wydverspreide Gebaretaaldienste aan en in die 1996-Grondwet word bepaal dat daar, onder die vleuels van PANSAT, geleenthede geskep moet word vir die ontwikkeling van Gebaretaal. Gedurende die afgelope paar jaar, sedert die Suid-Afrikaanse Dowe gemeenskap hegter funksioneer, vind daar ook groter bedinging vir die regte en spesifiek taalregte van Dowes plaas. DEAFSA speel hierin 'n belangrike rol. Weens hierdie behoefte aan bevoegde Gebaretaaltolke, aanbevelings deur LANGTAG en die grondwetlike bepalings rakende Gebaretaal en taalregte oor die algemeen, bestaan daar 'n dringende behoefte aan opleidingsgeleenthede vir Gebaretaaltolke. Kennis rakende die tolkproses, tolkstrategieë, die betrokke tale, etiese kwessies en vele ander aspekte van die tolkproses is noodsaaklik ten einde kwaliteittolkwerk te verseker. In Julie en Oktober 1997 is 'n Gebaretaaltolkopleidingsoriënteringskursus, in samewerking met DEAFSA, deur die Universiteit van die Oranje-Vrystaat aangebied. Hierdie kursus was die eerste van sy soort in Suid-Afrika, het vier weke geduur en was gefokus op skakeltolkopleiding aan 'n twintigtal tolke van verskeie provinsies wat reeds ervaring van tolkwerk gehad het. Meer omvattende opleiding is egter noodsaaklik ten einde uiteindelik te verseker dat Gebaretaaltolkdienste meer geredelik beskikbaar word vir die Dowe gemeenskap. Hierdie studie verskaf, na die bestudering van verskeie ander Gebaretaaltolkopleidingsprogramme, 'n basiese model vir omvattende Gebaretaaltolkopleiding in 'n Suid-Afrikaanse konteks.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The accessibility of a written Bible versus a signed Bible for the deaf born person with sign language as first language
    (University of the Free State, 2005-11) Lombaard, Susanna Catherina; Naudé, J. A.; Botha, S.
    English: This research aimed to prove that Biblical texts in South African Sign Language are more accessible than written or printed Biblical texts for deaf born people in South Africa who use Sign Language as their first language. The study made use of the functionalist approach in translation to translate six Biblical parts into South African Sign Language (SASL). Mother tongue speakers were used as translators with the assistance of hearing specialists in the fields of religion and translation studies. Translation was done from the original Hebrew and Greek texts into South African Sign Language. After production of the video with the Biblical parts in South African Sign Language, the content of the video as well as the level of understanding of the texts, were evaluated in the Deaf community of South Africa by means of an empirical study done in the Western Cape, Kwazulu Natal, Gauteng, Northern Cape and the Free State. The results of the empirical study proved that the Signed Biblical parts were more accessible for mother tongue Deaf people than the written counterparts. Results from the study also indicated how a signed Bible should look. Conclusions can also been drawn from the study that a Bible in Sign Language is needed for use in the Deaf community in South Africa.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The influence of the translator’s culture on the translation of selected rhetorical devices in Confucius’ Analects
    (University of the Free State, 2016-01) Fang, Chen-Shu; Marais, K.; Ma, Y.
    English: Aristotle and Confucius were influential philosophers in the Western and Eastern world respectively. Both of their rhetoric also made the literature of their cultures flourish. One of Confucius’ famous works, the Analects, has influenced the values, philosophy, morality and even rhetoric of Chinese people since ancient times. This study focuses on rhetoric from the point of view of metadiscourse, and by considering its function in different genres and in the successfulness of writing, it confirms that metadiscourse is one of the factors that made Aristotle’s and Confucius’ work so influential. The existence of the relationship between Aristotle’s ethos and metadiscourse was proved by Crismore and Farnsworth (1989). In other words, Aristotle’s rhetorical strategy is regarded as one of the facets of metadiscourse. The study takes this assertion and applies it to Confucius’ rhetoric, further proving that Confucian rhetoric also falls under the theory of metadiscourse. The Analects has been translated into other languages since the 17th century. These translations were completed by many different agents from different times and cultural backgrounds. These differences influenced their motivations for doing the translations and also resulted in different translation strategies. The study investigates selected rhetorical devices of the Analects and four translations of these devices from the point of view of metadiscourse and culture, and proves that the translators’ cultural contexts influenced their particular translation preferences when they dealt with these rhetorical devices. The results of the study will hopefully make modern scholars or translators more aware of the influences of cultural issues on their motivations and their translations, as well as of the potential metadiscoursal aspects of which translators make use. Moreover, this research endeavours to shift people’s focus from the correctness of a translation to the suitability thereof. It aims to broaden the scope of research for scholars who wish to study the various issues related to the process of translating the Analects.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A toponymical study of place name heritage in Mossel Bay (Western Cape)
    (University of the Free State, 2015-07) Steenkamp, Joan-Marié; Du Plessis, L. T.; Raper, P. E.
    English: After 1994, name changes in South Africa have formed an important part in the reflection of the new democracy. The semiotic landscape needs to be representative of South Africa’s diverse inhabitants. The importance of this is that it creates a sense of belonging to previously marginalised groups. It is also a way to show political change from a previously hegemonic regime. This study set out to determine if in a typical South African town such as Mossel Bay the toponymic corpus reflect the heterogeneous community. This reflection does not only focus on the post-1994 era, but also on representation throughout the town’s history, i.e. the study aimed to see if the town’s heritage is captured in the toponymic corpus as well. To determine this, a database of toponyms was created using maps, books, archive documents, interviews and fieldwork. The study used both intensive and extensive methods of research. Intensive methods refer to the micro-study of each individual toponym – the name, previous names, approximate dates, language, type of name and additional information (origin). The extensive method focuses on pattern analysis. In this case, more emphasis was placed on the extensive approach, as the aim of the research was to get an overall view of the naming practices of Mossel Bay. Demographic factors such as ethnic and language groups were also included in the findings, as this was needed as a background against which to test the heterogeneity of the toponymic corpus. The findings show that Mossel Bay’s toponymic corpus does largely reflect its inhabitants. The findings also show that English and Xhosa toponyms have increased in the past few decades, as opposed to Afrikaans toponyms. The correlation between spoken language and the language of the toponym shows that 1) to some degree, Afrikaans is underrepresented in the toponymic corpus, as the majority of the inhabitants are Afrikaans speaking; 2) Xhosa has the closest correlation between the spoken language and language of toponym; and 3) English is overrepresented, although some of the names that make up the aggregate percentage stem from the English era of occupation. The new trend to name places in English thus has the potential to undermine representation in future. Further analysis showed that even though Mossel Bay’s toponymic corpus is overall representative, it is not universally representative. In other words, toponyms are still closely linked to the previously demarcated areas under the segregation policy. This is an area where reparation might be necessary. However, in order not to lose the heritage inherently bound to toponyms, it is recommended that places of high visibility be created with names commemorating previously marginalised groups. Furthermore, Mossel Bay has a naming policy that encourages politically neutral names that commemorate important figures in Mossel Bay’s history. The conclusion of the study is that Mossel Bay represents its heterogeneous community, but there are areas where reparation is needed to enhance the prestige and representation of previously marginalised groups. Resultant from this it is recommended that naming authorities in South Africa adopt the kind of corpus-based approach demonstrated in this study for further toponymic management in order to balance the tension between heritage conservation and representivity in name change.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Postcolonialism and hybridity: the translation of Pastoral Liturgy by G.C. Horak into Setswana
    (University of the Free State, 2015-07) Ngxangane, Phumelelo Ernest; Marais, K.; Verster, P.
    Abstract not available
  • ItemOpen Access
    Interpreting and translation for service delivery in local public service contexts
    (University of the Free State, 2015-02) Molefe, Monnapula Abel; Marais, K.; Schuster, M.
    Abstract not available
  • ItemOpen Access
    The assessment of academic literacy at pre-university level: a comparison of the utility of academic literacy tests and grade 10 Home Language results
    (University of the Free State, 2015-02) Myburgh, Jo-Mari
    The definition of academic literacy utilised for this study proposes that the distinction-making activity accompanying academic discourse constitutes what makes academic discourse unique, which at the same time also discloses that academic discourse is a distinctive language with its own conditions, different from other lingual spheres, as opposed to earlier definitions which often took a closed view of language, regarding it as consisting of sound, form and meaning. A construct deriving from such a specific definition of academic discourse therefore acknowledges the shift in focus of language instruction and assessment brought on by the communicative approach. An academic literacy test designed to establish the academic literacy levels of prospective tertiary education students should therefore be aligned with this construct. For this study, two academic literacy tests were administered to two groups of Grade 10 students in order to determine how accurately these tests would disclose the students’ levels of ability to handle language for learning. The students’ school marks were then compared to the marks received for the academic literacy tests. Although the school language marks predicted the general academic performance of the test population more accurately than the proposed academic literacy tests, the second test used came close to predicting these levels almost as accurately as the school marks. Read in conjunction with a number of other current studies, this result, however, still emphasises the significance of and need for well-designed, construct-based and correctly pitched (as regards level) academic literacy tests.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The linguistic landscape of rural South Africa after 1994: a case study of Philippolis
    (University of the Free State, 2010-01) Kotze, Chrismi-Rinda; Du Plessis, L. T.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A sociolinguistic and socio-educational evaluation of the effectiveness of Bilingual and Biliterate Education for lower primary deaf learners in the Khomas region of Namibia
    (University of the Free State, 2013-06) Bruwer, Beausetha Juhetha; du Plessis, Theodorus; Van Staden, Annalene
    English: Sign Language-based Bilingual Education is a known Bilingual-Bicultural model that offers the best chance for a deaf learner to achieve academic success. Even though the Ministry of Education in Namibia also claims to have adopted this approach to teaching deaf learners, the education system still remains unable to produce deaf learners who can exit school with a valid grade twelve certificate. The study constitutes a programme evaluation design in which a sociolinguistic and socio-educational evaluation of the effectiveness of Bilingual and Biliterate Education was done. A logic model tool for evaluation was used systematically to formulate a design for this evaluation. By drawing up a logic model, the main objectives of the Bilingual-Bicultural programme, together with the overall impact the success of the programme can have, was highlighted. The main intention of the study was to assist schools for deaf learners to enhance the literacy levels of learners in both Namibian Sign Language and English. Literacy in Namibian Sign Language and English can then serve as basis to achieve academic success. The study was aimed at lower primary deaf learners in the Khomas region of Namibia. The principal of NISE School for Hearing Impaired learners, the head of department, lower primary teachers and learners formed part of the research population. The education officer and school inspector responsible for the school were also included in the research population. Qualitative research was done, and data were collected from documents, different interviews and class observations. An inductive data analysis approach was used to make sense of the information that was collected. Based on the logic model tool that was created to do the evaluation, it was found that the ground work for the Bilingual-Biliterate programme had been done, as the necessary documents to support the programme were in place. What the programme lacks most seems to be support provided to parents of deaf learners and the involvement of the parents in the educational programmes of the school. There is also a great need for assessment criteria and tools to be created in order to justly assess the deaf learners. Other grey areas that may hinder the success, or the full impact, that the programme can have, are that staff members still need to develop their Namibian Sign Language skills and knowledge of Deaf Education. A fully trained staff in Namibian Sign Language and Deaf Education will determine the existence of a Sign Bilingual environment at the school; the exisistence of a Sign Bilingual environonment was another grey area of the programme. Adequate teaching materials also need to be developed, to be readily available for instruction within the programme. According to the logic model, planned work for teacher training, creating a Sign Bilingual environment and creating teaching materials were already done. Remaining now only is that the goals of these objectives have to be reached. If the full impact of the programme is reached, it is envisaged that deaf learners could more easily obtain a Grade 12 certificate.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Spoken/sign language as a criterion for school readiness among deaf pre-schoolers
    (University of the Free State, 2003-11) De Klerk, Nicolene Lynette; Akach, P.
    English: In this pilot study the plight of deaf education was highlighted. As the oral/manual controversy continues to play a pivotal role in deaf education, the medium of instruction for the deaf pre-school child was addressed as a possible criteria for determining school readiness skills and ultimately academic success translating into the acquisition of literacy skills. Presently the literacy level of the deaf school leaver is equivalent to a grade three or four level. Curriculum 2005 was discussed and the school readiness skills needed to ensure academic success with this curriculum were investigated The Group Test for School Readiness aimed at assisting the class teacher in differentiating between children with appropriate and inappropriate school readiness skills was deemed an appropriate test for assessing deaf preschoolers receiving their education in a spoken language and deaf preschoolers receiving their education in a signed language as the Group Test for School Readiness can be utilised to obtain a reliable profile of the childs cognitive, perceptual, language, numerical and motoric abilities. The Group Test was administered by the class teacher to eliminate possible discrepancies resulting from communication problems between the subjects and the researcher. With the exception of their performance on three subtests, the deaf preschoolers receiving their pre-school education in a spoken language faired consistently better than the Deaf pre-schoolers receiving their pre-school education in a signed language. Apart from the contrasting medium of education implemented, additional reasons for the difference in performance between the two groups was investigated. The average chronological age of the pre-schoolers receiving their preschool education in a spoken language appears to be 7 months older than the pre-schoolers receiving their pre-school education in a signed language. The majority of the subjects in the former group having already turned 7 years of age in 2003 would have received exemption from entering grade 1 in 2003 and are consequently repeating their pre-school year. In addittion the average age at which deafnes was diagnosed in the deaf pre-school subjects receiving their pre-school education in a spoken language was 9 months earlier than the deaf pre-school subjects receiving their pre-school education in a signed language. The quality of the language the subjects in group B were exposed to in both the home and school environment was identified as possibly contributing to this groups weaker performance.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The theoretical justification for the design of a communicative course for nurses: nurses on the move
    (University of the Free State, 2015-01) Pretorius, Marilize; Weideman, A. J.; Van Dyk, T.
    English: This study provides a theoretical justification for the design of a communicative course for nursing staff – Nurses on the Move (NoM) – in the South African context. Communication is deemed a key in achieving effective, safe nursing practice. One of the main problems associated with nursing communication in South Africa relates to the fact that South Africa has eleven official languages. Nursing staff are thus often required to communicate with other healthcare professionals, patients and the family and friends of patients in an additional language. As a result, miscommunications can occur, which could lead to serious adverse events. An intervention to address this problem in the form of an applied linguistic design, such as a NoM syllabus, displays two terminal functions – the technical modality, which guides the design, and the analytical function, which provides the rational basis for the design (Weideman, 2006a). A detour into theory and analysis is thus required in order to provide a theoretical justification for the technical design. Based on this justification, the design of the syllabus can proceed, which will ultimately prescribe what the course should consist of, including its assessment. This study thus consisted of a needs analysis to inform the design of a NoM course that could help to address the communication problems in the nursing profession. The approach to language teaching selected for this design is Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), which requires that, among other things, authentic texts and functional communication be used in the design of the syllabus for the course. The needs analysis, therefore, consisted of a review of the international literature to develop a typology of nursing communicative interactions, as well as to identify nursing communication problems. After a rigorous ethical clearance process, the literature review was followed by observations of nursing staff and the various individuals they interact with during their work, which included audio recording interactions and making field notes. This enabled us to extend and refine the initial typology. The data were also analysed for the most common communicative functions, and their common combinations, given the typology. In addition, the problems and short-circuits in communication are also identified and interviews conducted to further clarify issues raised in the data from the observations. Based on these analyses we outlined what the content and structure of the envisioned NoM course should comprise. Furthermore, the principles for design that derive from the analogical connections between the technical and all the other dimensions of reality were also discussed to specify the requirements for the design of a NoM course (Weideman, 2006a). The data generated and analysed in this study allows us also to justify, or in certain cases to anticipate the justification of, the proposed syllabus in terms of the following requirements: systematicity, scope, validity, consistency, differentiation, appealing, articulation, appropriateness, economy, alignment, accountability, fairness and trustworthiness. As a result, the subsequent phases of design can commence, in which the syllabus is articulated into a complete course and its assessment. Ultimately the aim is to alleviate some of the pain and suffering of South Africans by helping nurses to improve their communicative competence, and thus enabling them to practice their profession more effectively.