Item Open AccessHoër onderwys en diversiteit: 'n oop gesprek(University of the Free State, 2000) Bitzer, Eli; Bezuidenhout, ZandraEnglish: South African higher education does not stand alone in facing the challenges posed by diversity in a time of transformation. The growth and variety of subject literature in this field indicates that student populations are no longer homogenous bodies world-wide. Thus educationists face new demands and have unique opportunities. This article argues chat South African educators and learner facilitators can profit from the research results and expertise which are becoming available locally and abroad, by applying these as essential interventions in order to ensure that no time is lost in addressing the educational implications of diversity, especially with regard to the acquisition of multicultural competence. Item Open AccessVerifying the NPS-WASHMO urban runoff component of the ACRU model(University of the Free State, 2000) Schmitz, Peter; De Villiers, GawieEnglish: The collection and analysis of rainfall, stream flow and water quality data are described for an urban catchment used in model development. The data illustrates the existing hydrological conditions in the Palmier River Catchment, and forms the basis of simulations for model verification. Grab water quality samples were collected once a week at ten points for two years and flow-related grab samples collected flood water quality samples at a weir. The results show an increase in water quality constituents in the flow from the Pinetown CBD and a decrease from the residential areas. The data is then used to verify the models, which are found to perform satisfactorily. Item Open AccessLoodvergiftiging in antieke Rome(University of the Free State, 2000) Retief, Francois; Cilliers, LouiseEnglish: Lead was known to the ancients from at least the fourth millennium BC, but its utilisation increased markedly during Roman times, when it became a health hazard. Mines and smelting furnaces caused air pollution; lead was extensively used in plumbing; domestic utensils were made of lead and pewter; lead salts were used in cosmetics, medicines and paints. As a microbicide, lead was also utilised in the preservation of food. A grape juice concenrrate (sapa) commonly used as a sweetener was prepared by preference in lead containers. Roman writers commented on the toxicity of lead but classic chronic lead poisoning was first described in the seventh century AD. Skeletal lead content increased significantly in the Roman era, but peaked at a level only 41-47% of that of modern Europeans. The authors suggest that chronic lead poisoning did not contribute significantly to the fall of the Roman Empire in the West. Item Open AccessBasiese wetenskapsbeoefening in die geesteswetenskappe: uitdagings, verwagtinge en knelpunte(University of the Free State, 2000) Strauss, DanieEnglish: Against the background of a brief sketch of the genesis of the university as a modern institution, this arcicle focuses on the rise of the humanities. This process is portrayed in terms of the inherent tension which characterises the development of modern philosophy, namely that between a deterministic natural-scientific orientation on the one hand and an attempt to chart a domain for genuine human freedom on the other hand. This dichotomy has resulted in che existence of two diametrically opposed methodologies: empriricism and historical hermeneutics, with the situation being further complicated by recent 'postmodernist' claims. As an alternative, an integral understanding of reality which transcends the impasse of mutually exclusive methodologies is suggested. Item Open AccessThe perceived efficacy of western and traditional health care in an urban population in the Northern province, South Africa(University of the Free State, 2000) Peltzer, KarelEnglish: The aim of the srudy was to examine the perceived efficacy of five different types of therapies (traditional herbalists, diviners, and prophets, western medicine and psychology) in treating 25 common complaints ranging from AIDS to diarrhoea. Participants were interviewed face-to-face with a questionnaire measuring their state of health, their experience of traditional therapies, their sources of information about traditional therapies, and their perception of the efficacy of traditional and western therapies in the treatment of each condition. The majority of the participants clearly saw medical therapy as more effective in the treatment of most (18) complaints. Traditional therapy (practised by herbalists and diviners) was perceived as being more effective for traditional illness and equally effective for infertility, venereal disease, mental illness, and epilepsy, as well as equally ineffective for AIDS. Overall, western therapies were seen as significantly more effective than traditional therapies. Item Open AccessThe remaking of local government in the Eastern Cape: economic, demographic and political challenges(University of the Free State, 2000) Wood, GeoffreyEnglish: This paper focuses on the problems and prospects of urban local government in the Eastern Cape region of South Africa. It commences with an overview of the institutional framework of local government in South Africa. Secondly, it assesses the 1995 local government elections in the province, and the nature and extent of party political competirion at the local level. Thirdly, likely demographic trends are reviewed, along with their implications in terms of service provision. This is followed by a consideration of the revenue and planning crises confronting local authorities in the region. This issue is located within the context of specific patterns of urbanisation and economic readjustment. It is concluded that, while the detacialisation of local government represents a significant extension of South Africa's new democracy, fiscal, demographic and political realities militate against any meaningful and sustainable devolution of power over the medium and long term. Item Open Access'n Verkennende studie van Anglo-Boereoorlog-fiksie(University of the Free State, 2000) De Wet, CoreneEnglish: Writers of narratives about the Anglo-Boer War claim that it is essential to record stories about this conflict to ensure that experiences of the people are not forgotten. This article surveys the mainly Afrikaans Anglo-Boer War fiction published since 1903. The various methods used by authors to blur the distinctions between fiction and historiography are discussed. Secondly, the diverse views on the participation of blacks in the war and their experience of it are considered. From an analysis of the mythologising of the Boers, it is clear that some authors honour the Boer fighters and their women, but that others describe them as dishonourable, cowardly and barbaric. The influence of the war on relations between Boer and Briton, black and white, those who fought to the bitter end and those who surrendered, "joiner" men and women is discussed. Finally, attention is paid to the depiction of Boer women at the time. With a few exceptions, the women were generally idealised, and depicted as the backbone of the nation, the driving force behind the Boer fighters. Item Open AccessWilleboer en die Boere-Franse: mitifisering en ontnugtering in Villebois-Mareuil se Carnet de Campagne(University of the Free State, 2000) Morgan, NaomiEnglish: The commemoration of the Anglo-Boer War provides researchers with an opportunity to publicise lesser known and forgotten texts. Worthy texts by foreign participants in the war are scarce; Villebois-Mareuil 's Carnet de Campagne is the work of a dedicated soldier, an author in his own right and the model for one of the bestknown figures on the French stage, Cyrano de Bergerac. This article focuses on Villebois's changing view of the Boers. The reader is provided with lengthy quotations from the war diary, for the most part accessible for the first time in Afrikaans. It becomes clear that Villebois's view of the Boers is coloured by personal considerations (his desire for military glory and his view of the Boers as distant descendants of the French). What Villebois and Bergerac have in common, and what becomes clear from his changing view of the Boers in this diary, is their personal striving for excellence and their gradual disillusionment with the human material by means of which military glory was to be achieved on the battle-field.