Item Open AccessThe legal differentiation between same-sex and heterosexual life partnerships as far as intestate succession is concerned in the wake of Laubscher v Duplan 2017 (2) SA 264 (CC) and subsequent judicial developments(University of the Free State, 2021-11) Mofokeng, Matlala; Smith, B. S.Abstract not available Item Open AccessThe resistance levels displayed by Haemonchus contortus towards different anthelmintic groups, tested in Dohne merino lambs on a central Free State farm(University of the Free State, 2021-11) Van der Merwe, C.; Kruger, LeonThis paper reveals the efficacy of five anthelmintic products containing different active ingredients used to treat Haemonchus contortus infestation in 25 Dohne merino lambs in total divided into 5 groups. Faecal worm egg count test (FEC) data was used to determine the percentage efficiency of each anthelmintic. The efficacy of each anthelmintic product result from the level of resistance displayed by the H. contortus population on the Paradys experimental farm against the product, meaning the higher the level of resistance the lower the efficacy of the anthelmintic. Startect (derquantel + abamectin) proved to be the most effective with an efficacy of 99.35 % followed by Uni-Dose (trichlorfon) with an efficacy of 89.23 %. Ivomec (ivermectin) resulted in showing the highest level resistance and a negative efficacy of -131.83 % followed by Tramisol (levamizole) having an efficacy of 3.56 %. Prodose Orange (closantel + albendazole) had an efficacy of 30.94 %. Item Open AccessIncreased cell wall activity on Tugela Dn1 wheat cultivar infested with Russian wheat aphid biotype 2(University of the Free State, 2021-11) Ramovha, Dembe; Mafa, Mpho S.Wheat plays a major role in food production and security. Infestation of wheat by Russian wheat aphid affects food security as it causes chlorosis on cereal crops. Since plants are sessile, they have developed a range of defense mechanisms against attackers. When aphids feed on the plant nutrients through the stylet they release salivary secretions containing cell-wall modification enzymes that degrade the cell wall. There are enzymes that act on the plant cell wall. These enzymes target the cellulose component of the cell wall. When studying the enzyme activity, increased activity was found on plants that were infested by aphids as compared to the control plants. During cell wall remodeling the esterase activity also increased due to the fact that the ester bond between phenolic acids and hemicellulose is cleaved.