Item Open AccessEncopresis: a holistic approach(University of the Free State, 2001) Badenhorst, Stefanie; Pretorius, Gertie; Stuart, AnitaEnglish: Encopresis is an often under-reported and poorly researched complexity. Earlier treatment followed either a medical or a psychological approach, with little acknowledgement of the social factors involved. Only recently has the biopsychosocial model been recognised. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the holistic treatment model with regard to the prevalence of encopresis, depressive symptomatology, parental involvement and the self-image of the children. The experimental group received treatment during the study while the control group received treatment only after completion of the post-tests. The study demonstrated a relatively high success rate using the holistic treatment approach. Item Open AccessEarly modern conceptions of “natural law”(University of the Free State, 2001) Venter, PontiEnglish: This article traces the shifts in meaning of the metaphor of “natural law” in modern thought from its pre-modern meaning as a divine standard for human behaviour accessible to reason. Descartes expanded this meaning to include the regularity of mechanical bodies by posing an absolute law system for all possible worlds as a priori, rational, and axiomatic. Newton relativised this from the perspective of the multi-facetted governance of God. The older conception of natural law sustained itself in economics and politicology, serving as a defence of individual freedom and non-intervention (Petty, Locke), but (dialectically) implying a determinism. It remained linked to Cartesian meaning via attempts by Petty, Hobbes and Locke to construct a natural science of social life. Item Open AccessBalancing quality and access in online education(University of the Free State, 2001) Wilkinson, Annette; Wilkinson, Liezel; Nel, GuillaumeEnglish: The new information communication technologies offer exciting new possibilities for online/Web-based education. Two factors have come to be viewed as central to assuring quality in this type of education, viz the availability of adequate infrastructure and the development of effective mechanisms for evaluating the quality of education. Clear standards can certainly provide a basis for quality practice. The critical issue, however, seems to be the inaccessibility of advanced communication technologies to many potential learners. In these circumstances it is of the utmost importance to achieve a balance between accessibility and quality. Item Open AccessThe role of the Native Advisory Board and the succeeding Urban Bantu Council of Mangaung, Bloemfontein, 1945-1973(University of the Free State, 2001) Le Roux, CharlEnglish: In the absence of political and executive powers the Native Advisory Board and Urban Bantu Council of Mangaung could do very little to remedy their community’s urgent socio-economic and political grievances. Any success depended on the arbitrary decision of the authorities, who responded to requests only when this was of benefit to themselves, and otherwise deferred decisions indefinitely. The two bodies consequently had no prospect of greater powers. Their most important role was as municipal sources of information on African socio-economic and political needs, thought and opinion, and they proved to be in the majority of cases responsible and persistent champions of their community’s interests. Item Open AccessUrbanisation, urban dilemmas and urban challenges in Lesotho(University of the Free State, 2001) Marais, LochnerEnglish: With a formal urbanisation rate of approximately 20%, Lesotho has an extremely low urbanisation level. This article attempts to analyse current urbanisation trends and to compare various sources of data in order to provide more insight into urbanisation trends and the urban hierarchy. This is followed by a discussion of the urban dilemmas and challenges which are bound to confront Lesotho in the decades to come. It is crucial that Lesotho develop solutions to the following: random settlement patterns which lead to occupation of arable land and ecological deterioration; the transitional nature of population and urbanisation trends; a lack of urban management and capacity; a lack of urban land tenure, and the lack of an economic income base for urban areas. Item Open AccessA demographic profile of the Cape metropolitan area, 1996 and 2021(University of the Free State, 2001) Haldenwang, BärbelEnglish: With a total population of 2.56 million in 1996, the Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) is the third largest metropole in South Africa. It is the second largest contributor to the country’s GDP, accounts for 8.0% of employment, and is a popular migration destination, especially from the Eastern Cape. The population of the CMA is demographically young, with more females than males, and it is dominated by the coloured population group. Each of the six local authority areas has its own unique demographic profile. By 2021, between 0.76 million and 1.56 million additional people could be residing in the CMA, with Tygerberg and Central Cape Town expected to experience the highest population growth rates. Item Open AccessDie verband tussen trekangs, diensjare en posttraumatiese stresversteuring by polisiebeamptes(University of the Free State, 2001) Knoetze, Johanna; De Bruin, GideonEnglish: In the course of duty, officers of the South African Police Services face highly stressful, life-threatening situations. This article discusses a model in which trait anxiety and years of service were specified as potential predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder. Structural equation modelling produced a satisfactory fit between the model and the observed data. In combination trait anxiety and years of service account for about 30% of the variance in symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. The article also makes recommendations as to how these results may usefully be applied in order to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder among police officers. Item Open AccessStaff empowerment: creating an empowered work environment in schools(University of the Free State, 2001) Steyn, TrudieEnglish: Recent conceptions of leadership in the school context suggest a shift from authoritarian models of decision-making towards staff empowerment. Staff thus now have decision-making powers which they lacked in the past. Principals appear to be relinquishing overt control in the interests of staff empowerment. Yet, in practice, it is possible for principals to gain more control than they had before. This article examines some of the issues involved in successfully empowering staff in schools. Not all empowerment programmes are successful and therefore the possible pitfalls in and necessary preparation for effective staff empowerment are briefly outlined. The article concludes by suggesting ways of redesigning school management in order to create an empowered school environment.