The protective roles of citrus flavonoids, naringenin, and naringin on endothelial cell dysfunction in diseases

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Adetunji, Joy A.
Fasae, Kehinde D.
Awe, Ayobami I.
Paimo, Oluwatomiwa K.
Adegoke, Ayodeji M.
Akintunde, Jacob K.
Sekhoacha, Mamello P.
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The endothelial cells (ECs) make up the inner lining of blood vessels, acting as a barrier separating the blood and the tissues in several organs. ECs maintain endothelium integrity by controlling the constriction and relaxation of the vasculature, blood fluidity, adhesion, and migration. These actions of ECs are efficiently coordinated via an intricate signaling network connecting receptors, and a wide range of cellular macromolecules. ECs are naturally quiescent i.e.; they are not stimulated and do not proliferate. Upon infection or disease, ECs become activated, and this alteration is pivotal in the pathogenesis of a spectrum of human neurological, cardiovascular, diabetic, cancerous, and viral diseases. Considering the central position that ECs play in disease pathogenesis, therapeutic options have been targeted at improving ECs integrity, assembly, functioning, and health. The dietary intake of flavonoids present in citrus fruits has been associated with a reduced risk of endothelium dysfunction. Naringenin (NGN) and Naringin (NAR), major flavonoids in grapefruit, tomatoes, and oranges possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties, and cell survival potentials, which improve the health of the vascular endothelium. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary and present the advances in understanding of the mechanisms through which NGN and NAR modulate the biomarkers of vascular dysfunction and protect the endothelium against unresolved inflammation, oxidative stress, atherosclerosis, and angiogenesis. We also provide perspectives and suggest further studies that will help assess the efficacy of citrus flavonoids in the therapeutics of human vascular diseases.
Endothelial dysfunction, Naringin, Naringenin, Citrus flavonoids, Microvasculature
Adetunji, J. A., Fasae, K. D., Awe, A. I., Paimo, O. K., Adegoke, A. M., Akintunde, J. K., & Sekhoacha, M. P. (2023). The protective roles of citrus flavonoids, naringenin, and naringin on endothelial cell dysfunction in diseases. Heliyon, 9(6), e17166.