Item Open AccessMission to people of other faiths in the Old Testament and Eldoret, Kenya: some reflections for engaging Muslims within their contexts(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2015) Omwenga, R.The election of biblical Israel in the Old Testament through Abraham and the mandate to represent God to other nations compare to Kenyan contexts of mission to people of other faiths by virtue of strengths and weaknesses. With an aim of providing reflections for contemporary practice, this article goes beyond these strengths and weaknesses by providing suggestions for how mission can be effectively undertaken in Eldoret, Kenya. As a context where mission begins, the Old Testament’s experience of engagements to other nations compare closely to the Kenyan experience, yet both lack perfect examples. Idolatry, unbelief and unfaithfulness to God’s commandments are some of the factors leading to Israel’s and Eldoret’s failure to faithfully represent God. This article highlights and discusses these and proposes recommendations for a better paradigm applicable to any Christian church functioning in an Islamic context. Item Open AccessThe priests and the descendants of Levi in the book of Malachi(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2015) Weyde, K. W.The article argues that the phrase “the descendants of Levi” in Mal 3:3 includes both priests and Levites and that the author of the book of Malachi was an inspired temple preacher, or writer, who probably belonged to the ranks of priests or Levites. He was a voice of the late 5th century, who with prophetic authority, like his predecessors, the earlier prophets, among others criticised the priests’ misconduct of the sacrificial cult (Mal 1:6–2:9). For this reason, he rejected the offerings. The failure of the priests corrupted the whole sacrificial cult including those responsible for it, the descendants of Levi, who for this reason had to be purified. The message related in Mal 3:1‑4 conveys that YHWH’s coming messenger will carry out this purification. Then the descendants of Levi will conduct the sacrificial cult in accordance with the regulations of the law, as in the days of old. Item Open AccessPreaching and cartooning: an exploration of the processes involved in developing a sermon and a newspaper cartoon(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2015) Wepener, C. J.This article explores the similarities and differences between the process followed to develop a sermon and that followed to develop a cartoon. It first examines the representation of the jester or clown in some recent publications by homileticians before describing the process of development of a sermon, as proposed by three homiletic sources from namely North America, South Africa and The Netherlands, respectively. The article describes the process followed in the development of a cartoon in a similar way. The article concludes by presenting some observations on the preacher as cartoonist with reference to the process followed in the development of a cartoon. It argues that the cartoonist may currently be viewed as a metaphor for a preacher that could enrich existing images of the preacher such as the clown or jester, especially because of the similarities in the processes for writing/preparing a sermon and drawing a cartoon. Item Open AccessTheology and philosophy within radical orthodoxy (Milbank) and reformational philosophy (Dooyeweerd)(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2015) Strauss, D.This article aims to show that, despite agreeing on some basic issues such as rejecting the dogma of the autonomy of reason and accepting that there is no territory independent of God, Radical Orthodoxy and Reformational Philosophy nonetheless differ. While both philosophy and theology, according to Radical Orthodoxy, investigate being qua, being only theology has the task to relate being to God. This view still continues the medieval nature‑grace split. Alternatively, it is argued that the distinctive feature of scholarly endeavours, namely modal abstraction, may enhance an appreciation of the special scientific nature of theology, without advocating a “static division of human life” into “distinct spheres”. Item Open AccessNaboth's vineyard: theological lessons for the South African land issue(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2015) Resane, K. T.This article is an appeal to South African political and ecclesiastical leaders to form a synergy in order to redress the land issue in the post-apartheid era. It surveys the historical development of land dispossession through various initiatives as a prima for national conflicts in Africa. From the Berlin Conference (1884) to 1990, when the apartheid government relocated millions of Black people to some Bantustans known as homelands, or newly created townships, the land conflicts continued. The dispossession stripped the masses of their dignity, integrity, and respect. The story of Naboth’s vineyard (1 Kgs. 21) is used as a theological framework to redress the land issue. The narrative is expounded to compare the African land perspectives with those of eighth-century Israel. There is an appeal for the ecclesiastical formations to form a synergy with the political stakeholders in addressing this matter. Item Open AccessThe misnomers of spiritual 'directing' and 'coaching'(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2015) Pienaar, H. E.The article considers the terms ‘directing’, as used in spiritual directing, and ‘coaching’ related to its general use, but spiritual ‘coaching’, in particular. Directing and coaching are said to be misnomers that communicate directivity instead of primarily being situated in a non‑directive style of engagement. Within the author’s theoretical paradigm, spiritual accompaniment and spiritual, narrative informed, coaching were said to be kindred spirits. Both emphasise experience, broadly adhere to a facilitative style of engagement, and do not subscribe to a deficit model, aiming to fix or remedy, in the first instance, least of all attempting to be an expert on a person’s life. Attention is paid to what potentially contributes to the said misnomers. The article concludes that misnomers cause barriers to inter‑professional inquiry and practice. Item Open Access"Divided against itself"? Individual maxims and the redaction of Q(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2015) Howes, L.In his analysis, Kloppenborg (1987) identified a number of logia in the main redaction that were more proverbial than prophetic in nature. This article considers the possibility that these sayings originally formed part of Q, but were added to Q by the main redactor during the redactional process. It also explores the possibility that the main redactor not only inserted and interpolated prophetic material into Q, but also transformed original wisdom sayings into prophetic Q material. Item Open AccessIn search of the original text in Mark 9:38(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2015) Hendriks, W. M. A.The text-critical situation of Mark 9:38 is very complicated. This complex situation already becomes evident in the different readings of the critical editions. While there is almost no variation in the first part of the verse, the critical editions offer four different readings in the last part of it. So there is until now no consensus at all. The question remains which text appears to be the more original one. Several scholars – such as Vaganay, Duplacy, Amphoux, and others – in search of the original text of Mark – opt for a so called Western text, the main stream still prefers the Neutral text of Westcott and Hort. A text-critical analysis of Mark 9:38 may provide an answer to this question. Item Open AccessSexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the body(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2015) Reynaert, M.This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. The article starts with the relationship between sexual abuse and power. It is argued that sexual abuse is always a form of power abuse. A second step examines the relation between sexual abuse and the body. We may not ignore the theme of the body when we speak about sexual abuse as a form of power abuse. The article also explores whether the body is a theme in recent (theological and popular) literature on sexual abuse. It discusses how the perception of the body has an impact on dealing with the body and potential sexual abuse. The article concludes with a search for an appropriate image of the body that may reduce the prevalence of sexual abuse. Item Open AccessWomen on leadership? Perspectives from postgraduate theology students through the lenses of social identity(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2015) Nell, I. A.South Africa has experienced a long history of patriarchal leadership in the spheres of politics, economics and culture as well as in the sphere of religion, in particular. Many factors influence the current state of religious leadership and the accompanying identity formation. This article aims to do a descriptive‑empirical investigation into some of these processes of leadership based on feedback from female postgraduate theology students at the Faculty of Theology, Stellenbosch University, South Africa. The empirical results will be read through the lenses of Social Identity Theory, in order to establish, with keen interest, whether the concepts we are using are still adequate and to seek the possibility of new understandings of religious leadership identities that might emerge and ways in which it can become part of curriculum development. Item Open AccessAn interpretation map: finding paths to reading processes(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2015) Green, B.A consideration of the origins, development, and aftermath of Reader‑Response theory helps place both possibilities and limits on the role of reading and interpretation of texts, biblical in particular. With its main tenets and representatives surveyed, it can be correlated with the historical‑critical enterprise that it challenged and with the literary turn that preceded and paved the way for it. Finally, it offers us a context in which to place and appreciate pre‑critical Jewish and Christian interpretations. The article closes with a set of suggestions for interpretation in view of its long history in biblical studies. Item Open AccessMinistry to the congregation according to the letter to the Ephesians(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2015) Breed, G.This article endeavours to extract the most important principles of congregational ministry (focusing on equipping the members) from Ephesians by means of an exegetical analysis of the Letter. The article also attempts to demonstrate the importance that principles, on which congregational ministry is grounded, should be developed by means of sound Scriptural exegesis. The article first investigates the structure of Ephesians, and then makes deductions that would be appropriate as principles of ministry. Based on these deductions, the article suggests a few guidelines for the pastoral ministry of congregations and critically compares these with the opinions of other researchers. Finally, the article concludes that it is necessary to ground principles of ministry on Scripture by means of a thorough exegesis. Item Open AccessA cognitive semantic approach to Redeemer (Gō'ēl) in Deutero-Isaiah(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2015) Ashdown, S.English: This study draws on cognitive semantics to explore the radial category nature of Redeemer (Gō’ēl) as depicted by Holy One of Israel in Deutero‑Isaiah and the thematic commonalties of the passages involved. The earthly office of Gō’ēl exhibits a radial structure of four models that entail several senses of the concept the people of Israel associated with the office of redeemer, these are: 1) Pentateuchal Model; 2) Royal Model; 3) Marital Model; and 4) Avenger Model. Pertinent to the discussion is the way in which Isaiah extends the title by pairing Redeemer with the Holy One of Israel six times in chapters 41, 43, 47, 48, 49, and 54 suggesting Gō’ēl fulfills a sacred office associated with restoring the broken covenant relationship between Yahweh and Israel. A fifth structural component to the sacred office, the Holiness Model, is proposed which suggests a five model structure for the category of Redeemer. Item Open AccessInterview with Professor Philippe Denis(Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2015) Van Tonder, HelenéProf. Philippe Denis is a Senior Professor in History of Christianity at the University of Kwazulu-Natal. In the 1970s and 1980s, his research focused on the history of the Reformation in Germany, France and The Netherlands, and specifically on issues of confessional development, biblical exegesis, and cultural representations. Over the past two decades, his research focused primarily on the history of indigenous Christianity in southern Africa, along with an interest in oral history. The latter has encouraged him to reflect on issues of memory and resilience, and to found the Sinomlando Centre for Oral History and Memory Work in Africa.