Antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials of Medicago laciniata (L) Mill root extracts: in vitro investigations
Tshabalala, B. D.
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the chronic ailments that contribute to high mortality rate worldwide. Synthetic drugs used to control and manage this disease have several constrictions like prohibitive price to the unemployed class and or low-income earners, disturbing side effects such as use during pregnancy. Due to these constraints and others, an alternative approach to control and manage DM is highly required. The aim of the current study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials of Medicago laciniata (L) Mill root extracts. Solvents used for extraction of the plant material were hydro-ethanol, ethanol, water and acetone. Assays carried out in this investigation were phyto-chemical screening (qualitative and quantitative methods), antioxidant assays (DPPH radicals, reducing power, metal chelating, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide assays), and antidiabetic assays (alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition). Results showed that M. laciniata root possesses several medicinal phyto-chemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, flavonols, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides and phenols. Quantification of phyto-chemicals showed 0.632 (μg/mL), 0.151(mg/g), 0.035 (mg/g) and 0.032 (mg/g) contents of total flavonoids, total flavonols, total phenols and total tannins respectively, while alkaloids and saponins showed 27 and 78% respectively. Antioxidant results revealed varied IC50 values of extracts in different assays performed. The lowest IC50 values recorded were 0.602±0.034 mg/mL, 0.712±0.072 mg/mL, 0.512±0.002 mg/mL, 0.306±0.021 mg/mL, 0.513±0.041 mg/mL and 0.455±0.164 mg/mL in DPPH radicals, reducing power, metal chelating, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide assay respectively. Hydro-ethanol extract showed the strongest alpha glucosidase inhibition with the lowest IC50 value of0.07±0.014 mg/mL while acarbose (standard) showed 0.24±0.17 mg/mL. All extracts showed poor alpha amylase inhibitory potential as compared to acarbose which was recorded to have the lowest IC50 value of 0.60±0.191 mg/mL. Among other extracts, ethanol extracts showed better alpha amylase inhibition with an IC50 value of 2.11±0.026mg/mL. Results obtained from different assays in this study suggest that Medigaco laciniata (L) Mill have antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials; may also possess other medicinal properties due to the variety of phyto-chemical discovered in this plant. Hence the study justified the folkloric use of this plant.