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dc.contributor.advisorMarais, W.
dc.contributor.authorDu Preez, Hendriena Petronella
dc.date.accessioned2018-07-27T07:14:36Z
dc.date.available2018-07-27T07:14:36Z
dc.date.issued2010-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/9001
dc.description.abstractEnglish: The cartoon is a medium that has been used for centuries to provide political and social comment, and to this day, it is an important media phenomenon. Through the ages, cartoons were used as medium of propaganda, especially in times of war. The Anglo-Boer war (1899-1902) has been described as the first real media war. In particular, the British government had no qualms about using the media for distributing British war propaganda. Satirical publications were popular media of communication, especially because it contained cartoons. During the Anglo-Boer War, the use of cartoons flourished, and because it was so popular, it was used efficiently by the British media. The primary aim of this study has thus been a thematic content analysis of the messages in cartoons in the satirical British journal Punch during the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902). the secondary aims were to determine which codes, conventions, encoding strategies, and characters appeared in the cartoons, as well as to determine any stereotyping in the cartoons. A qualitative content analysis was done, in particular a propaganda analysis. Cartoons were chosen from two of the three phases of the Anglo-Boer War because not many cartoons were available from the guerrilla phase. Cartoons were thus taken from the first two phases, i.e. the Boer Offensive (October 1899 to December 1899) and the British Offensive (January 1900 to September 1900). In total, 40 cartoons (Addendum I) from these two phases were analysed. It was concluded that, in general, Punch was biased towards the British government and British troops. By placing these cartoons, they tried to enhance the British war propaganda, and they wanted to encourage the public to support th British troops. Punch clearly enhanced British patriotism by placing cartoons in which British soldiers were portrayed as hero figures. It seems that they purposefully did not place cartoons concerning battles that the British had lost or which had been an embarrassment to them. Although one does find cartoons in which the British government, in particular Joseph Chamberlain, the British Minister of Colonies, was criticized, it happened seldom, and the overall message to be gleaned from the cartoons is clear: Britain was the strongest, best, and most powerful and would not be subdued by anybody (especially not the Boers). Punch also tried to influence the rest of the world in this respect. In clear contrast, President Paul Kruger and the Boers were portrayed, in general, as stupid, backward, and aggressive. Punch portrayed the Boers as aggressors while, in reality, Britain had set the Boers an ultimatum, and they had no choice but to declare war in order to maintain their independence. In particular, Punch did not hesitate to heckle with Kruger, and the image created of him amongst the British public was definitely not positive. Time and again, he was portrayed as a ridiculous, passive old man, who could not elicit respect and who was actually only looking after his own interests. Howerver, he did make a clear impression on the British media, and they were not able to ignore him. This study clearly found that Punch was biased towards the British. This could clearly be seen in cartoons they placed. It could also be seen in cartoons purposefully omitted in order to polish the British image or to try to hide their mistakes. However, much research could still be done on the role of cartoons during the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902).en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Die spotprent is 'n medium wat reeds eeue lank gebruik word om politieke en sosiale kommentaar te lewer en is vandag steeds 'n belangrike mediaverskynsel. Spotprente is verder ook deur die eeue as propaganda-medium gebruik, veral in tye van oorlog. Die Anglo-Boereoorlog van 1899-1902 word as die eerste werklike media-oorlog beskryf. Veral die Britse regering het nie geskroom om die media aan te wend om Britse oorlogspropaganda te versprei nie. Satiriese publikasies was gewilde media van kommunikasie, veral omdat dit spotprente bevat het. Ten tyde van die AngloBoereoorlog het die gebruik van spotprente gefloreer en aangesien dit so gewild was, is dit doeltreffend deur die Britse media aangewend. Die primere doelwit van hierdie studie was dus 'n tematiese inhoudsanalise van die boodskappe tydens die Anglo-Boereoorlog (1899-1902) in spotprente in die Britse satiriese joemaal Punch. Sekondere doelwitte was om te bepaal watter kodes, konvensies, enkoderingstrategiee en karakters in die spotprente voorkom, asook om te bepaal of enige stereotipering in die spotprente voorkom. 'n Kwalitatiewe inhoudsanalise is gedoen, spesifiek propaganda-analise. Spotprente is tiit twee van die drie fases van die Anglo-Boereoorlog gekies, aangesien spotprente uit die derde fase, die guerrilla-fase, nie in oormaat beskikbaar is nie. Spotprente is dus uit die eerste twee fases geneem, naamlik die Boere-offensief (Oktober 1899 tot Desember 1899) en die Britse Offensief (Januarie 1900 tot September 1900). 'n Totaal van 40 spotprente (Bylaag 1) uit hierdie twee fases is geanaliseer. Uit die bevindinge is daar tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat Punch oor die algemeen ten gunste van die Britse regering en Britse troepe was. Deur die spotprente te plaas, wou hulle Britse oorlogspropaganda bevorder en die publiek aanmoedig om die Britse troepe te ondersteun. Punch het duidelik ook Britse patriotisme aangemoedig deur spotprente te plaas waarin die Britse soldate as heldefigure voorkom. Hulle het doelbewus nie spotprente geplaas van veldslae wat die Britte verloor het of wat vir hulle 'n verleentheid was nie. Hoewel daar tog spotprente voorkom waarin die Britse regering, spesifiek Joseph Chamberlain, die Britse Minister van Kolonies, gekritiseer word, gebeur dit selde en is daar 'n duidelike oorhoofse boodskap wat uit die spotprente afgelei kan word: Brittanje is die sterkste, beste en magtigste en sal horn deur niemand (veral nie die Boere) laat onderkry nie. Punch wou ook die res van die wereld se siening beinvloed. In skrille kontras word president Paul Kruger en die Boere oor die algemeen as dom, agterlik en aggressief uitgebeeld. Punch laat dit voorkom asof die Boere die aggressors was, terwyl Brittanje in werklikheid aan die Boere 'n ultimatum gestel bet en hulle dus geen keuse gehad bet as om oorlog te verklaar ten einde hulle onafhanklikheid te behou nie. Punch bet veral nie geskroom om met Kruger te spot nie en die beeld wat die Britse publiek van horn gekry bet, was geensins positief nie. Hy word telkens uitgebeeld as 'n verspotte, passiewe ou man wat geen respek afdwing nie en wat eintlik maar net na sy eie belange wou omsien. Hy bet duidelik wel 'n indruk op die Britse media gemaak en hulle kon horn nie ignoreer nie. Dit is uit die studie duidelik dat Punch ten gunste van die Britte bevooroordeeld was. Dit kan duidelik gesien word in die spotprente wat hulle geplaas bet. Dit kan ook gesien word in die spotprente wat Punch doelbewus uitgelaat bet om Brittanje te laat goed lyk en om hulle foute te probeer wegsteek. Baie navorsing kan egter nog oor die rol van spotprente gedurende die Anglo-Boereoorlog (1899-1902) gedoen word.en_ZA
dc.language.isoafen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectCartoonen_ZA
dc.subjectPropagandaen_ZA
dc.subjectAnglo-Boer Waren_ZA
dc.subjectCommunicationen_ZA
dc.subjectMass communicationen_ZA
dc.subjectSemioticsen_ZA
dc.subjectUser gratificationen_ZA
dc.subjectContent analysisen_ZA
dc.subjectMessagesen_ZA
dc.subjectSatirical publicationsen_ZA
dc.subjectWar propagandaen_ZA
dc.subjectPolitical cartoonsen_ZA
dc.subjectSouth African War, 1899-1902 -- Caricatures and cartoonsen_ZA
dc.subjectMass media and propagandaen_ZA
dc.subjectContent analysis (Communication)en_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.A. (Communication Science))--University of the Free State, 2010en_ZA
dc.title'n Tematiese inhoudsanalise van die boodskappe in spotprente om Punch gedurende die Anglo-Boereoorlog (1899-1902)en_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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