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dc.contributor.advisorJanse van Rensburg, E.
dc.contributor.advisorVan Jaarsveld, A.
dc.contributor.authorPotgieter, Chane
dc.date.accessioned2018-07-04T10:12:02Z
dc.date.available2018-07-04T10:12:02Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/8675
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Introduction: South African (SAn) occupational therapists (OTs) are increasingly confronted with children experiencing sensory integration (SI) difficulties. A wide variety of SI assessment measures are available from which Clinical Observations (COs), originally developed by Ayres, are used widely amongst SAn OTs to support their reasoning on possible dysfunction/s in SI. The COs assist the therapist in distinguishing typical from possible atypical performance. The COs are a cost and time effective measuring instrument, widely used amongst SAn OTs. In addition, in under-resourced communities, the COs are often relied on for assessment as funding is not available for the use of standardised tests. Limited research has, however, been done on the use of the COs on SAn children, describing age-related performance. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the performance of five-year-old children from Mangaung Metro on ten subtests of J. Ayres based Clinical Observations. This allowed the researcher to gain descriptive observations to assist the therapist in distinguishing typical from atypical performance more clearly. Methodology: A descriptive observational study design along with a cross-sectional study design was used. One hundred and twenty (120) participants from both genders, aged between five years six months and five years eleven months, adhering to specific inclusion criteria, and from diverse socio-economic status, were assessed at eight public pre-schools located in Bloemfontein. An adapted COs measuring instrument was used. The measuring instrument comprised of measurable characteristics that included quantitative data (e.g. overall grade score and number of repetitions in a movement pattern), and observable characteristics. The observable characteristics were grouped according to performance thought to be desirable, i.e. ‘should have’ (SH) parameters, and performance thought to be undesirable in the performance of the COs items, i.e. ‘should not have’ (SNH) parameters. The participants were assessed individually and video recorded to allow for detailed analysis. The participants were firstly scored in vivo, whereafter the researcher re- assessed each video recording to compare the findings with the initial assessment. The results were analysed by the Department of Biostatistics at the University of the Free State. Findings: The five-year-old children in this study performed similarly to the currently used norms on most of the items. These items can, therefore, be used in assessment to identify areas of possible difficulty. However, a high incidence of possible un-integrated primitive postural reflexes was found in the study population. The results for the observable characteristics (SH and SNH parameters) were categorised according to prevalence criteria. The results showed several COs’ SH parameters were not always present and several SNH parameters were present in the execution of the COs items. In terms of comparing socio-economic groups, performance was similar in both groups across most test items. Two subtests did, however, have clinically significant differences on the measurable characteristics. Isolated differences on the observable characteristics were evident in most of the COs items, with clinically significant differences found in six of the COs items. Conclusion: The study revealed typical age expected performance of a group of five-year-old children in South Africa on ten selected COs items. It is a reasonable expectation that typically developing children from this age group, would be able to adequately perform most of the items and the inability to do so might be suggestive of possible difficulty. The data will allow OTs to interpret an observed performance on ten items of the COs more accurately, as in-depth observations became evident through this study.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Inleiding: In Suid-Afrika word arbeidsterapeute gereeld gekonfronteer met kinders wat sensoriese integrasie (SI) uitdagings ervaar. ‘n Verskeidenheid assesseringsinstrumente is beskikbaar om SI disfunksies te identifiseer, onder andere kliniese observasies (KOs), oorspronklik ontwikkel deur Ayres, wat die terapeut ondersteun tydens die kliniese beredeneringsproses. Die KOs stel ‘n terapeut in staat om tipiese en a-tipiese gedrag van mekaar te onderskei. Die KOs is ‘n koste- en tydseffektiewe assesseringsinstrument en word gereeld gebruik deur Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidsterapeute. Daarbenewens maak terapeute in minder bevoorregte gemeenskappe staat op observasies om sensoriese uitdagings te identifiseer, aangesien finansies en hulpbronne beperk is. Ongelukkig is daar beperkte navorsing op die gebruik van die KOs, asook beskrywing van tipiese deelname van Suid-Afrikaanse kinders op die KOs. Doel: Die doel van die studie was om ondersoek in te stel oor die deelname van vyfjarige kinders van Mangaung Metro op tien subtoetse van die J. Ayres gebaseerde KOs. Dit het die navorser in staat gestel om beskrywende deelname van vyfjarige kinders te verkry, wat terapeute kan gebruik om tipiese en a-tipiese deelname van mekaar te kan onderskei. Metodologie: ‘n Beskrywende, waarnemingstudie, tesame met ‘n deursnee-studie ontwerp is gebruik. Honderd-en-twintig (120) tipiese ontwikkelde kinders van beide geslagte, tussen die ouderdom vyf jaar ses maande en vyf jaar elf maande, onderhewig aan ‘n spesifieke insluitingskriteria, van ‘n diverse sosio-ekonomiese status is ingesluit in die studie. Die kinders is geassesseer by agt skole in Bloemfontein, met die hulp van ‘n aangepaste KOs assesseringsinstrument. Die instrument het beide meetbare (bv. algehele telling en aantal bewegingspatrone) en waarnemingsgerigte eienskappe ingesluit. Die waarnemingsgerigte eienskappe het bestaan uit wenslike eienskappe (eienskappe wat verwag word om teenwoordig te wees) en nie-wenslike eienskappe (eienskappe wat verwag word om nie teenwoordig te wees tydens deelname aan die KOs nie). Die deelnemers is individueel geassesseer en ‘n video van die deelname is gemaak vir gedetailleerde analise van die deelname. Die deelnemers is eers in vivo geassesseer. Die navorser het na afloop van die assessering die video opnames bestudeer en die bevindinge is met mekaar vergelyk. Die resultate is geanaliseer deur die Department Biostatistiek by die Universiteit van die Vrystaat. Resultate: Die vyf jarige kinders in die studie het soortgelyk presteer in vergelyking met die huidige norms op die meeste items. Die subtoetse kan dus gebruik word in die assessering van vyfjarige kinders om areas van moontlike uitdagings te identifiseer. Daar was wel een subtoets, primitiewe reflekse, waar die kinders beduidend swakker presteer het, en dit is aanduidend dat ‘n groot aantal van die studiepopulasie se reflekse moontlik nie geïntegreer is nie. Die resultate van die waarnemingsgerigte eienskappe (beide gewenste en nie gewenste eienskappe) is gekategoriseer volgens voorkoms kriteria. Die resultate het bevind dat sommige wenslike eienskappe nie altyd teenwoordig is nie en sommige nie-wenslike eienskappe wel teenwoordig kan wees in die tipiese vyfjarige populasie. Beide sosio-ekonomiese groepe het soortgelyk presteer in die meeste van die subtoetse. Twee subtoetse het wel kliniese beduidende verskille getoon op die meetbare eienskappe van die KOs. Geïsoleerde verskille op die waarnemingsgerigte eienskappe in die meeste van die subtoetse het voorgekom, maar daar was wel ses subtoetse wat klinies beduidende verskille getoon het. Gevolgtrekking: Die studie het tipiese verwagte ouderdomstoepaslike gedrag in ‘n groep vyfjarige kinders in Suid-Afrika bekendgemaak. Dit is ‘n realistiese verwagting dat tipiese vyfjarige kinders gemiddeld sal presteer op die meeste van die KOs subtoetse, en die onvermoë om tipies te presteer kan aanduidend wees van moontlike uitdagings. Die data sal arbeidsterapeute in staat stel om observasies vanuit die KOs meer akkuraat te interpreteer, aangesien in-diepte observasies deur die studie verkry is.en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorshipSAISIen_ZA
dc.description.sponsorshipUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectClinical observationsen_ZA
dc.subjectPaediatricsen_ZA
dc.subjectAssessmenten_ZA
dc.subjectSensory integrationen_ZA
dc.subjectFive-year-old childrenen_ZA
dc.subjectSocio-economic statusen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Occ. The. (Occupational Therapy))--University of the Free State, 2018en_ZA
dc.titleThe performance of five-year-old children from Mangaung Metro on ten subtests of J. Ayres based clinical observationsen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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