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dc.contributor.advisorBeukes, R. B. I.
dc.contributor.authorBrummer, Janine Vivienn
dc.date.accessioned2018-06-18T11:17:45Z
dc.date.available2018-06-18T11:17:45Z
dc.date.issued2000-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/8429
dc.description.abstractEnglish: The object of this survey was to establish whether there are differences in resilience between children who respectively come from intact, divorced or reconstructed families. Resilience, as a new construct in the field of social sciences, was investigated. In the past, the focus was mainly on a pathogenic view of mankind. Resilience, on the other hand, is a fortigenie view focussing on strengths instead. Resilience firstly implies the positive handling of stress, secondly the overcoming intolerable occurrences and thirdly it enables the individual to 'develop beyond his present level of functioning, Protective factors contributing towards resilience include external support systems, internal strengths and social interpersonal abilities. To develop resilience, a child needs a support system. The family plays an important role in this. Happy and intact families hold many advantages for a child tremendously, with both parents sharing the responsibility and obligations with respect to the children. Both parents fuifiii the gender-role identities for the children and discipline has a consistent and consequent quality. An intact family provides a framework in which a child can develop and master necessary skills. An intact family contributes to a large degree towards the normal development of the child, but it must also be taken into consideration that the family can also act as the main contributor towards the problems that a child experiences. Divorce for instance can negatively impact on a child. The parent-child relationship is cardinal in the normal development of a child. Divorce negatively influences the quality of the parent-child relationship which is of cardinal importance and impacts largely on the child's inter and intra psychological functioning. Contextual factors, such as the age and gender of a child, as well as the adjustment of the parent after the divorce, and the availability of support systems play a major role in the child's adjustment. It takes approximately three years for an adult to adjust to a divorce and be ready for a new romantic relationship. Children, however, are subjected to the decisions of their parents, irrespective of whether or not emotional equilibrium has been reached. Children are expected to adjust to change for a second time, they may also experience feelings of loss, rejection and sorrow. Loyalty issues contribute greatly to the stress experienced by children in reconstructed -families. From this it becomes clear that stressors such as divorce or a stepparent family can greatly impact upon a child's general level of functioning and influence the child's resilience. Schools from five provinces, namely Gauteng, Kwazulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, North-West and the Free State were selected to partake in this study. The children in their middle childhood from all population groups were selected to form the research sample. The final survey group comprised 50 children from intact families; 53 children from divorced families and 36 children from reconstructed families. The resilience of the respective groups were compared with another. The data was statistically analyzed using a oneway MANOVA, after which a single factor analyses of variance was used to determine which of the dependant variables showed a significant difference with respect to their mean scores, and secondly, to establish which groups differ significantly with respect to their mean scores. The Scheffé-results showed that children from reconstructed families attained a higher mean score on the Piers-Harris sub scale 1-score (behavior), with reference to selfimage, than did children from divorced families. Results furthermore showed that children, who were exposed to divorce, attained a higher mean score pertaining to the Symptom Scale 10 (major depression and dysthymia) than did children from intact families. The results thus suggest that only marginal differences exist between the resilience of the three groups.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Die doel van die betrokke studie was om ondersoek in te stelof daar verskille in psigologiese weerbaarheid by kinders uit onderskeidelik intakte, geskeide en hersaamgestelde gesinne, is. Psigologiese weerbaarheid as nuwe konstruk in die veld van die sosiale wetenskappe is ondersoek. In die verlede was gefokus op die patogene beskouing van die mens. Psigologiese weerbaarheid daarteenoor is 'n fortogenese konstruk wat fokus op sterkpunte. Die konstruk impliseer eerstens die positiewe hantering van teëspoed, tweedens die oortreffing van onuitstaanbare gebeure en derdens stel dit die individu in staat om verder as sy huidige vlak van funksionering te ontwikkel. Beskermingsfaktore wat bydra tot psigologiese weerbaarheid sluit onder meer eksterne ondersteuningsbronne, interne persoonlike sterktes en sosiale-interpersoonlike vaardighede in. Om wel psigologies weerbare eienskappe te ontwikkel het die kind 'n ondersteuningsnetwerk nodig, die gesin vertolk hier 'n kardinale rol. 'n Gelukkige intakte gesin hou baie voordele vir die kind in, en verpligtinge en verantwoordelikhede ten opsigte van kinders word deur beide ouers behartig. Albei ouers tree as geslagsrolidentiteite vir kinders op, en dissipline word deur konsekwentheid gekenmerk. Die intakte gesin is 'n raamwerk waarbinne 'n kind ontwikkel en vaardighede bemeester. Die intakte gesin lewer 'n groot bydrae in terme van die normale ontwikkeling van die kind, maar daar moet ook in ag geneem word dat die gesin soms die hoofoorsaak van probleme by kinders is. Egskeiding is byvoorbeeld 'n faktor wat baie negatiewe gevolge vir 'n kind kan inhou. Die ouer-kind-verhouding is van kardinale belang in die normale verloop van ontwikkeling by die kind. Egskeiding het egter 'n nadelige invloed op die kwaliteit van die ouer-kind-verhouding, en het ook 'n groot impak op die kind se inter- en intra-psigiese funksionering. Kontekstuele faktore soos die ouderdom en geslag van die kind asook die aanpassing van die ouer en die beskikbaarheid van ondersteuningsbronne speel 'n groot rol in die aanpassing van die kind. Binne 'n tydperk van ongeveer drie jaar na 'n egskeiding is die meerderheid volwassenes aangepas en gereed vir 'n nuwe liefdesverhouding. Kinders is aan die besluit van hul ouers uitgelewe, ten spyte daarvan of emosionele ekwilibrium bereik is, of nie. Kinders moet vir 'n tweede keer by veranderinge aanpas en kan verwerping, verlies en rou ervaar. Lojaliteitskwessies is vir kinders van hersaamgestelde gesinne 'n groot bron van spanning. Dit is dus duidelik dat stressore soos egskeiding of stiefouer-gesinne 'n impak op die kind se algehele funksionering kan hê, en so-ook die kind se psigologiese weerbaarheid kan beïnvloed. Skole uit vyf provinsies, naamlik Gauteng, Kwazulu-Natal, Mpumulanga, Noordwes en die Vrystaat is vir die studie geselekteer. Die steekproef het bestaan uit kinders in hul middelkinderjare en was verteenwoordigend van alle bevolkingsgroepe. Die finaalsaamgestelde ondersoekgroep het uit onderskeidelik 50 kinders uit intakte gesinne, 53 kinders uit geskeide gesinne en 36 kinders uit hersaamgestelde gesinne bestaan. Psigologiese weerbaarheid tussen die drie groepe is met mekaar vergelyk. Die data is statisties ontleed deur gebruik te maak van 'n eenrigting meerveranderlike variansieontledeing, waarna ook eenveranderlike variansie-ontledings gedoen is om te bepaal by watter afhanklike veranderlikes daar beduidende verskille in gemiddelde tellings voorkom en tweedens watter groepe se gemiddelde tellings beduidend verskil. Die Schefféresultate het daarop gedui dat kinders vanuit hersaamgestelde gesinne 'n hoër gemiddelde telling op die Piers-Harris Subskaal 1 - telling (gedrag) behaal het, as kinders vanuit geskeide gesinne. Verder het die resultate ook getoon dat kinders wat aan egskeiding blootgestel is 'n hoër gemiddelde telling ten opsigte van Simptoomskaal 10 (major depessie en distimie) behaal het, as kinders uit intakte gesinne. Die resultate het dus slegs 0 geringe verskille met betrekking tot psigologiese weerbaarheid tussen die drie groepe gesuggereer.en_ZA
dc.language.isoafen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectResilience (Personality trait) in childrenen_ZA
dc.subjectResilience (Personality trait) in adolescenceen_ZA
dc.subjectChildren of divorced parents -- Psychologyen_ZA
dc.subjectFamilies -- Psychological aspectsen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.A. (Psychology))--University of the Free State, 2000en_ZA
dc.titlePsigologiese weerbaarheid by kinders uit geskeide, hersaamgestelde en intakte gesinneen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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