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dc.contributor.advisorSolomon, Hussein
dc.contributor.authorVermeulen, Alta
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-13T06:36:21Z
dc.date.available2015-08-13T06:36:21Z
dc.date.issued2014
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/839
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Terrorism is one of the fastest expanding fields of study today. Since the 9/11 attacks in New York, terrorism has received an increasing amount of attention from researchers, the media and the international community. Yet, terrorism in Africa is not at all a new phenomenon, neither are the ways to combat this terrorism threat. However, no sustainable way to ameliorate the threat in Africa has been found. This might indicate a need for revisiting the current approaches to terrorism and counter-terrorism. This study aims to do just that by using Critical Terrorism Study (CTS) as a theoretical anchor. The study incorporates a sceptical approach to traditional ways of doing terrorism research and challenges orthodox ways of approaches counter-terrorism. The research is conducted by looking at three of the most prominent terrorist organisations in Africa; Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), Boko Haram and Al-Shabaab. CTS does however not reject current and traditional ways of research, but incorporates different fields of study which were traditionally seen as inapplicable to the study of terrorism. In order to try and ameliorate the terrorism threat in Africa, new approaches are necessary, and to form these new approaches, new knowledge creation must take place. By broadening the scope of the study of terrorism, it becomes clear that although the terrorist groups in this study have several characteristics in common, they also have deep-rooted and resounding differences. By uncovering these differences, be it the reaction to colonialism in Algeria, or the inherent belief of marginalisation by a certain group in Nigeria, or clan-loyalties in Somalia, it is evident that these groups cannot be grouped under the umbrella category of ‘terrorism in Africa’. In this study, the historical, political, religious and even economic backgrounds of the groups mentioned – or the areas in which they manifest themselves– are examined. Upon closer examination of different fields of study either regarding the certain region in which the group is active, or the underlying beliefs of individuals within the group, connections can be found that serve either as motivation or justification of the terrorist group’s actions. This variety of information is not intended to overwhelm or intimidate the leader, but should serve as a framework from which a certain terrorist organisation can be analysed. This analysis can further determine whether it is necessary to revisit the current and traditional ways of approaching terrorism and counter-terrorism. These approaches are not limited only to research and examination of these groups, but also pertains to international interventions and assistance within the geographical areas of interest. Since international actions taken to confront these groups have over the time already developed significantly – still without any sustainable amelioration of the effects of terrorism – international knowledge creation should also be challenged. Clearly something is missing. CTS does not intend to emerge as the sudden ‘cure-all’ for the terrorism threat in Africa, but will serve as a step in a new direction of terrorism study. By broadening and simultaneously deepening the research done of these groups and the contexts in which they manifest themselves, this study hopes to open the door to the possibility of sustainable amelioration of the terrorism threat in Africa.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Een van die vinnigste ontwikkelende studievelde vandag is sekerlik terrorisme. Na die bekende 9/11 aanvalle in New York, het terrorisme al hoe meer aandag begin verkry; van navorsers, die media en die internasionale gemeenskap. Tog is terrorisme in Afrika eintlik glad nie ‘n nuwe verskynsel nie en die maniere om dit te probeer beveg en bekamp nog minder. Hoekom is daar dan steeds nie ‘n manier om volhoubare verligting mee te bring nie? Hierdie vraag dui dalk op die nood om huidige benaderings tot terrorisme en die teenkanting daarvan te herondersoek. Hierdie studie poog om juis dit te doen deur gebruik te maak van Kritiese Terrorisme Studie (KTS) as ‘n teoretiese raamwerk. Die studie inkorporeer ‘n skeptiese benadering tot tradisionele maniere van terrorisme-navorsing, en daag ortodokse maniere van die teenkanting van terrorisme uit. Die navorsing word uitgevoer deur te kyk na drie van die mees prominente terroriste organisasies in Afrika; Al-Kaïda in die Islamitiese Maghreb (AQIM), Boko Haram en Al-Shabab. KTS verwerp nie huidige en tradisionele wyses van navorsing nie, maar inkorporeer wel verskillende navorsingsvelde wat tradisioneel gesien word as ‘nie van toepassing’ binne die studie van terrorisme. Om die terrorisme bedreiging in Afrika te probeer verlig, is nuwe benaderings nodig. Om hierdie nuwe benaderings te vorm, moet nuwe kennis geskep word. Deur die huidige studie van terrorisme te verbreed, raak dit duidelik dat alhoewel die terroriste organisasies in hierdie studie ‘n groot aantal karaktertrekke deel, daar ook diep-gewortelde en beduidende verskille bestaan. Deur hierdie verskille te ondersoek - van die reaksie op kolonialisme in Algerië, die oortuiging van diskriminasie in Nigerië, tot etniese lojaliteite in Somalië - raak dit duidelik dat hierdie groepe nie onder dieselfde ‘sambreel’ van terrorisme in Afrika geplaas kan word nie. In hierdie studie word die geskiedkunige, politiese, religieuse en selfs ekonomiese agtergronde van die groepe – of die areas waarin hulle ontwikkel – ondersoek. Die doel van die wye verskeidenheid informasie wat ondersoek is, is nie om die leser te oorwelding of intimideer nie, maar poog om te dien as ‘n raamwerk vanwaar ‘n sekere terroriste organisasie ondersoek en analiseer kan word. Hierdie analise kan verder vasstel of dit wel nodig is om huidige benaderings tot terrorisme en die teenkanting daarvan te ondersoek. Hierdie benaderings is ook nie beperk tot slegs navorsing en ondersoek van hierdie groepe nie, maar is ook van toepassing op internasionale intervensies en bystand binne die sekere geografiese areas. Internasionale reaksies wat al geneem is om hierdie groepe te beveg het reeds baie ontwikkel, maar steeds sonder enige volhoubare maniere van verligting van die effekte van terrorisme. Dus kan daar gesê word dat internasionale kennis van hierdie groepe uitgedaag en ontwikkel moet word. KTS moet nie gesien word as ‘n skielike ‘wonder-kuur’ vir terrorisme in Afrika nie, maar sal dien as ‘n tree in ‘n nuwe rigting van die studie van terrorisme. Deur die studieveld te verbreed en terselfde tyd te verdiep, hoop hierdie studie om die deur oop te maak na die moontlikheid van volhoubare verligting van die effekte van terrorisme in Afrika.
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectAl-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreben_ZA
dc.subjectAl-Shabaaben_ZA
dc.subjectQaida (Organization)en_ZA
dc.subjectTerrorismen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.A. (Political Studies and Governance))--University of the Free State, 2014en_ZA
dc.titleReassessing terrorism and counter-terrorism in Africa: a critical terrorism studyen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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