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dc.contributor.advisorVan Wyk, J. B.
dc.contributor.advisorErasmus, G. J.
dc.contributor.authorBeffa, Luigi Mario
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-11T09:44:49Z
dc.date.available2015-08-11T09:44:49Z
dc.date.issued2005-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/807
dc.description.abstractEnglish: A line x environment interaction study with grade Afrikaner cattle was established at Matopos Research Station, Zimbabwe, in 1956. From a grade pool of 200 cows, two selection lines of 100 cows were reared in different management environments. The non-supplemented (NS) line relied on the range throughout the year and was mated to calve with the onset of the rains (December to February). The supplemented (S) line was offered protein-rich supplements during the dry season and mated to calve prior to the onset of the rains (October to December). Bull selection based on weight at weaning was to develop lines adapted to their respective environments. After approximately 2 generations of selection, lines were sub-divided into 4 sub-lines, consisting of 75 cows each. One sub-line remained within each environment as a control; the remaining sub-lines were interchanged between environments. Bulls were selected within control lines, while replacement heifers were generated within sub-line. Heifers were selected on weight at mating and replacement rates were dictated by the sub-line with the least number of suitable animals (>265kg). Data collected over a 40-year period representing 6 generations of selection were analyzed to determine a) genetic and environmental factors influencing calf growth and survival and cow fertility, b) direct and correlated responses to selection and c) presence and importance of genotype x environment interactions. Productivity in the S environment, in terms of calf growth and cow fertility, was superior compared with the NS environment. While there were no differences in birth weight, calves born early in the S environment were estimated to be 90kg (33%) heavier at 18 months than calves born late in the NS environment. The performance of calf growth from birth to 18 months in this study has emphasized the importance of matching animal physiological status with seasonal changes in the sub-tropics. Given the significant and consistent detrimental effects of previous lactation status of the cow on fertility and calf growth, it is recommended that this effect be considered in routine evaluations. The high generation intervals (6.7 and 5.5 years pre- and post-crossover) reflect the cow age at first calving (4 and 3 years respectively for the two periods). Direct cumulative selection differentials for weaning weight were very low (0.08 and 0.05 standard deviation units/generation for the S and NS lines respectively). The correlated cumulative selection differentials for pre-weaning weight gain were negative for the pre -crossover period and positive for the post-crossover period, and together with the low direct cumulative selection differentials suggest that significant attention was paid to secondary characteristics. Consequently, selection responses were low (2.35+0.045 and 2.22+0.047kg/generation for weaning weight for the S and NS lines respectively). All correlated direct genetic trends were positive and linear, while maternal genetic trends were very low and negative for the S line. Direct and maternal (in parenthesis) heritability estimates for weights at birth, weaning and 18-months were 0.39+0.03 (0.14+0.02), 0.19+0.03 (0.21+0.04) and 0.36+0.06 (0.15+0.04) respectively. Apart from the non-significant direct-maternal genetic correlation for birth weight, other correlations were all moderately negative (-0.35 to –0.57). With the exception of correlations with birth weight which were variable and often close to zero, direct and maternal genetic correlations among traits were high, particularly for traits measured at ages close to each other. The average incidence of calving success (CS: including abortions at term and stillbirths) was 68%. Heritability and repeatability (in parenthesis) estimates for CS and calving date (CD: with a 21 day penalty for censored records) were 0.08+0.02 (0.10+0.02) and 0.09+0.02 (0.17+0.02) respectively. Service sire was important for both traits, but only accounted for <2% of the total phenotypic variation. Favourable genetic trends were shown for both traits (1.2+0.14% and 0.8+0.13%/generation for CS for the S and NS lines respectively, and -0.8+0.09 days/generation for both lines for CD). The genetic correlation between CS and CD was high (-0.95) and the correlation of sires’ estimated breeding values (EBV) indicated that a one-day improvement in CD EBV is associated with a 1% increase in CS EBV. However, correlation estimates of sires’ EBV between measures of fertility and growth were all unfavourable, but not-significantly different from zero. There were no indications of line x environment interaction for all the growth traits. A significant interaction was, however, manifested for CS and was due to the markedly poorer performance of the S line cows in the NS environment. While no sire x environment interactions were manifested, significant sire x year interactions were found for all the growth traits and for CS, which serves to highlight the tremendous seasonal differences experienced in the sub-tropics. Therefore there is a need to consider selection for genotypic stability, particularly for the more extensive farming environments. This study revealed that concomitant genetic improvements in both growth and fertility were attainable. It is recommended that fertility and calf survival be included in routine breed evaluations. There is however an urgent need to implement data collection strategies to ensure that all calving activities are comprehensively recorded, not least the adequate definition of contemporary groups.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: ‘n Lyn x omgewing-interaksiestudie met graad-Afrikanerbeeste is in 1956 by Matopos Navorsingstasie, Zimbabwe, onderneem. Vanuit ‘n poel van 200 koeie is twee seleksielyne van 100 koeie elk in verskillende bestuursomgewings grootgemaak. Die lyn wat geen byvoeding ontvang het nie (NS) was dwarsdeur die jaar op weiding alleen aangewese en is gepaar om met die aanvang van die reënseisoen (Desember tot Februarie) te kalf. Die lyn wat byvoeding ontvang het (S) het proteïenryke aanvullings gedurende die droë seisoen ontvang en is gepaar om voor die aanvang van die reëns (Oktober tot Desember) te kalf. Bulseleksie gebaseer op gewig met speen is gemik op ontwikkeling van lyne wat by hul spesifieke omgewings aangepas sou wees. Na ongeveer twee generasies van seleksie is lyne onderverdeel in 4 sub-lyne wat uit 75 koeie elk bestaan het. Een sub-lyn het in elke omgewing as kontrole gebly. Die oorblywende sublyne is tussen die omgewings verdeel. Bulle is uit die kontrolelyne geselekteer, terwyl vervangingsverse uit die sublyne gekom het. Verse is geselekteer op grond van gewig met paring en vervangings is gedikteer deur die die sub-lyn wat die kleinste getal geskikte diere gehad het (265 kg). Data wat oor ‘n 40-jaar periode verteenwoordigend van 6 geslagte se seleksie versamel is, is ontleed ten einde te bepaal a) watter genetiese en omgewingsfaktore kalfgroei en –oorlewing en koeivrugbaarheid beïnvloed, b) wat die direkte en gekorreleerde responsie op seleksie is en c) die teenwoordigheid en belangrikheid van genotipe- x omgewings-interaksies. Wat betref kalfgroei en koeivrugbaarheid was produktiwiteit in die S-omgewing meerderwaardig teenoor dié in die NS-omgewing. Terwyl daar geen verskille in geboortege wigte was nie, is beraam dat kalwers wat vroeg in die S-omgewing gebore is, 90 kg (33%) swaarder op 18 maande was as dié wat laat in die NS-omgewing gebore is. Die prestasie van kalfgroei vanaf geboorte tot 18 maande in hierdie studie het beklemtoon hoe belangrik dit is om ‘n dier se fisiologiese status by seisoenale veranderinge in die sub-trope aan te pas. Gegewe die betekenisvolle en konsekwente vir nadelige effekte van vorige laktasie-status van die koei, is dit aan te beveel dat hierdie effek in aanmerking geneem moet word in roetine-evaluasies. Die hoë generasie -intervalle (6.7 en 5.5 jaar onderskeidelik voor - en na -uitruiling) weerspieël die koei-ouderdom met eerste kalwing (4 en 3 jaar vir die twee periodes). Direkte kumulatiewe seleksie -differensiale vir speengewig was baie laag (0.08 en 0.05 standaardafwyking eenhede/generasie vir die S- en NS-lyne onderskeidelik). Die gekorelleerde kumulatiewe differensiale vir voor-speense gewigtoename was negatief vir die voor-oorgangsperiode en positief vir die na-oorgangsperiode, en tesame met die lae direkte kumulatiewe seleksie -differensiale gee dit die indruk dat betekenisvolle aandag aan sekondêre eienskappe gegee is. Seleksie -response was gevolglik laag (2.350.045 en 2.220.047kg/generasie vir speengewig vir die S- en NS-lyne onderskeidelik). Alle gekorreleerde direkte genetiese tendense was positief en lineêr, terwyl maternale genetiese tendense baie laag en negatief vir die S-lyn was. Direkte en maternale (tussen hakies) oorerflikheidsberamings vir geboortegewig, speengewig en 18-maande gewig was 0.39 0.03 (0.14 0.02), 0.19 0.03 (0.21 0.04), en 0.36 0.06 (0.15 0.04) onderskeidelik. Afgesien van die nie-betekenisvolle direkmaternale genetiese korrelasie vir geboortegewig, was alle ander korrelasie s redelik negatief (-0.35 tot -0.57). Met die uitsondering van korrelasies met geboortegewig wat gevarieer het en dikwels na aan zero was, direkte en maternale genetiese korrelasies tussen eienskappe was hoog, veral vir eienskappe wat gemeet is op ouderdomme na aan mekaar. Die gemiddelde voorkoms van kalwingsukses (CS: sluit in voltermyn-aborsies en doodgeboortes) was 68%. Oorerflikheids- en herhaalbaarheids- (in hakies) beramings vir kalwingsukses en kalwingsdatum (CD: met ‘n 21 dae boete vir gesensoreerde rekords) was 0.08 0.02 (0.10 0.02) en 0.09 0.02 (0.17 0.02) onderskeidelik. Diensvaar was belangrik vir beide eienskappe, maar was aanspreeklik vir slegs 2% van die totale fenotipiese variasie. Gunstige genetiese tendense is vir beide eienskappe aangedui (1.2 0.14% en 0.8 0.13%/generasie vir CS vir die S- en NSlyne onderskeidelik, en –0.8 0.09 dae/generasie vir beide lyne vir CD). Die genetiese vii korrelasie tussen CS en CD was hoog (-0.95) en die korrelasie van vaars se beraamde teelwaardes (EBVs) he t aangedui dat ‘n eendaagse verbetering in CD EBV geassosieer word met ‘n 1% toename in CS EBV. Korrelasieberamings van vaar- EBVs tussen metings van vrugbaarheid en groei was egter almal ongunstig, maar nie betekenisvol verskillend van zero nie. Daar was geen aanduiding van lyn x omgewing-interaksie vir al die groei-eienskappe nie. ‘n Betekenisvolle interaksie is egter vir CS waargeneem en was te wyte aan die merkbaar swakker prestasie van die S-lyn koeie in die NS-omgewing. Terwyl geen vaar x omgewings-interaksies aangedui is nie, is betekenisvolle vaar x jaar-interaksies vir al die groei-eienskappe sowel as CS gevind, wat die geweldige seisoenale verskille wat in die sub-trope ondervind word, sterk na vore bring. Hierdie studie het getoon dat gelyktydige genetiese verbeterings in beide groei en vrugbaarheid haalbaar is. Dit word aanbeveel dat vrugbaarheid en kalf -oorlewing by roetine ras-evaluasies ingesluit word. Daar is egter ‘n dringende behoefte aan die implementering van dataversamelingstrategieë wat sal verseker dat alle kalwingsaktiwiteite volledig aangeteken word en veral ook dat kontemporêre groepe voldoende gedefinieer word.
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectAfricaner cattle -- Breedingen_ZA
dc.subjectBeef cattle -- Breedingen_ZA
dc.subjectGenotype-environment interactionen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences))--University of the Free State, 2005en_ZA
dc.subjectGrowthen_ZA
dc.subjectFertilityen_ZA
dc.titleGenotype x environment interaction in Afrikaner cattleen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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