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dc.contributor.advisorDe Waal, H. O.
dc.contributor.advisorVan der Merwe, H. J.
dc.contributor.authorWessels, Theunis Cornelius
dc.date.accessioned2018-03-13T09:56:40Z
dc.date.available2018-03-13T09:56:40Z
dc.date.issued1999-07
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/8005
dc.description.abstractEnglish: An investigation was launched to determine the influence of the P status of grazing beef cattle on their production and reproduction on the veld of Saratoga in the Northwest Province. The study at this site dealt with the following aspects: topographical, climatic and nutritional factors which might have had an influence on the study; the lick intake and the effects of P supplementation on the productive performance of beef cows; the effect of P supplementation on the reproductive performance of beef cows and calf performance; and rib bone and blood as indicators of the P status of the reproducing beef cows. The main treatments (+P and -P) basically comprised 60 beef cattle type cows. These cows were divided in two separate groups of 30 each. The +P cows were supplemented with P and salt in a lick, while the -P cows received only a salt lick. An extremely poor rainfall during a very dry 1992, had the effect that the quantity and quality of vegetation ranged from average to poor at the site. The lick intake was extremely high with the start of the trial at Saratoga. The intake of the +P treatment group later decreased to the acceptable level of 80 g NaC1 - and 6 g P/cow/day but the -P treatment group was still maintaining a high salt lick intake. The production of the cows, in the +P treatment over the trial period at Saratoga was significantly (P < 0.05) better compared to the -P treatment cows. The +P cows achievement in terms of the growth of their calves was in general better compared to the calves of the -P cows. However, there was no difference in terms of reproduction between the treatments during the whole period of the trial. When considering all measured variables, the -P cows realised the poorest performance in the trial at Saratoga. The results suggested that the -P cows could not produce without receiving a certain amount of supplementary P in their diet, especially when drought conditions prevailed. At Saratoga there was a rapid loss of weight of the cows in both treatments shortly after the trial commenced. The -P cows very rapidly developed clinical symptoms, notably stiffness, anorexia and discoordination, followed with deaths a few months after the trial started. At this stage (weaning) the -P cows averaged only 112.1 mg P/cm3, which is a significantly (P < 0.05) lower P content of fresh bone compared with the +P cows (124.4 mg P/cm3). This is thus an indication of a P deficiency, as we assured at this stage (weaning). However, the average of the P content of fresh bone over the trial period showed no indication of a P deficiency between the two treatments. The purpose of this study was to determine if a P deficiency exists at Saratoga in the Molopo. Although, the results of the trial led to the hypothesis that an excessive intake of NaCI may induce a P deficiency in ruminants, as could have been the case in the -P treatment group at Saratoga, no clear answers were provided by the trial during the first phase of investigation. According to the results further and more detailed research is needed, concerning not only P but NaCI as well. However, in the interim it must be accepted that the cows suffered from a P deficiency when not supplemented with P on the veld and it will be wise to provide some P especially when extreme drought conditions prevail.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: 'n Ondersoek is ingestelom die invloed van die P-status van weidende vleisbeeste op hul produksie en reproduksie op die veld van Saratoga in die Noordwes Provinsie te bepaal. Die studie by die lokaliteit het die volgende aspekte aangespreek: topografie, klimatologiese en voedingsaspekte wat die studie kon beïnvloed; die lekinname en die effek van P-aanvulling op die produksievermoë van vleisbeeskoeie; die effek van P-aanvulling op die reproduksie van die vleisbeeskoeie en prestasie van kalwers; en ribbebeen en bloed as indikators van die P-status van die reproduserende vleisbeeskoeie. Die hoofbehandelings (+P en -P) het basies uit 60 vleisbeestipe koeie bestaan. Hierdie koeie is in twee afsonderlike groepe van 30 elk verdeel. Die +P koeie het P en sout in 'n lek ontvang en die -P koeie slegs 'n soutlek. 'n Uiterse swak verspreiding van die reënval gedurende 'n baie droë 1992, het die gevolg gehad dat die kwantiteit en kwaliteit van die veld gewissel het van gemiddeld tot swak. Die lekinname was uiters hoog met die aanvang van die proef op Saratoga. Die inname van die +P groep het egter later gedaal tot die aanvaarbare vlak van 80 g NaCI- en 6 g P per koei per dag inteenstelling met die -P groep wat nog steeds 'n hoë inname gehandhaaf het. Die koeie in die +P behandeling op Saratoga se prestasie oor die proefperiode, in terme van produksie was betekenisvol (P < 0.05) beter vergeleke met dié van die -P behandeling koeie. Die +P koeie se prestasie in terme van die prestasie van hul kalwers was ook oor die algemeen beter in vergelyking met dié van die -P behandeling. Alhoewel daar oor die volle periode van die proef geen verskil was, in terme van reproduksie tussen die behandelings nie. As alle gemete veranderlikes in ag geneem word, het die -P koeie die swakste gevaar in die proef op Saratoga. Uit al die resultate het dit egter geblyk dat die -P koeie nie kon presteer, sonder die aanvulling van 'n sekere hoeveelheid P in hul dieët nie, veral wanneer droogte toestande geheers het. Op Saratoga het daar 'n skielike massaverlies van die koeie in beide die +P en -P behandeling, kort na die aanvang van die proef, voorgekom. Die -P koeie het skielik kliniese simptome naamlik, styfheid, anoreksia en inkoërdinasie ontwikkel, gevolg deur vrektes 'n paar maande na aanvang van die studie. Op die stadium (speen) het die -P koeie 'n gemiddeld van slegs 112.1 mg P/em3 gehad, wat 'n betekenisvolle (P < 0.05) laer been inhoud het in vergelyking met die +P koeie (124.4 mg Pzcrrr'). Dit is dus 'n indikasie van 'n P-tekort, net vir die stadium (speen). Alhoewel die totale gemiddeld van die P-inhoud van been geen indikasie van 'n P-tekort, tussen die behandelings getoon het me. Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal of daar 'n P-gebrek op Saratoga in die Molopo bestaan. Alhoewel die resultate van die proef aanleiding gegee het tot die hipotese dat 'n P-tekort by herkouers geïnduseer kan word deur 'n oorinname van NaCI, soos wat die geval was met die -P koeie op Saratoga is geen duidelike antwoord deur die proef gedurende die eerste fase van die ondersoek verskaf nie. Na aanleiding van die resultate het 'n behoefte vir verdere en meer gedetaileerde ondersoeke ten opsigte van die aanvulling van P en NaCI, ontstaan. In die tussentyd moet egter aanvaar word dat die koeie 'n P-tekort getoon het in die afwesigheid van P-aanvulling op die veld en dat dit wys sou wees om P in ekstreme droogtetoestande te verskaf.af
dc.description.sponsorshipMay and Stanley Smith Charitable Trusten_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectPhosphorousen_ZA
dc.subjectSupplementationen_ZA
dc.subjectBeef cattleen_ZA
dc.subjectReproductionen_ZA
dc.subjectVelden_ZA
dc.subjectGrazing ruminantsen_ZA
dc.subjectBoneen_ZA
dc.subjectBlooden_ZA
dc.subjectBiopsiesen_ZA
dc.subjectSalt intakeen_ZA
dc.subjectBeef cattle -- South Africa -- North-Westen_ZA
dc.subjectPhosphorus in animal nutrition -- South Africa -- North-Westen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Sc.Agric. (Animal Science))--University of the Free State, 1998en_ZA
dc.titlePhosphorus supplementation to grazing beef cows in the Molopo region (Saratoga) of the North-West Provinceen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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