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dc.contributor.advisorMulder, D.
dc.contributor.authorLombard, Elbie
dc.date.accessioned2018-03-09T09:49:33Z
dc.date.available2018-03-09T09:49:33Z
dc.date.issued2011-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/7979
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Living the lives of second-class citizens has long been the reality of women in South Africa; so much more so for black women. The history of South Africa is a divided one, a history stained by division and suppression; a history written and determined by a few white men. The reality created for women by these men was a reality of hardship, a reality of exclusion, of being less human than white men. Black women suffered under sexism (from both white and black men), racism (from both white men and women), and c1assism (due to being excluded from the economy). When feminism became popular in South Africa, the assumption was that black women would be interested in the ideals that feminism stands for, but that was not the case: Black women suffered more under racism than under sexism and for that reason it made sense not to revolt against black men, but rather to join the struggle against apartheid. Feminism was also seen as an ideology created by white women for white women and that it did not accommodate the unique reality of black women. Oliver Tambo supported black women joining the struggle and instructed their husbands to help with household chores to allow them free time for activism. After 1994, the emancipation of women became a priority in South Africa and President Nelson Mandela appointed women in key positions in government, and also in his cabinet. In his Inaugural Speech on 10 May 1994, he famously said that true liberation could not be achieved unless women are empowered, and thanks to his commitment, a third of parliamentarians and cabinet ministers then were women. The representation of women in parliament increased after the 2009 elections from 34% to 43%. Furthermore, women empowerment is one of the Millennium Development Goals. Today, women are still a priority of the South African government and in September 2010, during the ruling party's conference, Minister Angie Motshekga proclaimed that ensuring equal opportunities for women is still a national priority. The truth is that a number of black women are enjoying their newfound status and are reaping the benefits of these policies aimed at favouring them: A study by the Unilever Institute of Strategic Marketing at the University of Cape Town found that the most confident individuals in South Africa are young black urban women. Black women, who are now in a better socio-economic position due to the political changes in South Africa, have significant purchasing power and are not afraid to use that power. The majority of these women have bought into the consumer culture, and thus enjoy reading magazines - which is one of the many products of popular culture. Magazines generate the bulk of their income from advertisements and a large part of a magazine's content is made up of advertisements. Many people enjoy relaxing with their favourite popular magazine, reading the articles, the letters to the editor, the advertisements, and more. Most people do not take popular magazines seriously, and do not think that advertisements in these magazines can have any effect on them. They do not take note of the fact that print media like newspapers and magazines are high involvement media. They are not watchful or vigilant, and because of that, the messages and images in magazines and magazine advertisements can slip into their subconscious where it can ferment, thus influencing their thoughts and behaviour. If one views advertisements as a reflection of reality, then one would expect that the current South African reality should be represented in them. Yes, we do see more advertisements in which interracial friendships are portrayed; yes, we do see many black female models in advertisements endorsing all kinds of products. The concern is, in which roles and in what ways are they represented? Are they falling victim to the same old stereotypical manner in which white women are portrayed? Or - if advertisements are realistic - do we see the most confident group in South Africa being portrayed as self-assured, as empowered, as free from oppressive stereotypes? The aim of this study was to determine in which ways black women are portrayed in South African general interest as well as women's magazine advertisements in 1994 and 2006, and to compare the results of the two year groups in order to reach conclusions. The representation of black women in South African magazine advertisements was examined within the critical paradigm, and more specifically, feminist studies. A total of 641 advertisements selected according to certain criteria were analysed and described. These advertisements were categorised according to product categories and the role portrayals identified. The advertisements were then sorted by making use of Goffman's six rubrics that he developed and used during the writing of Gender Advertisements (1987). The results revealed that the number of magazine advertisements increased from 1994 to 2006, and that the number of advertisements for hedonic goods increased. Furthermore, women were portrayed more often in non-working roles than working roles and the decorative role, which is a non-working role, was represented in the majority of advertisements. In addition, the majority of advertisements showed women in poses of subordination, and as mentally drifting from the scene, which are in direct opposition to the empowerment agenda of the South African government. It can be concluded that the improvement of the socio-economic status of a large number of black women since 1994 was not yet reflected in magazine advertisements in 2006. For an advertisement to be successful it must resonate with the target market - put differently, black women must see themselves portrayed realistically in advertisements, and not only portrayed as subordinated objects. Besides, we imitate what we see in the media; we model our behaviour according to the representations in the media. Therefore, it is important that black girls see realistic role models in advertisements, leading empowered lives, so that they rather could strive to be like them and not become mere stereotyped objects. Also, young men should see realistic images of confident women so that they can realise that women are equal to men and not less human than themselves. The primary recommendation of this study is that the advertising industry should take note of the fact that the representation of black women is not a reflection of reality. This aspect should be addressed as it might have a negative impact on the brands that the advertisements represent, as well as on the emancipation of women (specifically black women) that the South African government so actively pursues. Visual literacy should also become more prominent in our society. It could be taught at school and at tertiary institutions to all South African students. We are bombarded by media images, thus people should be empowered to understand these images so that they can protect themselves.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: 'n Lewe as tweedeklas-burgers was lank 'n werklikheid vir Suid-Afrikaanse vroue, en veral vir swart vroue. Suid-Afrika se geskiedenis is een van verdeeldheid, gevlek met ongelykheid en onderdrukking; 'n geskiedenis wat geskryf en bepaal is deur 'n paar wit mans. Die werklikheid wat hierdie mans vir vroue geskep het, was 'n werklikheid van swaarkry, van uitsluiting, van minderwaardigheid. Swart vroue het gelyonder seksisme (deur swart en wit mans), rassisme (deur wit mans en vroue), asook klassisme (weens hul uitsluiting uit die ekonomie). Toe feminisme in Suid-Afrika in gewildheid begin toeneem het, was die aanname dat swart vroue sou belang stel in die ideale waarvoor feminisme staan, maar dit was egter nie die geval nie: Swart vroue het swaarder gekryonder rassisme as seksisme en om daardie rede het dit meer sin gemaak om die struggle te ondersteun as om teen swart mans in opstand te kom. Feminisme is ook beskou as 'n ideologie wat deur wit vroue vir wit vroue geskep is en dat dit nie voorsiening maak vir die unieke werklikheid van swart vroue nie. Oliver Tambo het swart vroue wat by die struggle aangesluit het, ondersteun en hul mans aangesê om hulle te help met huishoudelike take sodat hulle tyd sal hê vir aktivisme. Ná 1994 het die emansipasie van vroue 'n prioriteit in Suid-Afrika geword en President Nelson Mandela het verskeie vroue in sleutelposisies in die regering en in sy kabinet aangestel. In sy inhuldigingstoespraak op 10 Mei 1994 het hy die beroemde woorde geuiter dat ware bevryding nie bereik kan word indien vroue nie bemagtig word nie, en te danke aan sy toewyding was 'n derde van parlementslede en kabinetsministers in daardie stadium vroue. Die verteenwoordiging van vroue in die parlement het ná die 2009-verkiesing van 34% tot 43% toegeneem. Vrouebemagtiging is voorts ook een van die Millennium-ontwikkelingsdoelwitte. Vroue is vandag steeds 'n prioriteit vir die Suid-Afrikaanse regering en op die regerende party se kongres in September 2010 het Minister Angie Motshekga dit duidelik gemaak dat die daarstel van gelyke geleenthede vir vroue steeds 'n nasionale prioriteit is. Die waarheid is dat talle swart vroue hul nuutgevonde status geniet en die vrugte pluk van die voordele van hierdie beleid wat daarop gemik is om hulle te begunstig: 'n Studie deur die Unilever-instituut vir Strategiese Bemarking aan die Universiteit van Kaapstad het bevind dat die mense met die meeste selfvertroue in Suid-Afrika jong swart stedelike vroue is. Talle swart vroue wat nou in 'n beter sosio-ekonomiese posisie is te danke aan die politieke veranderinge in Suid-Afrika het ook beduidende bedingingsmag en is nie bang om daardie mag te gebruik nie. Baie van hierdie vroue is deel van die verbruikerskultuur en geniet een van die vele produkte van populêre kultuur, naamlik tydskrifte. Die grootste gedeelte van tydskrifte se inkomste is afkomstig van advertensies en 'n groot gedeelte van 'n tydskrif se inhoud word dus beslaan deur advertensies. Die meeste mense geniet dit om met hul gunsteling-tydskrif te ontspan en die artikels, briewe en advertensies te lees. Die meeste mense neem populêre tydskrifte egter nie ernstig op nie en dink nie dat die advertensies in hierdie tydskrifte hulle kan beïnvloed nie. Hulle slaan nie ag op die feit dat gedrukte media soos koerante en tydskrifte media is wat 'n hoë vlak van betrokkenheid van die leser verg nie. Hulle is nie versigtig of oplettend nie en as gevolg hiervan kan die boodskappe en beelde in tydskrifte en tydskrifadvertensies hulle onderbewuste binnedring, waar dit broei en gevolglik hulle gedagtes en gedrag beïnvloed. lndien 'n mens advertensies as 'n weerkaatsing van die werklikheid beskou, sou 'n mens dus verwag dat die huidige Suid-Afrikaanse werklikheid daarin verteenwoordig moet word. Ja, ons sien meer advertensies waarin vriendskappe tussen verskillende rasse uitgebeeld word; ja, ons sien meer swart, vroulike modelle in advertensies wat allerhande produkte onderskryf. Die vraag is egter in watter rolle en op watter maniere hulle uitgebeeld word. Is hulle die slagoffers van dieselfde stereotipes waarvolgens wit vroue uitgebeeld word? Of - indien advertensies realisties is - sien ons die groep Suid-Afrikaners met die hoogste selfvertroue wat uitgebeeld word as selfversekerde, bemagtigde vroue vry van verdrukkende stereotipes? Die doel van hierdie studie was om vas te stelop watter maniere swart vroue in Suid-Afrika uitgebeeld word in advertensies in algemene en vrouetydskrifte in 1994 en weer in 2006 en om die resultate van die twee jaargroepe te vergelyk ten einde gevolgtrekkings te maak. Die verteenwoordiging van swart vroue in Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrifadvertensies is ondersoek binne die kritiese paradigma en meer spesifiek feministiese studies. In Totaal van 641 advertensies is aan die hand van bepaalde kriteria gekies, geanaliseer en beskryf. Die advertensies is gekategoriseer aan die hand van produkkategorieë en die uitbeelding van rolle wat geïdentifiseer is. Die advertensies is toe ingedeel aan die hand van Goffman se ses rubrieke wat hy ontwikkel en gebruik het tydens die skryf van Gender Advertisements (1987). Die resultate dui aan dat die getal tydskrifadvertensies van 1994 tot 2006 toegeneem het en dat die getal advertensies vir hedonistiese produkte toegeneem het. Voorts is vroue meer dikwels in nie-werkende rolle uitgebeeld as in werkende rolle en die dekoratiewe rol, wat In nie-werkende rol is, was teenwoordig in die meerderheid van die advertensies. Bykomend beeld die meerderheid advertensies vroue in posisies van onderdanigheid uit, asook dat hulle intellektueel wegbeweeg van die toneel, wat in direkte teenstelling met die bemagtigingsagenda van die Suid-Afrikaanse regering is. Die gevolgtrekking kan dus gemaak word dat die verbetering in sosio-ekonomiese status van In groot getal swart vroue sedert 1994 nog nie in tydskrifadvertensies in 2006 weerspieël word nie. Vir In advertensie om suksesvol te wees, moet die teikenmark daarbyaanklank vind: Anders gestel, swart vroue moet hulleself in advertensies sien, nie net as ondergeskikte objekte nie. Ons boots na wat ons in die media sien, ons bepaal ons gedrag volgens die uitbeeldings wat ons in die media sien: Dit is daarom belangrik dat swart meisies realistiese rolmodelle in advertensies sien; rolmodelle wat bemagtig is, sodat hulle daarna kan streef om soos hierdie rolmodelle te wees en nie bloot "n gestereotipeerde objek nie. Jong mans moet ook realistiese uitbeeldings van selfversekerde vroue sien sodat hulle kan besef dat vroue gelyk is aan mans en nie minderwaardig nie. Die primêre aanbeveling van die studie is dat die advertensiebedryf kennis moet neem van die feit dat die verteenwoordiging van swart vroue nie die werklikheid weerspieël nie. Hierdie aspek moet aangespreek word aangesien dit "n negatiewe impak kan hê op die handelsmerke wat die advertensies verteenwoordig, asook die emansipasie van vroue (veral swart vroue) wat so hoog op die regering se agenda is. Visuele geletterdheid moet ook meer prominent word in ons samelewing. Dit kan op skool en aan tersiêre inrigtings aangebied word aan alle Suid-Afrikaanse studente. Met die bombardering van mediabeelde waaraan ons blootgestel word, moet mense bemagtig word om te begryp dat hulle hulself daarteen kan beskerm.en_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectAdvertisementsen_ZA
dc.subjectBlack South African womenen_ZA
dc.subjectCritical Theoryen_ZA
dc.subjectFeminismen_ZA
dc.subjectIdeologyen_ZA
dc.subjectSemioticsen_ZA
dc.subjectSocio-economic statusen_ZA
dc.subjectWomen empowermenten_ZA
dc.subjectWomen in advertising -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectWomen, Black -- South Africa -- Economic conditionsen_ZA
dc.subjectWomen, Black -- South Africa -- Social conditionsen_ZA
dc.subjectAdvertising -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectFeminism -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectIdentity (Psychology) in mass mediaen_ZA
dc.subjectCritical theoryen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (M.A. (Communication Science))--University of the Free State, 2011en_ZA
dc.titleThe representation of black women in magazine advertisements in 1994 and 2006: A comparative studyen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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