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dc.contributor.advisorVermeulen, P. D.
dc.contributor.authorGoussard, Ferdinand
dc.date.accessioned2018-01-24T07:45:35Z
dc.date.available2018-01-24T07:45:35Z
dc.date.issued2017-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/7694
dc.description.abstractEnglish: After the discovery of minerals mining formed the backbone of the South African economy for more than a century. The contribution that mining had on the economy is probably best reflected when the country’s currency was changed to the Rand (which refers to the gold deposits of the Witwatersrand) in 1961. Although there have been a down scaling in production of some minerals over the last couple of decades the country is still a large producer of numerous commodities and dispose of mineral deposits matched by only a small number of countries. Without a doubt mining will still prevail as a pillar of the economy in the years to come. Although the mineral industry in South Africa consumes a relatively small quantity of groundwater abstracted (13 percent) the use of water at mining operations has the potential to affect the quality of surface as well as groundwater. The abstraction of groundwater to ensure safe mine activities at especially open pit mines have a negative impact on the surrounding water sources. Groundwater play an essential role in South Africa as two thirds of the country’s rural population is depended on groundwater for their domestic needs while it is also an important source of water for numerous towns. The management and protection of the country’s water resources cannot be stressed enough as South Africa is ranked as the 30th driest country in the world. The protection of the country’s water resources gain momentum in the late 1990’s when a number of Acts, the important ones from a water resource point being the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA); Act 107 of 1998 and the National Water Act, Act 36 of 1998 were promulgated that placed strong emphasis on equitable access for all residents to the country’s water resources. In the mining sector groundwater monitoring are usually done for two reasons, the one to obtain the necessary data/information needed to develop the water management and monitoring programmes for the mining operation to effective protect and manage the groundwater resources in the area they operate within and the other to comply with the environmental and water licence regulatory requirements. The literature review and in particular the first-hand experience as documented and described in the case study form the corner stone of the guideline developed for the set-up of a pre-mining groundwater monitoring network for open pit mines. The different phases for the set-up of the monitoring network is discussed in detail in the dissertation and can be summarized as follow: Monitoring objectives - For any monitoring programme to be successful clear objectives must be set on what exactly needs to be achieved with the focus on efficiency and practicality. A thorough understanding of the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifers must be gained that informed decisions can be taken to effectively protect and manage the water resources.  Desktop study – A desktop study must be performed in order that all available geological and hydrogeological reports, data and information of the area are sourced that a conceptual model of the area can be formalized. This is vital in the planning of the fieldwork to obtain the necessary hydrogeological information needed to fully characterize the water resources in the study area.  Planning of hydrocensus – Evaluation of the data sourced during the desktop study will give guidance in demarcating the area that needed to be surveyed during the hydrocensus and also provide a good indication what to expect during the census. Effective and good communication with land owners regarding the hydrocensus is of cardinal importance as this will determine right from the start the success of the hydrocensus and the co-operation from the land owners.  Data acquisition during hydrocensus – During a hydrocensus not only water level data must be obtained but all available information regarding the boreholes for example the water strikes and depths, yield and usage, geology and water quality. Other data such as rainfall and information on the water infrastructure network and the number of stock dependant on a watering point is also important and must also be noted during the hydrocensus survey.  Set-up of a monitoring network - The exact number of monitoring points for a specific monitoring programme is always debateable. The monitoring objectives together with the hydrogeological conditions plays the major role in determining the number and position of the monitoring points while the site specific conditions (accessibility and topography) must also be taken into account when designing the monitoring programme.  Evaluation and analysing of data – Evaluation and analysing of the monitoring data is indispensable in understanding the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifers in an area and to update and adjust the conceptual model as outlined during the desktop study. Interested and affected parties – The efficiency and success of a monitoring programme will greatly depend on the relationship between the mining company and the land owners. It is necessary that an Environmental Forum be established that can be used as a platform for communication between the parties to ensure that the environmental aspects of which water is usually the main discussing point can be administered and managed in an effective manner that will be beneficial to both parties.  Validation of monitoring network – The monitoring network needs to be validated on a continuous base to ensure that it still complies with the monitoring objectives as for example changes in the mine’s water usages or modifications in the environmental legislation will necessitate that the monitoring objectives be adjusted accordingly.  Review and update of monitoring network - The evaluation and analysing of the monitoring data will indicate areas where additional data is needed or where excessiveness of data is present. In data scarce areas it might be necessary for boreholes to be drilled or that the monitoring area be expanded to include boreholes from adjacent areas while in areas where there is excessive data the monitoring points can be decreased or the intervals between the monitoring periods can be lengthened. The set-up and development of a monitoring network is not a once off occasion but an iterative process that must be evaluated at least once a year and the necessary changes implemented where necessary to ensure that the monitoring programme give a true reflection on the behaviour of the groundwater resources that are monitored otherwise it will not be possible to protect and manage the groundwater resources in a responsible and effective way. Taking in account that every mining activity and its site conditions is unique it must be bear in mind that some of the guidelines described in the dissertation for the set-up of the monitoring network might not be practical or applicable and will need to be adjusted to fit the specific site conditions.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Na die ontdekking van minerale het mynbou die ruggraat gevorm van die Suid Afrikaanse ekonomie vir meer as ‘n eeu. Die bydrae wat mynbou tot die ekonomie gemaak het word waarskynlik die beste weerspieël toe die land se geldeenheid verander is na die Rand (wat verwys na die goud afsettings van die Witwatersrand) in 1961. Alhoewel daar ‘n afname was in die produksie van sommige minerale oor die laaste paar dekades is die land nog steeds ‘n groot produsent van verskeie minerale en beskik oor minerale afsettings wat net ge-ewenaar word deur enkele lande. Die mynbousektor sal sonder twyfel nog vir jare ‘n steunpilaar wees vir die land se ekonomie. Die minerale industrie in Suid Afrika verbruik ‘n klein volume (13 persent) van die grondwater wat ontrek word maar die gebruik van die water tydens die mynbouprosesse skep die geleentheid dat die kwaliteit van beide oppervlak sowel as grondwater benadeel kan word. Die ontrekking van grondwater om te verseker dat mynbou aktiwiteite veilig by veral oopgroefmyne gedoen kan word het ‘n negatiewe impak op die grondwaterwaterbronne in daardie areas. Grondwater speel ‘n belangrike rol in Suid Afrika siende twee derdes van die land se landelike bevolking van grondwater afhanklik is vir huishoudelike gebruik terwyl dit ook ‘n waterbron vir verskeie dorpe is. Die bestuur en beskerming van die land se waterbronne kan nie genoeg beklemtoon word veral gesien in die lig dat Suid-Afrika gereken word as die 30ste droogste land in die wêreld. Die beskerming van die land se waterbronne het eers in die laat 1990’s momentum gekry met die proklamasie van verskeie wette in besonder die Nastionale Omgewingsbestuurswet, Wet 107 van 1998 en die Nasionale Waterwet, Wet 36 van 1998 wat sterk fokus geplaas het op die gelyke toegang tot die land se waterbronne vir alle inwoners. Grondwatermonitering in die mynbousektor word basies vir twee redes gedoen, naamlik om die nodige inligting/data te bekom vir die opstel van ‘n waterbestuurs- en moniteringsprogram vir die spesifieke mynbou aktiwiteit ter beskerming en bestuur van die groundwaterbronne in die area en tweedens om te voldoen aan die vereistes soos vervat in die waterlisensie. Die literatuurstudie en in besonder die ondervinding soos opgedoen en beskryf in die gevalle studie vorm die basis van die handleiding wat opgestel is vir die ontwikkeling van ‘n grondwater moniteringsnetwerk voor die aanvang van mynbou aktiwiteite vir oopgroefmyne. Die verskillende stappe vir die opstel van die moniteringsnetwerk word breedvoerig beskryf in die tesis en kan as volg opgesom word: Moniteringsdoelwitte – Vir enige moniteringsprogram om suksesvol te wees moet daar duidelike doelwitte gestel word in wat bereik wil word met die monitering met inagneming van die praktiese uitvoerbaarheid van die program. Met die monitering moet die hidrogeologiese karakteristieke van die verskillende akwifere bepaal word dat ingeligte besluite geneem kan word ter beskerming en bestuur van die waterbronne.  Lessenaarstudie – ‘n Lessenaarstudie moet gedoen word waar alle beskikbare geologiese en hidrogeologiese verslae, data en inligting gebruik kan word om ‘n konseptuele model van die area op te stel. Die konseptuele model is ‘n belangrike aspek in die beplanning van die veldwerk om te verseker dat al die hidrogeologiese inligting ingesamel word dat die waterbronne ten volle gekarakteriseer kan word.  Beplanning van hidrosensus – Evaluering van die data tydens die lessenaarstudie sal ‘n goeie aanduiding gee van wat verwag kan word gedurende die hidrosensus en ook help met die afbakening van die area wat met die hidrosensus gedek moet word. Effektiewe kommunikasie met die grondeienaars aangaande die hidrosensus is van uiterste belang siende dit reg van die begin af die samewerking van die grondeienaars sal bepaal en derhalwe die sukses van die hidrosensus.  Data verkryging tydens hidrosensus – Gedurende ‘n hidrosensus moet nie net watervlakke ingesamel word nie maar alle beskikbare inligting rakende die boorgate as voorbeeld die waterbreuk- en boorgatdieptes, lewering en gebruik, geologie en waterkwaliteit. Addisionele data soos reënval en die water infrastruktuurnetwerk asook die getal vee afhanklik van ‘n boorgat is ook belangrike inligting en moet gedurende die hidrosensus aangeteken word.  Opstel van moniteringsnetwerk – Die presiese getal moniteringspunte wat benodig word vir ‘n spesifieke moniteringsprogram is altyd ‘n debatteerbare aspek. Die moniteringsdoelwitte en hidrogeologiese toestande van die spesifieke area sal die bepalende rol speel in die aantal en posisie van die moniteringspunte. Die terreintoestande (toeganglikheid en topografie) moet ook in ag geneem word met die opstel van die moniteringsnetwerk.  Evaluering en analisering van data – Die evaluering en analisering van die moniteringsdata vorm ‘n belangrike komponent in die verstaan van die hidrogeologiese karakteristieke van die akwifere in ‘n gebied en die opdatering van die konseptuele model soos opgestel gedurende die lessenaarstudie. Geïnteresseerde en geaffekteerde partye – Die sukses van ‘n moniteringsprogram hang grootliks af van die verhouding wat daar bestaan tussen die mynmaatskappy en die grondeienaars. Dit is belangrik dat ‘n Omgewingsforum gestig word wat gebruik kan word as skakel vir kommunikasie tussen die partye. Van die omgewingaspekte is water gewoonlik die hoof besprekingspunt wat met behulp van die Omgewingsforum ten voordeel van beide partye bestuur kan word.  Evaluering van moniteringnetwerk – Die moniteringsnetwerk moet op ‘n gereelde basis ge-evalueer word ter bepaling of dit nog steeds voldoen aan die moniteringsdoelwitte. Sou daar veranderinge wees in die myn se watergebruike of veranderinge in die omgewingswetsgewing sal dit byvoorbeeld nodig wees dat die moniteringsdoelwitte aangepas sal moet word.  Opdatering van moniteringsnetwerk - Die evaluering en analisering van die moniteringsdata sal die areas uitwys waar of bykomende data benodig word of te veel data beskikbaar is. In areas waar te min data beskikbaar is kan dit nodig wees dat boorgate geboor moet word of dat die moniteringsarea vergroot moet word om aangrensende areas se boorgate in te sluit. In gevalle waar te veel data beskikbaar is kan van die moniteringspunte verminder word of die moniterings interval kan verleng word. Die opstel en ontwikkeling van ‘n moniteringsnetwerk is nie eenmalig nie maar ‘n aaneenlopende proses waartydens die moniteringsnetwerk ten minste jaarliks ge-evalueer en die nodige veranderinge aangebring moet word. Indien dit nie gedoen word nie sal die moniteringsprogram nie ‘n ware refleksie gee van die waterbronne wat gemoniteer word nie en sal dit nie moontlik wees om die waterbronne effektief te beskerm en te bestuur nie. Dit moet in ag geneem word dat elke mynaktiwiteit sy eie unieke terrein toestande het wat gaan meebring dat party van die stappe beskryf in die tesis vir die opstel van ‘n moniteringsnetwerk dalk nie van toepassing of prakties uitvoerbaar is nie en gevolglik aangepas moet word om toepaslik te wees vir die spesifieke terrein toestande.af
dc.description.sponsorshipKumba Iron Oreen_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectMines and mineral resources -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectGroundwater -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectMineral industries -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Sc. (Institute for Groundwater Studies))--University of the Free State, 2017en_ZA
dc.titleThe development of a pre-mining groundwater monitoring network for open pit mines in South Africaen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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