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dc.contributor.advisorDe Villiers, G. du T.
dc.contributor.advisorViljoen, M. F.
dc.contributor.authorClaassen, Johannes Hendrik Daniel
dc.date.accessioned2017-11-06T07:42:54Z
dc.date.available2017-11-06T07:42:54Z
dc.date.issued2000-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/7417
dc.description.abstractEnglish: The contribution of agricultural to rural development is widely accepted by developmental specialists. In South Africa, an estimated 16 million people are living in poverty, with its incidence highest in rural areas. The Ministry for Agriculture and Land Affairs (South Africa, 1998) is of the opinion that agriculture can play an important role in the development of rural areas through the establishment of small and medium scale emerging farmers, and through the creation of opportunities to rai se their production. In this way, it is thought, the creation of additional employment opportunities and the improvement 10 household food security will follow. Under the previous government black farmers were denied the right to own and farm land in so-called white areas. In accordance with its policy of separate development, agricultural development amongst black people was limited to what was known as "black homelands". In line with this policy, 114 black farmers were. settled on farms in Qwaqwa beginning in 1989. Agriqwa, a non-profit government corporation, was founded with the task of establishing these emerging, or beginner farmers. Official information sources (South Africa, 1998) also refer to emerging farmers as small or medium scale farmers with limited access to land and capital. This same source states that these farmers have received inadequate research and extension support from the previous government. The main aim of the proj ect in Qwaqwa was the establishment of an economically viable agricultural sector, with a core of prosperous emerging farmers. It was also envisaged that this would create several entrepreneurial possibilities with job opportunities in an agricultural related sector. After the election of a new, democratic government in 1994, official policies regarding the previous homelands changed dramatically. Agriqwa was dissolved and replaced with Agri-Eco, a private company under the direct supervision of the then Minister of Agriculture of the Free State. The enormous financial burden brought about by the Reconstruction and Development Programme of the newly elected government, inevitably led to a si gni ficant reduction in state subsidies. It was not long befo re the restructuring and rationalisation of Agri-Eco meant the end of financial and agricultural assistance to the emerging farmers in Qwaqwa. The premise was that emerging farmers should compete independently In a free market environment. With this step, emerging farmers were suddenly exposed to a competitive free market environment of which they had little, or no experience. This transformation, the loss of expert managerial support, plus the downgrading and suspension of other well-proven support systems, resulted In these farmers expcrrcncmg serious managerial problems. The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate the problems experienced by emerging farmers in order to formulate workable solutions and strategies for future development projects in the field of agriculture. A brief synopsis of the chapters in the study is as follows: • The problem formulation and aim of the study are set out in Chapter 1. • Chapter 2 is concerned with an historical perspective of sustainable agricultural development. • Chapter 3 provides a geographical and agricultural overview of the study area. • Chapters 4, 5 and 6 investigate the management profiles of emerging farmers with a specific focus on: >- the educational and personal profiles of emerging farmers, their perceptions of human resources and the management thereof (Chapter 4); ~ perceptions among emergmg farmers regarding natural resources as well as the management and utilisation thereof (Chapter 5); ~ administrative and financial matters (Chapter 6). • Chapter 7 focuses on the evaluation of research data, the testing of the hypothesis and the formulation of a specific development strategy for emerging farmers in Qwaqwa. With regard to human resources, the study has established that the unacceptable conduct and poor quality of work rendered by farm workers negatively effect labour relations between farmers and workers. The study also identifies the low educational level of farm labourers, poor working conditions and insufficient training as primary factors contributing to labour problems. On the positive side, the study identifies several aspects in employment that are to the advantage of the industry and that should be kept. These refer to food and residence security, a reliable cash income and grazing rights. The study identifies a singular ignorance among emergmg farmers with regard to the utilisation of natural resources. This includes the use of alternative production methods, which are inexpensive, and which, in turn, originate on the farm, and have a minor negative impact on the natural environment. Within an environmental and sustainable perspective, this study makes certain recommendations concerning the introduction of alternative farming methods. The study also finds that a number of farmers are experiencing serious financial problems. The refusal of commercial banks and agricultural cooperatives to grant production loans for planting purposes, underlines the extent of the financial difficulties experienced by emerging farmers in the area. This has also pushed a number of crop farmers into financial crisis. Against this background it is recommended that farming units with a combination of farming activities should be included lil future development proj ects. Value adding activities seem to be a popular and profitable practice among emerging farmers. They seem to be an asset. The optimal use of existing infrastructure, labour, by-products and waste products from farming activities, are some of the important considerations in favour of value adding activities. The study reveals that emerging farmers, despite certain drawbacks pertaining to training and education, possess the will and the ingenuity to make a success of agriculture in the area. The study further finds that the success of present and future projects will be largely determined by basic support structures in training and agricultural extension work, from government and developmental agencies.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Die bydra van die landbousektor tot landelike ontwikkeling word hedendaags algemeen aanvaar en aanbeveel deur ontwikkelingskenners. In Suid-Afrika woon ' n geskatte 16 miljoen mense in armoede. Die meerderheid van hierdie mense is in die landelike gebiede van Suid- Afrika woonagtig. Die Ministerie van Landbou en Grondsake (South Africa, 1998) is van mening dat die landbou 'n belangrike bydra kan lewer tot landelike ontwikkeling deur die vestiging van klein- en mediumgrootte, opkomende boere, asook deur die skepping van geleenthede met die doelom landbouproduksie te verhoog. Met hierdie ontwikkeling word voorsren dat die daarstelling van betroubare voedselvoorrade aan landelike huishoudings en die skepping van bykomende werksgeleenthede, teweeggebring sal word. Onder die vonge regenng is swart boere die reg ontsê om grond in sogenaamde blanke gebiede te besit of daarop te boer. In ooreenstemming met die beleid van afsonderlike ontwikkeling, was landbou-ontwikkeling onder swartmense beperk tot die destydse tuislande. Ingevolge hierdie beleid is 114 swart boere sedert 1989 in Qwaqwa gevestig. Agriqwa, 'n nie-winsgewende staatskorporasie, is gestig met die doelom die opkomende boere te vestig. Amptelike inligtingsbronne (South Africa, 1998) verwys ook na laasgenoemde groep boere as klein- of mediumgrootte boere met beperkte toegang tot grond en kapitaal. Volgens hierdie definisie het boere in hierdie kategorie ook ontoereikende navorsings- en voorligtingshulp van die vorige regering ontvang. In Qwaqwa was die oorkoepelende doelwit van die vestigingsprojek die daarstelling van 'n lewensvatbare landbousektor, met 'n welvarende korps opkomende boere. Dit het ook die totstandkoming van ondersteunende entrepreneursmoontlikhede met werksgeleenthede in ' n landbouverwante bedryfsektor ingesl uit. Na die algemene verkiesing in 1994 het regeringsbeleid ten opsigte van die ontwikkeling van tuislande ingrypend verander. Agriqwa is ontbind en vervang met 'n privaat maatskappy, Agri-Eco, wat onder die direkte beheer van die Minister van Landbou in die Vrystaat geplaas is. Die enorme finansiële las wat deur die Herkonstruksie-en- Ontwikkelingsprogram van die nuutverkose regenng meegebring is, het noodwendig gelei tot die inkorting van staatsubsidies. Dit het die herstrukturering en rasionalisasie van Agri-Eco en die opskorting van finansiële- en landboukundige bystand aan opkomende boere in die studiegebied tot gevolg gehad. Die uitgangspunt IS gehuldig dat opkomende boere selfstandig moet meeding in 'n vryemarkomgewing. Met hierdie stap is opkomende boere uitgelewer aan ' n mededingende vryemarkstelsel, waarvan hul weinig ondervinding gehad het. Die drastiese transformasie, aflegging van kundige bestuur en die afskaling en beëindiging van beproefde ondersteuningstelseis, het bygedra tot die ontstaan van ernstige bestuursprobleme onder opkomende boere. Hierdie studie het dit ten doelom bogenoemde probleme te identifiseer en te ontleed ten einde werkbare oplossings en ontwikkelingstrategieë daar te stel. 'n Bondige uiteensetting van die belangrikste elemente, met 'n indeling van hoofstukke, word soos volg bespreek: • Die probleemformulering en doelstellings van die ondersoek word lil Hoofstuk 1 verwoord. • In Hoofstuk 2 word landbou, en veral volhoubare landbouontwikkeling, in historiese perspektief beskou. • Hoofstuk 3 verskaf 'n geografiese- en landbou-oorsig van die studiegebied. • In Hoofstukke 4, 5 en 6 word die bestuursprofiel van opkomende boere met spesifieke fokus op die volgende sake ondersoek: );> Die opvoedkundige- en persoonlikheidsprofiele van opkomende boere, asook persepsies omtrent menslike hulp bronne en die bestuur en aanwending daarvan (Hoofstuk 4). );> Persepsies omtrent natuurlike hulp bronne en die bestuur en gebruik daarvan (Hoofstuk 5). );> Administratiewe en finansiële aangeleenthede (Hoofstuk 6). • Hoofstuk 7 word afgestaan aan die evaluering, hipotese-toetsing en die daarstelling van 'n bepaalde ontwikkelingstrategie vir opkomende boere in die streek. Wat menslike hulpbronbestuur betref, word in hierdie studie bevind dat die swak gehalte werk en die onaanvaarbare gedrag van 'n aansienlike persentasie plaaswerkers, 'n besliste, negatiewe uitwerking op arbeidsverhoudinge het. In hierdie ondersoek is die lae opvoedkundige peil, die swak werksomstandighede en ontoereikende opleiding van plaaswerkers as die grondliggende oorsake van bestaande arbeidsprobleme geïdentifiseer. In teenstelling hiermee, word verskeie indiensnemingsaspekte wat die bedryf tot voordeel strek en wat behoue moet bly, as positief geïdentifiseer. Laasgenoemde behels onder meer voedsel- en verblyfsekuriteit, 'n bestendige kontantinkomste en weidingsregte. Wat natuurlike hulpbronne betref, identifiseer die ondersoek 'n bepaalde onkunde onder opkomende boere omtrent die gebruik van alternatiewe produksiemiddele en energiebronne met 'n goedkoop, interne oorsprong en geringer negatiewe impak op die natuurlike omgewing. Uit 'n omgewings- en volhoubaarheidsoogpunt, word daar sekere aanbevelings omtrent die bekendstelling van alternatiewe landboumetodes aan opkomende boere in hierdie studie gemaak.af
dc.language.isoafaf
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectRural development -- Qwaqwaen_ZA
dc.subjectAgricultural development -- Qwaqwaen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Geography))--University of the Free State, 2000en_ZA
dc.titleLandbou-en landelike ontwikkeling in die QwaQwa-gebied: 'n geografiese ondersoekaf
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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