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dc.contributor.advisorPelser, A. J.
dc.contributor.advisorZietsman, P. C.
dc.contributor.authorMurye, Alfred Francis
dc.date.accessioned2017-09-18T08:22:00Z
dc.date.available2017-09-18T08:22:00Z
dc.date.issued2017-01
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/6910
dc.description.abstractEnglish: People form an integral part of ecosystems and derive a range of products from, and also influence, ecosystem processes. Poverty stricken people in rural areas of Swaziland utilize marula to alleviate poverty and earn a living. To reduce poverty, the Government of Swaziland developed a Poverty Reduction Strategy and Action Plan, and put up a programme of action (2013-2018) to meet His Majesty King Mswati III’s1 dream of Swaziland becoming a developed country by 2022. Her Majesty Ntombi Thwala - the Queen Mother2 of Swaziland also initiated poverty eradication projects for rural women through the harvesting of marula fruits (Sclerocarya birrea). However, limited data exist on the socio-economic contribution of marula to rural livelihoods. Additionally, the possible impact of excessive harvesting (propelled by the commercialisation of the resource) on rural communities depending on marula for their livelihood is not known, let alone the impact of harvesting pressure on marula regeneration and recruitment. This situation can lead to overharvesting and local extinction of marula. This thesis aimed at determining the role that marula plays in the livelihoods of, and poverty alleviation among the rural population in Swaziland and set out to identify policy interventions to facilitate means of sustaining marula for future availability. A cross-sectional socio-economic survey embedded in an exploratory and descriptive research design and supplemented by a survey of the marula tree populations was carried out in the Lubombo region of Swaziland. Both quantitative and qualitative research approaches to data collection and analysis were employed. The study established that marula contributes significantly to the livelihoods of rural households in Swaziland as 53.3% of the respondents in the socio-economic survey supplemented their household income by harvesting marula. Marula was considered to be a very important source of household income by 68.5% of the respondents. About 49.8% of respondents earned an equivalent of US Dollar 36.2 (E500) per season, of which 46% used the income to buy books and uniforms and pay school fees and 42.4% used it to buy groceries, electricity and medication. Marula also contributes to cultural and spiritual enrichment and the creation of social ties. Several socio-demographic factors, such as gender, age, lack of employment and low level of education were found to be drivers of people to harvest marula for livelihoods. The thesis concluded that:  marula harvesting makes a substantial contribution to the economies and livelihoods of rural households in Swaziland;  marula harvesting plays a fundamental role in cultural practices and festivities in Swaziland and is paramount in creating social ties and cohesion among the Swazi nation;  the increased harvesting of marula fruits and seeds has a detrimental impact on the sustainability of marula tree species in Swaziland;  the current level of commercialized harvesting of marula in Swaziland is unsustainable and requires official monitoring and control of the harvesting process;  environmental factors impact negatively on the regeneration, growth and sustainability of marula;  distinctive socio-demographic attributes, such as gender and age, drive rural people to harvest marula beyond its sustainability thresholds;  the depletion of marula will deepen the existing poverty levels of the respondents and lead to the deterioration of quality of life, especially in those impoverished households that are proportionately more dependent on marula;  there are insufficient policy and legal frameworks for the protection of marula in Swaziland. The thesis recommended that:  the marula population structure be stabilized by planting marula trees and nurturing seedlings in the agricultural fields and also by leaving some fruits in the fields during harvesting in order to ensure regeneration;  the Department of Forestry should develop programmes to educate and train rural communities on the importance of conserving and sustaining marula trees and products in Swaziland; the Department of Forestry should revise the existing floral policies and legal frameworks in Swaziland so as to fill the existing gap in these policies on access to and control of marula harvesting;  the Government of Swaziland should revisit the policies on rural development in order to encourage and strengthen the creation of employment opportunities in rural areas so as to reduce the dependency on natural resources and marula in particular;  the Department of Forestry should establish the maximum sustainable yield of marula in order to set quotas for harvesting per individual/ household;  the Department of Forestry should address the gaps in the existing knowledge base of marula biology in Swaziland.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Die mens vorm ‘n integrale deel van ekosisteme en gebruik verskeie produkte wat deur ekosisteme gelewer word, terwyl ekosisteemprosesse terselfdertyd wedersyds beïnvloed word. Landelike inwoners in Swaziland wat onder armoede gebuk gaan ontgin maroela om armoede te verlig en ‘n bestaan te maak. Ten einde armoede te verlig het die regering van Swaziland ‘n “Poverty Reduction Strategy and Action Plan” ontwikkel, en ‘n program van aksie ingestel (2013-2018) om Sy Majesteit se wens te vervul dat Swaziland teen 2022 ‘n Eerste Wêreldland sal wees. Haar Majesteit die Koninginmoeder het ook armoedeverligtingsprojekte vir landelike vroue geïnisieer deur die oes van maroelavrugte (Sclerocarya birrea) te bevorder. Die data betreffende die sosio-ekonomiese bydrae van maroela tot landelike bestaanswyses is egter beperk. Daarby is die moontlike impak van die oormatige oes van maroela (aangevuur deur die kommersialisering van die hulpbron) op die landelike gemeenskappe wat van maroela afhanklik is vir ‘n bestaan, onbekend. Dit geld ook vir die impak van oesdruk op die regenerering en aanvulling van maroela. So ‘n situasie kan lei tot die oorbenutting en plaaslike uitwissing van maroela. Hierdie tesis het ten doel gehad om die rol van maroela in die lewensbestaan van en armoedeverligting onder die landelike bevolking in Swaziland te bepaal, asook om beleidsintervensies te identifiseer wat die toekomstige beskikbaarheid van maroela sal verseker. ‘n Kruisseksionele sosio-ekonomiese opname, geanker in ‘n verkennende en beskrywende navorsingsontwerp, en aangevul deur ‘n opname van die maroelaboompopulasie, is in die Lubombo streek van Swaziland uitgevoer. Daar is van beide kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe benaderings tot dataversameling en –analise gebruik gemaak. Die studie het bevind dat maroela ‘n beduidende bydrae lewer tot die lewensbestaan van landelike huishoudings in Swaziland, aangesien 53.3% van die respondente in die sosio-ekonomiese opname hulle huishoudelike inkomste aangevul het met die oes van maroela. Sowat 68.5% van die respondente het maroela as ’n baie belangrike bron van huishoudelike inkomste beskou. Nagenoeg 49.8% van die respondente het die ekwivalent van USD 36.2 (E500) per seisoen met die oes van maroela verdien, waarvan 46% die inkomste gebruik het om boeke en uniforms te koop en skoolfonds te betaal. In 42.4% van die gevalle is die geld gebruik vir kruideniersware, elektrisiteit en medikasie. Maroela dra ook by tot kulturele en spirituele verryking en die skep van sosiale netwerke. Daar is verder bevind dat verskeie sosio-demografiese faktore soos geslag, ouderdom, gebrek aan indiensneming en lae vlakke van onderwys as drywers dien vir die oes van maroela vir doeleindes van ‘n lewensbestaan. Die studie het tot die gevolgtrekking geraak dat:  maroela ‘n substansiële bydrae lewer tot die ekonomieë en lewensbestaan van landelike huishoudings in Swaziland;  maroela ‘n fundamentele rol speel in kulturele praktyke en feestelikhede in Swaziland en deurslaggewend is in die skep van sosiale bande en kohesie onder die Swazi bevolking;  die toenemende oes van maroelavrugte en -sade ‘n nadelige impak het op die volhoubaarheid van die maroelaboomspesie in Swaziland;  die huidige vlak van kommersiële benutting van maroela in Swaziland is onvolhoubaar en benodig amptelike monitering en beheer van die oesproses;  omgewingsfaktore impakteer nadelig op die regenerering, groei en volhoubaarheid van maroela;  onderskeie sosio-demografiese eienskappe soos geslag en ouderdom dryf landelike bewoners om maroela te oes tot verby die drempel van volhoubaarheid daarvan;  die uitputting van maroela sal lei tot die verdieping van die bestaande armoedevlakke van respondente en tot die agteruitgang van lewensgehalte, veral in die geval van verarmde huishoudings wat proporsioneel meer afhanklik is van maroela;  daar is ontoereikende beleidsraamwerke en wetgewing vir die beskerming van maroela in Swaziland. Die studie beveel aan dat:  die maroelabevolkingstruktuur gestabiliseer moet word deur die aanplant van maroelabome in die landerye en die kweek van saailinge en ook deur sommige vrugte tydens oestyd in die veld te los sodat regenerering kan plaasvind;die Departement van Bosbou programme behoort te ontwikkel wat landelike gemeenskappe sal opvoed en oplei in die belangrikheid van die bewaring en volhoubare benutting van maroelabome en –produkte in Swaziland;  die Departement van Bosbou die huidige beleidsraamwerke en wetgewing insake plantspesies in Swaziland moet hersien ten einde die bestaande leemte in beleid rondom toegang tot en kontrole oor die oes van maroela aan te spreek;  die regering Swaziland bestaande beleid rondom landelike ontwikkeling moet hersien ten einde die skepping van van werksgeleenthede in landelike gebiede aan te moedig en te versterk sodat die afhanklikheid van natuurlike hulpbronne, en van maroela in besonder, verminder kan word;  die Departement van Bosbou die maksimum volhoubare opbrengs van maroela moet bepaal ten einde kwotas per individu/ huishouding vir die oes van maroela daar te stel;  die Departement van Bosbou leemtes in die bestaande kennisbasis van maroelabiologie in Swaziland moet aanspreek.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectSclerocarya birrea -- Harvesting -- Lubombo (Swaziland)en_ZA
dc.subjectRural poor -- Lubombo (Swaziland)en_ZA
dc.subjectPoverty -- Lubombo (Swaziland)en_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Centre for Environmental Management))--University of the Free State, 2017en_ZA
dc.titleEnviromental and socio-economic sustainability of marula harvesting in the Lubombo region, Swazilanden_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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