Aspects of bio-intensive pea aphid, acyrthospihon pisum (Harris) management on lentil, lens culinaris (Medikus)
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Damage caused by the Pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) is a limiting factor in lentil production in Ethiopia. Although application is minimal, losses are combated with the application of synthetic pesticides like Primicarb®. However, the continuous application of synthetic pesticides may result the development of insect resistance to insecticides, adverse effect on non-target organisms and environmental pollution. It is therefore necessary to implement a multi-faceted approach in order to keep A. pisum populations below economic threshold level. This thesis highlights aspects of an integrated pest management approach to this pest. The components studied were host plant resistance, biological control and chemical control with bio-rational pesticides. All the trials were done under glasshouse condition in the University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. The host plant resistance study was completed in two phases. The first phase dealt with the preliminary screening of fifty entries of lentil introduced for such purposes. One entry appeared to be resistant while six were moderately resistant to A. pisum. The resistant entry and four of moderately resistant entries selected randomly were chosen for the next study. The second phase thoroughly examined and identified the mechanisms of resistance of each entry previously identified as moderately resistant and/or resistant. With in the field of microbial control of agricultural pests, the effect of Beauveria bassiana on population of A. pisum was evaluated. This method appeared to be effective in significantly reducing the population of A. pisum compared with the control. The last component investigated the influence of the botanical product Neemolin® and extracts of Wild sering, Burkea africana on the fecundity of A. pisum. A. pisum populations treated with Neemolin® produced significantly fewer offspring than the control and proved to be an effective control measure. On the other hand, application of extracts of Wild sering, Burkea africana did not affect A. pisum population. The result does not indicate the failure of this extract against the pest rather highlights the need to keep the extract in water for long hours so that the extract can dissolve and the insecticidal property can be enhanced. The results of this study therefore indicate that the components of an integrated pest management approach included in this study will serve as a base towards effective management of this pest.