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dc.contributor.advisorNiemann, Susanna M.
dc.contributor.authorPalm-Forster, Therza Isòbel
dc.date.accessioned2017-04-25T08:40:47Z
dc.date.available2017-04-25T08:40:47Z
dc.date.issued2000-06
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/6150
dc.description.abstractEnglish: The international tendencies regarding career changes result in the transmutation of social environments, which also imply a shift in gender roles. This paradigm shift effects females in particular, as the traditional female roles are changing: a process which is accelerated in South Africa by the introduction of gender equity legislation. The new legislation implies that the non-traditional work opportunities for women have increased in all sectors of employment and in particular in the education sector as 62.6% of the South African teachers' corps consist of women. Although the above mentioned changes could have positive effects, changes in the workplace could cause stress as a person's career is one of the greatest sources of stress. The above mentioned changes implies that more women will also hold education management positions and that more women will be subjected to career stress, which could negatively influence their productivity and performance. In addition to this, women are also subjected to strain caused by gender stereotyping as a result of patriarchal beliefs. Women seeking equity in the education management world, might constantly be confronted by stereotypical gender views which could enhance their stress levels and cause them to forfeit management efficiency. Due to a lack of profound research on the stress outcomes of female managers, especially in the field of education, this study aims at amplifying the existing body of knowledge on the impact of gender-related stress on female education managers to propose guidelines for coping with the potential negative impacts thereof. In order to achieve the above, this study commenced with a literature overview on the origin of gender roles and stereotypes and the effect of stress and gender stereotype-related stress on the performance and well-being of female education managers, as well as the management thereof. It was found that socialisation processes and outdated societal traditions gave rise to the stereotypical beliefs held by society and that those beliefs are inculcated by upbringing and reinforced by the school. The literature review revealed that stress is enhanced by gender stereotyping. In order to cope with the negative influence of stress, the organisation as well as the individual has a responsibility towards a stress alleviating programme which should include aspects such as training in management skills to increase self -esteem in order to fit into non-traditional occupations, to deal with female stereotyping and male chauvinism. Because the stress levels of female managers, their attitudes towards egalitarianism and their experiences of gender stereotypes, form the core of this study, empirical investigations, consisting of quantitative as well as qualitative investigations were undertaken. Six female education managers from diverse cultures and a variety of management levels were selected as participants for this study. The Occupational Stress Inventory was used to determine the stress levels of the participants and the Sex-Role-Egalitarianism questionnaire to monitor and understand their behaviour outcomes. Thereafter in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted with the six female education managers to reveal the prejudice and agony they experience due to female stereotyping in the education sector. The participants revealed harsh examples of lack of respect, direct gender discrimination, misogyny, patriarchy, sexual and emotional harassment, and many more. They also revealed how these practices influence their efficiency as managers, their physical conditions and general well-being. In order to cope with stress, the participants made use of medication, alcohol, yoga and some exercising, but most of them found it difficult to manage their stress as they did not have the time to relax. In the last chapter of the study, the researcher formed a synthesis of the findings and indicated how female education managers were influenced by stereotyping and the impact it had on their stress levels and work performance. A stress management model was also provided for the empowerment of female education managers in order to curb the increasing burden of stress and thus cultivating an efficient and healthy education work force.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Die internasionale tendense ten opsigte van beroepsverandering bring ook verandering in sosiale omgewings mee, wat 'n verskuiwing in geslagsrolle impliseer. Hierdie paradigmaskuif beïnvloed die vroulike geslag in die besonder, aangesien die tradisionele vroulike rolle aan die verander is: 'n proses wat in Suid-Afrika versnel word deur die instelling van wetgewing rakende geslagsgelykheid. Die nuwe wetgewing impliseer dat die nietradisionele werkgeleenthede vir vroue in alle arbeidsektore, en veral in die onderwyssektor, toegeneem het, veral gesien in die lig van die feit dat vroue 62,6% van die personeelkorps in onderwys uitmaak. Alhoewel die genoemde veranderinge positiewe resultate tot gevolg kan hê, kan veranderinge in die werkplek tot stres lei, aangesien 'n persoon se beroep een van sy/haar grootste bronne van stres is. Die genoemde veranderinge impliseer dat meer vroue bestuursposisies in die onderwys sal beklee, en dat meer vroue dus onderwerp sal word aan beroepstres, wat hul produktiwiteit en prestasie nagatief mag beïnvloed .. Hierbenewens word vroue ook onderwerp aan druk wat veroorsaak word deur geslagstereotipering wat die gevolg is van patriargale denke. Vroue wat na gelykheid in onderwysbestuur soek, mag voortdurend gekonfronteer word met stereotipiese sieninge wat hul stresvlakke kan verhoog en daartoe kan lei dat hul bestuursdoeltreffendheid nadelig beïnvloed word. Daar bestaan 'n ernstige tekort aan diepgaande navorsing oor die uitwerking van stres op vroulike bestuurders, veralop die terrein van onderwys, en daarom is hierdie studie daarop gemik om die bestaande kennis oor die impak van gestagsverwante stres op vroulike bestuurders in onderwys uit te bou, en m riglyne voor te stel vir die hantering van die potensiële nagatiewe impak daarvan. Ten einde dit te bereik, is die studie met 'n literatuurstudie oor die oorsprong van geslagsrolle en stereotipes, en die uitwerking van stres, en veral stres as gevolg van geslagstereotipering, op die prestasie en welsyn van vroulike onderwysbestuurders, asook hul hantering daarvan, afgeskop. Dit is bevind dat sosialiseringsprosesse, en veral uitgediende sosiale/kulturele tradisies aanleiding gee tot stereotipiese oortuiginge in die samelewing, en dat hierdie oortuiginge ingeskerp. word in opvoedingspatrone en verder in die skool bevestig word. Die literatuurstudie het aan die lig gebring dat stres vererger word deur geslagstereotipering. Ten einde die negatiewe uitwerking van stres te kan hanteer, het die instelling sowel as die individu 'n verantwoordelikheid om 'n stresverminderingsprogram daar te stel. Sodanige program moet aandag skenk aan aspekte soos opleiding in bestuursvaardighede en om selfdunk te verbeter ten einde persone in staat te stelom in te pas by nie-tradisionele beroepe en om die stereotipering van vroue en manlike chauvinisme te hanteer. Aangesien die stresvlakke van vroulike bestuurders, hul houdings ten opsigte van gelyke beregtiging en hul ervarings as gevolg van geslagstereotipering die kern van hierdie studie gevorm het, is empiriese ondersoeke, wat uit kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe ondersoeke bestaan het, onderneem. Ses vroulike onderwysbestuurders uit verskillende kultuurgroepe en vanuit verskillende bestuursvlakke is geselekteer om aan die studie deel te neem. Die Beroepstresopname is gebruik om die stresvlakke van die deelnemers te bepaal, en die Geslagsrolgelykheidsvraelys is aangewend om hul gedragspatrone te moniteer en te begryp. Daarna is indiepte- ongestruktureerde onderhoude met hulle gevoer met die oog daarop om die vooroordele en kwellinge wat hulle beleef as gevolg van die stereotipering van vroue in die onderwyssektor, te bepaal. Die deelnemers het getuig van ernstige gevalle van gebrek aan respek, direkte geslagsdiskriminasie, vrouehaat (misoginie), patriargie, seksuele en emosionele teistering en vele ander. Hulle het ook aan die lig gebring hoe hierdie praktyke hul doeltreffendheid as bestuurders, hul fisiese toestand en algemene welsyn benadeel. Ten einde hul stres te hanteer, het die deelnemers aan die ondersoek onder andere gebruik gemaak van medikasie, alkohol, en, tot 'n mate, van oefening, maar die meerderheid het getuig dat hulle dit moeilik vind om die stres te hanteer, aangesien hulle nie tyd het om te ontspan nie. Na die samevatting van die bevindinge van die studie word aangedui hoe vroulike onderwysbestuurders deur stereotipering beïnvloed word en welke impak dit op hul stresvlakke en werkprestasie het. 'n Stresbestuursmodel word voorgestel met die oog op die bemagtiging van vroulike onderwysbestuurders ten einde die toenemende las van stres te probeer teëwerk en daardeur 'n doeltreffende en gesonde onderwysarbeidsmag te kweek.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectSex role in the work environmenten_ZA
dc.subjectWomen -- Employmenten_ZA
dc.subjectWomen school administratorsen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Comparative Education and Education Managemen))--University of the Free State, 2000en_ZA
dc.titleThe impact of gender stereotype-related stress on female education managers: an education management perspectiveen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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