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dc.contributor.advisorPaulsen, W. J.
dc.contributor.authorManese, Sipho David
dc.date.accessioned2017-03-22T06:43:17Z
dc.date.available2017-03-22T06:43:17Z
dc.date.issued2001-03
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/5947
dc.description.abstractEnglish: The aims of this study are to, by means of a review of the literature and empirical investigation: • gain an understanding of the complexity and the extent to which teachers experience job satisfaction, work values and work-related stress, with particular reference to secondary schools in the Eastern Free State; and • measure the levels of stress among a group of secondary school teachers, as well as to determine the effect of biographical and organisational factors on their levels of stress. Furthermore, the aim was to look at relations in terms of how the job satisfaction and work values (teachers' needs) of these teachers are affected by work-related stress. It became very clear from the literature review that the impact of stress is experienced at all levels of society (Van Zyl & Pietersen 1999:74), from individuals to national level. In the Sunday Times (August 1999) it is indicated that South Africa is a very stressed society and that support is becoming harder to find, as familial networks are not strong enough. A very clear fact is that, without support, stress spills over into different relationships and environments. In this study it was furthermore concluded that the teaching profession also has the potential of being stressful and affecting the working environment. It was found that a lack of effective stress management results in important decrements in well-being, as well as dissatisfaction among teachers and an inability to perform up to standard (compare 6.1). The literature survey also revealed that both satisfaction and performance are connected to rewards (Steyn & Van Wyk 1999:37): • Rewards impact more directly on the cause of satisfaction than performance. • Rewards levelled on ongoing performance cause subsequent performance. Therefore this research evidence confirms the fact that it is extremely important for supervisors or school management to show appreciation and recognition of the work which is done well by teachers. Lynn (1998:46) reflects an interesting statistic supplied by the US Department of Labour, namely that in 1995 it was announced that 46 percent of people who left their jobs did so because they felt unappreciated. Furthermore, it is important for management to be fully aware of the impact of all factors believed to be promoting job satisfaction and effective work values, for example: • Achievement, recognition, working conditions, status, relationship with peers, salary, company policy and security. • Making people feel responsible; creating opportunities for people to use their abilities and knowledge; making people feel independent in their work; being of value to society through one's contributions; creating possibilities for promotion; and enabling people to be happy with the conditions of service. The method of research entailed an empirical investigation in which a sample of 360 secondary school teachers from the Harrismith Education District (i.e. the Eastern Free State towns Warden, Harrismith and Phuthaditjhaba) had been targeted. The questionnaire was used to verify four formulated hypotheses: 2) There is a statistically significant relationship between teachers' level of stress and factors outside the work situation (job satisfaction and work values) which contribute to teachers' stress. 3) There is a statistically significant relationship between teachers' level of stress and the teachers' expectations and circumstances within the work situation (fields 1 - 6) which contribute to teachers' stress. 191 4) Teachers experience very high levels of stress. The following analytical tools were considered to analyse and interpret research results: t-test: To verify it means of two groups have a difference that occurred by chance; F-test: To highlight the significance of the difference between variances. ANOVA: A one-way analysis of variance. Three hypotheses were accepted for different variables, as showed in the results, and only one was rejected. It was found that: (1) the majority of respondents were younger than 38 years of age (59,4%) (cf. Table 5.1); (2) 77,3% of the respondents were on post level one (cf. Table 5.2); (3) 56,9% had a length of service that was more than ten years (cf. Table 5.3); (4) the majority, namely 56,3%, were well qualified with at least three years' tertiary training (cf. Table 5.4); (5) the majority of respondents were male, i.e. 59,7% (cf. Table 5.5); (6) the majority (92,4%) of the respondents had dependents ranging from one to more than five (cf. Table 5.6); (7) 72,8% of the respondents were married (cf. Table 5.7); (8) 67,2% had South Sotho as home language (cf. Table 5.8); (9) most of the teachers in the Eastern Free State were on post level one, while the majority (92,4%) had dependents ranging from one to more than five and therefore insufficient income could be a stressor for educators (cf. Tables 5.2; 5.6); (10) the fact that more teachers were well qualified (56,3%), that more of them (56,9%) had more than ten years' teaching experience and that the majority of them were in post level one, imply that few opportunities for promotion could be a stressor for educators in the Eastern Free State; (11) the level of stress for unmarried teachers is significantly higher than those of married teachers (cf. Table 5.9); (12) there is a significant relationship (1% level) between teachers' level of stress and teachers' expectations and circumstances (cf. Table 5.10). These concepts (teachers' level of stress; teachers' circumstances and expectations) are explained as follows: Teachers' level of stress: This is reflected by the following feelings: no progress, being afraid, feeling uncertain, doubtful, or worried; your views clash with other people's views; experiencing conflict; being bored; being irritated; losing control of your temper; no confidence in yourself; depending on others; feeling alone; you would like to attack other people; no-one wants to support you; being despondent; feeling guilty; downhearted; aggressive; overburdened; angry; no concentration; dissatisfied; fearful; weepy; too many problems; etc. Cl Teachers' expectations and circumstances within the work situation are reflected by the following feelings: • Circumstances: dysfunctional organisation; incorrect leadership styles; you are dissatisfied with regard to the nature of your work; there are problems that concern physical working conditions (e.g. crowding of people, poor lighting); a situation that impacts negatively on the progress and development of ones' career; it is difficult to progress to higher posts; it is difficult to maintain good interpersonal relations; dissatisfaction with regard to aspects like pensions, medical fund, housing aid, achievement bonuses, insurance, salary and all other aspects of your remuneration package; working hours; conditions of employment and all other regulations involving personnel matters. • Expectations are reflected by the following feelings: You want to be recognised for what you do; assume full responsibility; have a salary that is market-related; function independently; have the necessary job equipment; be exposed to necessary training courses; have fringe benefits that will ensure your support and security; feel important and have status; you want to be able to get along with your supervisor; have personnel regulations that satisfy your needs; be included in decision-making that concerns you; perform duties without relations with others; receive uncontradictory instructions; have furniture and decorations in your work area that create a pleasant working environment. (13) It was also found that there is a significant relationship between teachers' level of stress (feelings noted in point 12) and factors outside the work situation (job satisfaction and work values): • Factors outside the work situation are, for example, family crises; financial obligations; the general economic situation in the country; the rapidly changing technology; unfavourable home facilities; social status with friends; health; background; transport problems; spiritual life problems; inadequate accommodation at home; and few recreational facilities. • Job satisfaction is reflected by the following characteristics: the work itself; conditions of work; remuneration opportunities for promotion; supervision; co-workers; roles; responsibilities; classroom practices; teacher development and appraisal. • Work values are reflected by characteristics like the following: exercising responsibility; achievement through work; influence over one's work; doing meaningful work; being able to use one's abilities and knowledge; independence in doing one's work; job satisfaction with regard to the work itself; and contributing to society. In conclusion, it can be noted that teachers' level of stress is affected by their job satisfaction and work values (or vice versa).en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Die doelstellings van hierdie studie is die volgende: • Om In denkbeeld te vorm van die kompleksiteit en die mate waarin onderwysers werksbevrediging, werkswaardes en werksverwante stres ervaar met spesifieke verwysing na sekondêre skole in die Oos-Vrystaat. • Om die stresvlakke van In groep sekondêreskool-onderwêsers te meet, asook om die effek van biografiese en organisatoriese faktore op hul stresvlakke te bepaal. Verder was die doelom verhoudinge in oënskou te neem in terme van hoe die werksbevrediging en werkswaardes (onderwysers se behoeftes) van hierdie onderwysers beïnvloed word deur werksverwante stres. Bogenoemde doelstellings is verwesenlik deur middel van In oorsig van die literatuur en In empiriese ondersoek. Uit die literatuurstudie het dit baie duidelik geblyk dat die impak van stres op alle vlakke van die samelewing ondervind word (Van Zyl & Pietersen 1999:74), vanaf individue tot op nasionale vlak. In die Sunday Times (Augustus 1999) was dit aangedui dat Suid-Afrika In spanningsvolle samelewing is en dit word al hoe moeiliker om ondersteuning te vind, aangesien gesinsnetwerke nie sterk genoeg is nie. en Feit wat baie duidelik blyk, is dat - sonder ondersteuning - stres verskillende verhoudinge en omgewings beïnvloed. Verder is daar in hierdie studie tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die onderwysprofessie ook oor die potensiaal beskik om spanningsvol te wees en die werksomgewing te beïnvloed. Daar is bevind dat en gebrek aan doeltreffende stresbestuur enbelangrike afname in gesondheid tot gevolg het, asook ontevredenheid onder onderwysers en en onvermoë om volgens die gewenste gehalte te presteer (vergelyk 6.1). Die literatuuroorsig het ook aan die lig gebring dat beide tevredenheid en prestasie verband hou met belonings (Steyn & Van Wyk 1999:37): • Belonings het enmeer direkte invloed op die oorsaak van tevredenheid as op prestasie. • Belonings met die oog op voortgesette prestasie het weer op sy beurt prestasie tot gevolg. Hierdie navorsingsbewyse bevestig dus die feit dat dit uiters belangrik is vir skoolontwikkelaars (supervisors) of die skoolbestuur om waardering en erkenning te betoon vir die werk wat goed verrig word deur onderwysers. Lynn (1998:46) wys op eninteressante statistiek soos voorsien deur die VSA Departement van Arbeid, naamlik dat daar in 1995 aangekondig is dat 46 persent van die mense wat hul werk verlaat het, dit gedoen het omdat hulle gevoel het dat hulle nie waardeer word nie. Verder is dit belangrik vir die bestuur om ten volle bewus te wees van die impak van al die faktore wat moontlik kan bydra tot die bevordering van werksbevrediging en doeltreffende werkswaardes, byvoorbeeld: Prestasie, erkenning, werksomstandighede, status, verhouding met eweknieë (peers), salaris, maatskappybeleid en sekuriteit. Die metode van navorsing het 'n empiriese ondersoek behels waarin 'n steekproef van 360 sekondêreskool-onderwysers van die Harrismith Onderwysdistrik (dit wil sê die Oos-Vrystaatse dorpe Warden, Harrismith en Phuthaditjhaba) die teikengroep was. Die vraelys is gebruik om vier geformuleerde hipoteses te verifieer: 1) Daar is 'n statisties beduidende verband tussen biografiese faktore (ouderdom, geslag, diensjare, moedertaal, ens.) en onderwysers se stresvlakke. 2) Daar is 'n statisties beduidende verband tussen onderwysers se stresvlakke en faktore buite die werksituasie (werksbevrediging en werkswaardes ) wat bydra tot onderwysers se stres. 3) Daar is 'n statisties beduidende verband tussen onderwysers se stresvlakke en, onderwysers se verwagtinge en omstandighede binne die werksituasie (velde 1 - 6) wat bydra tot onderwysers se stres. 4) Onderwysers ervaar baie hoë vlakke van stres. Die volgende analitiese instrumente is oorweeg om die navorsingsresultate te ontleed en te interpreteer: t-toets: Om te verifieer of die gemiddeldes van twee groepe 'n verskil toon wat per toeval voorgekom het. F-toets: Om die belangrikheid van die verskil tussen variansies te beklemtoon. ANOVA: 'n Eenrigtinganalise van die variansie. Drie hipoteses is aanvaar vir verskillende veranderlikes, soos aangetoon in die resultate, en slegs een is afgekeur. Daar is bevind dat: (1) die meerderheid van die respondente was jonger as 38 jaar (59,4%) (vgl. TabelSJ); (2) 77,3% van die respondente was op posvlak een (vgl. Tabel 5.2); (3) 56,9% het dienservaring van meer as tien jaar gehad (vgl. Tabel 5.3); (4) die meerderheid, naamlik 56,3%, was goed gekwalifiseerd met tersiêre opleiding van ten minste drie jaar (vgl. Tabel 5.4); (5) die meerderheid van die respondente was manlik, d.w.s. 59,7% (vgl. TabeI5.5); (6) die meerderheid van die respondente het afhanklikes gehad wat gewissel het tussen een tot meer as vyf (vgl. Tabel 5.6); (7) 72,8% van die respondente was getroud (vgl. Tabel 5.7); (8) 67,2% het Suid-Sotho as moedertaal gehad (vgl. Tabel 5.8); (9) die meeste van die onderwysers in die Oos-Vrystaat was op posvlak een, terwyl die meerderheid (92,4%) afhanklikes gehad het wat gewissel het tussen een en meer as vyf en daarom kon 'n onvoldoende inkomste 'n stresfaktor vir opvoeders gewees het (vgl. Tabelle 5.2; 5.6); die feit dat meer onderwysers goed gekwalifiseerd was (56,3%), dat meer onderwysers (56,9%) meer as tien jaar onderwyservaring gehad het en dat die meerderheid van die onderwysers op posvlak een was, impliseer dat min geleenthede tot bevordering 'n stresfaktor vir opvoeders in die Oos-Vrystaat kon wees; (11) die stresvlak vir ongetroude onderwysers is beduidend hoër as dié van getroude onderwysers (vgl. Tabel 5.9); (12) daar is 'n beduidende verband (1%-vlak) tussen onderwysers se stresvlakke en onderwysers se verwagtinge en omstandighede (vgl. Tabel 5.10). Hierdie begrippe (onderwysers se stresvlakke; onderwysers se verwagtinge en omstandighede) word as volg verduidelik: o Onderwysers se stresvlakke: Dit word weerspieël deur die volgende gevoelens: geen vordering; vrees; onsekerheid; twyfel; kommer; jou beskouinge bots met dié van ander mense; jy ondervind konflik; verveeld wees; geïrriteerd wees; jou humeur verloor; geen vertroue in jouself hê nie; op ander vertrou; alleen voel; wil ander mense aanval; niemand wil jou ondersteun nie; terneergedruk voel; skuldig voel; mismoedig en bedruk voel; angsbevange wees; aggressief; oorlaai; vol woede; geen konsentrasie; ontevrede; huilerig; te veel probleme; ens. o Onderwysers se verwagtinge en omstandighede binne die werksituasie word weerspieël deur die volgende gevoelens: • Omstandighede: wanfunksionele organisasie; verkeerde leierskapstyle; jy is ontevrede met betrekking tot die aard van jou werk; daar is probleme rakende jou fisiese werksomstandighede (bv. opeenhoping van mense, swak beligting); 'n situasie wat 'n negatiewe invloed het op die vooruitgang en ontwikkeling van jou loopbaan; dit is moeilik om bevorder te word tot hoër poste; dit is moeilik om goeie interpersoonlike verhoudinge te handhaaf; ontevredenheid betreffende aspekte soos pensioene, mediese fonds, behuisingsubsidie, prestasiebonusse, assuransie, salaris en alle ander aspekte van jou vergoedingspakket; werksure; voorwaardes van indiensneming en alle ander regulasies rakende personeelaangeleenthede. • Verwagtinge word deur die volgende gevoelens weerspieël: Jy wil erkenning hê vir wat jy doen; aanvaar volle verantwoordelikheid; wil 'n salaris hê wat markverwant is; wilonafhanklik funksioneer; die nodige werkstoerusting hê; blootgestel wees aan die nodige opleidingskursusse; wil byvoordele hê wat jou ondersteuning en sekuriteit sal verseker; wil belangrik voel en status hê; in staat wees om met jou toesighouer oor die weg te kom; wil personeelregulasies hê wat voldoen aan jou behoeftes; wil betrokke wees by besluitneming wat jou raak; wil instruksies ontvang wat mekaar nie weerspreek nie; wil meublement en versierings in jou werksarea hê wat 'n aangename werksomgewing skep. (13) Daar is ook bevind dat daar 'n beduidende verband tussen onderwysers se stresvlakke (gevoelens soos aangedui in punt 12) en faktore buite die werksituasie is (werksbevrediging en werkswaardes ): • Faktore buite die werksituasie is byvoorbeeld die volgende: familiekrisisse; finansiële verpligtinge; die algemene ekonomiese situasie in die land; die snelveranderende tegnologie; ongunstige huislike fasiliteite; sosiale status met vriende; gesondheid; agtergrond; vervoerprobleme; probleme rakende jou geestelike lewe; onvoldoende akkommodasie tuis, en min ontspanningsfasiliteite. • Werksbevrediging word weerspieël deur die volgende kenmerke: die werk self; werksomstandighede; vergoeding; geleenthede vir bevordering; toesig; medewerkers; rolle; verantwoordelikhede; klaskamerpraktyke; onderwyserontwikkeling en evaluering. • Werkswaardes word weerspieël deur kenmerke soos die volgende: die uitoefen van verantwoordelikheid; prestasie deur middel van werk; invloed uitoefen oor In mens se werk; betekenisvolle werk verrig; in staat wees om jou vermoëns en kennis te benut; onafhanklikheid ten opsigte van die doen van jou werk; werksbevrediging met betrekking tot die werk self, en In bydrae tot die samelewing lewer. Ten slotte dien daarop gelet te word dat onderwysers se stresvlakke beïnvloed word deur hul werksbevrediging en werkswaardes (of omgekeerd).af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectTeachers -- Job stressen_ZA
dc.subjectTeachers -- Job satisfaction -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Psychology of Education))--University of the Free State, 2000en_ZA
dc.titleJob satisfaction, work values and work-related stress of secondary school teachersen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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