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dc.contributor.advisorBrink, Alice
dc.contributor.advisorVisser, Hendrik. G.
dc.contributor.advisorRoodt, Andreas.
dc.contributor.authorTsosane, Mampotso. Selina.
dc.date.accessioned2017-03-14T07:45:33Z
dc.date.available2017-03-14T07:45:33Z
dc.date.issued2016-06
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/5806
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Both technetium and rhenium have been studied extensively over the years, due to their ability to coordinate with mono- and bidentate ligands to form metal(I) tricarbonyl complexes, fac-[M(CO)3(X)(L,L’-Bid)] (M = Tc(I) and Re(I), L,L’-bid = bidentate ligand and X = MeOH, H2O or Br). The interest in these complexes is based on the diagnostic properties of technetium and therapeutic properties of rhenium in the study of radiopharmaceuticals. These complexes possess characteristics that can be utilized for the application in nuclear medicine. The aim of this study was based on the study of the chemistry of technetium and rhenium to gain more information about their ability to coordinate with potential ligands such as Schiff base ligands. From this, a Schiff base ligand such as 5-methyl-(2- cyclohexyliminomethyl)phenol – 5Me-Sal-Cyhex was synthesized and characterized. This was successfully coordinated to fac-[M(CO)3]+ core to form metal(I) tricarbonyl complexes. The synthesis and characterization of the N,O-bidentate ligand or Schiff base ligand and all metal complexes are reported in Chapter 3. All rhenium products obtained were characterized by UV/Vis, NMR (1H and 13C) and IR. The rhenium complexes, fac-[Re(CO)3(X)(N,O-Bid)], were synthesized with variety of monodentate ligands (X = MeOH, imidazole, pyridine and pyrazole) coordinated on the sixth position. Three crystal structures of 5-methyl-(2-cyclohexyliminomethyl)phenol – 5Me-Sal- Cyhex, fac-[Re(CO)3(MeOH)(5Me-Sal-Cyhex)] and fac-[Re(CO)3(Imid)(5Me-Sal-Cyhex)] were obtained from the characterization performed by X-ray diffraction. These complexes crystallised in the orthorhombic and monoclinic crystal systems in the respective space groups of P212121, C2/c and P21/n. Technetium(I)-99 tricarbonyl complexes, fac-[99Tc(CO)3(MeOH)(5Me-Sal-Cyhex)] and fac- [99Tc(CO)3(MeCN)(5Me-Sal-Cyhex)] were synthesized and characterized by HPLC to determine the reaction completion and chemical similarity between rhenium and radioactive technetium-99. A kinetic investigation was performed on the formation reaction between 5Me-Sal-Cyhex and [NEt4]2[Re(CO)3(Br)3]. It was observed that the formation reaction would unsuccessfully be determined due to the small absorbance changes over time. A model N,N’-bidentate ligand system (ethylenediamine) was therefore selected to study the formation reaction. The UV/Vis analysis showed two reactions that occur during the formation reaction between ethylenediamine and ReAA. Since the first fast reaction has the half-life, t1/2 = <5 seconds, the stopped flow kinetic investigation is required. The second slow formation reaction between ethylenediamine and ReAA was monitored at 14.8oC, 25.2oC, 35.0oC and 45.0oC. Rate constants and activation parameters (ΔH≠ = 28 ± 0.05 kJ mol-1 and ΔS≠ = -188 ± 0.17 J K-1 mol-1) of the formation reaction between ethylenediamine and [NEt4]2[Re(CO)3(Br)3] were obtained. The negative ΔS≠ value is indicative of an associative-type mechanism. In addition to the above UV/Vis study, 1H NMR analysis was performed which confirmed the mechanistic and kinetic observations of the reaction between ethylenediamine and ReAA that forms in over 13 hour period. From the 1H NMR investigation, it was observed that the formation reaction between ethylenediamine and ReAA occurs via two reactions, defined as a first fast and second slow reaction.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Beide tegnesium en renium is breedvoerig oor die jare bestudeer as gevolg van hulle vermoë om met mono- en bidentate ligande te koördineer om metaal(I) trikarbonielkomplekse, fac- [M(CO)3(X)(L,L’-Bid)] (M = Tc(I) en Re(I), L,L’-bid = bidentate ligand en X = MeOH, H2O of Br-), te vorm. Die belangstelling in hierdie komplekse is gebaseer op die diagnostiese eienskappe van tegnesium en terapeutiese eienskappe van renium in die bestudering van kerngenees middels. Hierdie komplekse beskik oor eienskappe wat gebruik kan word in die toepassing van kerngeneeskunde. Die doel van hierdie ondersoek is gegrond op die bestudering van die chemie van tegnesium en renium ten einde meer inligting in te win oor hulle vermoë om met potensiële ligande soos Schiff-basis te koördineer. Vir hierdie projek is ʼn Schiff-basis ligand, 5-metiel-(2- sikloheksieliminometiel)fenol – 5Me-Sal-Cyhex (5Me-Sal-Siheks) – vervaardig en gekarakteriseer. Dit is suksesvol aan die fac-[M(CO)3]+ entiteit gekoördineer om metaal(I) trikarboniel komplekse te vorm. Die sintese en karakterisering van die N,O-bidentate ligand, of Schiff-basis, asook alle metaalkomplekse word in die studie gerappoteer. Alle gesintetiseerde renium produkte is met behulp van UV/Vis, KMR (1H en 13C) en IR spektroskopie gekarakteriseer. Die reniumkomplekse, fac-[Re(CO)3(X)(N,O-Bid)], is gesintetiseer met ʼn verskeidenheid monodentate ligande (X = MeOH, imidasool, piridien en pirasool) in die sesde posisie gekoördineer. Drie kristalstrukture van 5-metiel-(2-sikloheksieliminometiel)fenol – 5Me-Sal- Cyhex, fas-[Re(CO)3(MeOH)(5Me-Sal-Cyhex)] en fas-[Re(CO)3(Imid)(5Me-Sal-Cyhex)] is gekaratireseer deur middel van X-straal diffraksie. Hierdie komplekse het in die ortorombiese en monokliniese kristalstelsels gekristalliseer, in die ruimtegroepe P212121, C2/c en P21/n, onderskeidelik. Tegnesium(I)-99 trikarboniel komplekse, fas-[99Tc(CO)3(MeOH)(5Me-Sal-Cyhex)] en fas- [99Tc(CO)3(MeCN)(5Me-Sal-Cyhex)] is gesintetiseer en gekarakteriseer deur middel van hoëdrukvloeistofchromatografie (HDVC) om die verloop van die reaksie en chemise ooreenkomste tussen renium en radioaktiewe tegnesium-99 te bepaal. `n Kinetiese ondersoek is uitgevoer op die vormingsreaksie tussen 5Me-Sal-Siheks en [NEt4]2[Re(CO)3(Br)3]; dit is waargeneem dat die vasstelling van die vormingsreaksie onsuksesvol was danksy die klein verandering in absorbansie oor tyd. `n Model N,N’- bidentate ligandstelsel (etileendiamien) is dus gekies om die vormingsreaksie te bestudeer. Die UV/Vis analise het aangedui dat twee reaksies plaasvind gedurende die vormingsreaksie tussen etileendiamien en ReAA. Aangesien die eerste, vinnige reaksie `n halfleeftyd van t1/2 < 5 sekondes het, was die gestopte vloei kinetiese ondersoek genoodsaak. Die tweede, stadige vormingsreaksie tussen etileendiamien en ReAA is by 14.8oC, 25.2oC, 35.0oC en 45.0oC gemonitor. Tempokonstantes en aktiveringsparameters (ΔH≠ = 28 ± 0.05 kJ mol-1 en ΔS≠ = -188 ± 0.17 J K-1 mol-1) van die vormingsreaksie tussen etileendiamien en [NEt4]2[Re(CO)3(Br)3] is verkry. Die negatiewe waarde vir ΔS≠ is aanduidend van `n assosiatiewe tipe meganisme. Bykomend tot die bogenoemde UV/Vis studie is `n 1H KMR analise uitgevoer wat die meganistiese en kinetiese waarnemings van die reaksie tussen etileendiamien en ReAA, wat oor `n 13 uur tydperk vorm, bevestig het. Uit die 1H KMR ondersoek blyk dit dat die vormingsreaksie tussen etileendiamien en ReAA plaasvind deur twee reaksies, gedefinieer as `n vinnige eerste, en tweede stadige reaksie.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectRadiopharmaceuticalsen_ZA
dc.subjectTransition metalsen_ZA
dc.subjectLigandsen_ZA
dc.subjectRheniumen_ZA
dc.subjectTechnetiumen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Sc. (Chemistry))--University of the Free State, 2016en_ZA
dc.titleRhenium (1) tricarbonyl schiff base complexes: a mechanistic studyen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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